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1.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235473, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634146

RESUMO

Diatoms play a key role in the marine carbon cycle with their high primary productivity and release of exudates such as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP). These exudates contribute to aggregates (marine snow) that rapidly transport organic material to the seafloor, potentially capturing contaminants like petroleum components. Ocean acidification (OA) impacts marine organisms, especially those that utilize inorganic carbon for photosynthesis and EPS production. Here we investigated the response of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana grown to present day and future ocean conditions in the presence of a water accommodated fraction (WAF and OAWAF) of oil and a diluted chemically enhanced WAF (DCEWAF and OADCEWAF). T. pseudonana responded to WAF/DCEWAF but not OA and no multiplicative effect of the two factors (i.e., OA and oil/dispersant) was observed. T. pseudonana released more colloidal EPS (< 0.7 µm to > 3 kDa) in the presence of WAF/DCEWAF/OAWAF/OADCEWAF than in the corresponding Controls. Colloidal EPS and particulate EPS in the oil/dispersant treatments have higher protein-to-carbohydrate ratios than those in the control treatments, and thus are likely stickier and have a greater potential to form aggregates of marine oil snow. More TEP was produced in response to WAF than in Controls; OA did not influence its production. Polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations and distributions were significantly impacted by the presence of dispersants but not OA. PAHs especially Phenanthrenes, Anthracenes, Chrysenes, Fluorenes, Fluoranthenes, Pyrenes, Dibenzothiophenes and 1-Methylphenanthrene show major variations in the aggregate and surrounding seawater fraction of oil and oil plus dispersant treatments. Studies like this add to the current knowledge of the combined effects of aggregation, marine snow formation, and the potential impacts of oil spills under ocean acidification scenarios.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluição por Petróleo/efeitos adversos , Petróleo/toxicidade , Tensoativos/efeitos adversos , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Água do Mar/química , Tensoativos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
2.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(2): 564-573, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608715

RESUMO

In this study, 30 PM2.5 samples were collected from the atmosphere in Changchun City in the autumn of 2017. The concentration and composition characteristics of 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the samples were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The diagnostic ratio and principal component analysis method were used to determine the source of PAHs pollution. The health risk assessment was carried out by both calculating the equivalent carcinogenic concentration of benzo(a)pyrene and the lifetime risk of cancer. Results show that the average PM2.5 concentration in autumn in Changchun is (50.84±12.23) µg·m-3, and the content of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) are (17.07±5.64) µg·m-3 and (1.33±0.75) µg·m-3, respectively, accounting for 37% of the total PM2.5. The total concentration of PAHs is (15.69±5.93) ng·m-3, which was dominated by medium- to high-ring-number PAHs, accounting for 84.26% of total PAHs. The atmospheric PAHs in Changchun mainly originate from motor vehicle exhaust emissions (44.48%) > coal combustion (29.16%) > biomass burning (26.36%), local transportation (gasoline vehicles) emissions being the main source of pollution. The average carcinogenic concentration of benzo(a)pyrene is in the range of 1.55 ng·m-3 and 5.38 ng·m-3, and the average carcinogenic equivalent concentration is (6.44±1.53) ng·m-3, which is generally considered a slight pollution level. The ingestion of PAHs by breathing is the most harmful to the health of adult women, followed by adult males and children, however since the lifetime carcinogenic risk value of the entire population did not exceed 1×10-6, their health risks are considered to be at acceptable levels.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Adulto , Criança , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos
3.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 121(8): 558-564, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Goeckerman therapy (GT) of psoriasis involves dermal application of crude coal tar containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Little is known about GT influence on DNA epigenetics. OBJECTIVE: The study aim was to discover epigenetic mechanisms altered by the exposure related to the GT of psoriasis. METHODS: Observed group of patients with plaque psoriasis (n = 23) was treated by GT with 3 % CCT. Before and after GT, we analyzed the levels of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-DNA adducts (BPDE-DNA), p53 protein in serum, 5-methylcytosine (5-mC, global DNA methylation), and methylation in selected CpG sites of p53 gene. RESULTS: We found a significant increase in the levels of BPDE-DNA (p < 0.01) and serum levels of p53 protein (p < 0.01) after GT, and an insignificant decrease in the percentage of 5-mC in peripheral blood DNA. Methylation of p53 CpG sites was affected neither by psoriasis nor by GT. The study confirmed good effectiveness of GT (significantly reduced psoriasis area and severity index; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that there is a significantly increased genotoxic hazard related to the exposure of PAHs and UV radiation after GT of psoriasis. However, global DNA methylation and p53 gene methylation evade the effect of GT, as they remained unchanged (Tab. 4, Fig. 3, Ref. 50).


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Psoríase , Terapia Ultravioleta , Dano ao DNA , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/uso terapêutico , Psoríase/terapia , Raios Ultravioleta , Terapia Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
4.
Occup Environ Med ; 77(7): 488-495, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385190

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Exposure to high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may cause cancer in chimney sweeps and creosote-exposed workers, however, knowledge about exposure to low-molecular-weight PAHs in relation to cancer risk is limited. In this study, we aimed to investigate occupational exposure to the low-molecular-weight PAHs phenanthrene and fluorene in relation to different cancer biomarkers. METHODS: We recruited 151 chimney sweeps, 19 creosote-exposed workers and 152 unexposed workers (controls), all men. We measured monohydroxylated metabolites of phenanthrene and fluorene in urine using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. We measured, in peripheral blood, the cancer biomarkers telomere length and mitochondrial DNA copy number using quantitative PCR; and DNA methylation of F2RL3 and AHRR using pyrosequencing. RESULTS: Median PAH metabolite concentrations were higher among chimney sweeps (up to 3 times) and creosote-exposed workers (up to 353 times), compared with controls (p<0.001; adjusted for age and smoking). ∑OH-fluorene (sum of 2-hydroxyfluorene and 3-hydroxyfluorene) showed inverse associations with percentage DNA methylation of F2RL3 and AHRR in chimney sweeps (B (95% CI)=-2.7 (-3.9 to -1.5) for F2RL3_cg03636183, and -7.1 (-9.6 to -4.7) for AHRR_cg05575921: adjusted for age and smoking), but not in creosote-exposed workers. In addition, ∑OH-fluorene showed a 42% mediation effect on the inverse association between being a chimney sweep and DNA methylation of AHRR CpG2. CONCLUSIONS: Chimney sweeps and creosote-exposed workers were occupationally exposed to low-molecular-weight PAHs. Increasing fluorene exposure, among chimney sweeps, was associated with lower DNA methylation of F2RL3 and AHRR, markers for increased lung cancer risk. These findings warrant further investigation of fluorene exposure and toxicity.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Fluorenos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Creosoto/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Metilação de DNA , DNA Mitocondrial , Fluorenos/metabolismo , Fluorenos/urina , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Fenantrenos/metabolismo , Fenantrenos/urina , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Homeostase do Telômero
6.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124620, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472354

RESUMO

Particulate toxic species, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals may have significant health risks. This study investigated characteristics, sources and health risks of all three classes of toxic species in PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm) samples collected at an industrial area in Changzhou, a big city in the Yangtze Delta region of China. Fourteen heavy metals altogether constituted 2.87% of PM2.5 mass, with Fe, Al and Zn as the major elements. Principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that heavy metals came from four sources: vehicles, industry, crustal dust, mixed coal combustion and industrial process. The daily average concentration of 18 PAHs was 235.29 ng/m3, accounting for 0.21% of PM2.5 mass. The dominant PAHs were high molecular weight ones, contributing 73.5% to the total PAHs. Diagnostic analyses indicated that sources of PAHs included vehicle/coal combustion and petroleum emissions, wherein diesel emission played a more important role than gasoline emission. PCA showed that the largest contributor of PAHs was vehicle exhaust mixed with coal combustion, followed by three industry-related sources. Total concentration of 17 PCDD/Fs varied between 3.14 and 37.07 pg/m3, with an average of 14.58 pg/m3. The 10 PCDFs accounted for 70.5% of total concentration of 17 PCDD/Fs. Health risk assessments showed that the carcinogenic risk of heavy metals was acceptable, while risks from PAHs and PCDD/Fs cannot be ignored. Back trajectory analysis indicated that local/regional transported air masses from northern China was the major source areas of the toxic species.


Assuntos
Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/análise , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Criança , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Indústrias , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Masculino , Material Particulado/administração & dosagem , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Estações do Ano , Emissões de Veículos/análise
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(37): 18410-18415, 2019 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451642

RESUMO

Exposure to pollution is a known risk factor for human health. While correlative studies between exposure to pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and human health exist, and while in vitro studies help to establish a causative connection, in vivo comparisons of exposed and nonexposed human tissue are scarce. Here, we use human hair as a model matrix to study the correlation of PAH pollution with microstructural changes over time. Two hundred four hair samples from 2 Chinese cities with distinct pollution exposure were collected, and chromatographic-mass spectrometry was used to quantify the PAH-exposure profiles of each individual sample. This allowed us to define a group of less contaminated hair samples as well as a more contaminated group. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) together with quantitative image analysis and blind scoring of 82 structural parameters, we find that the speed of naturally occurring hair-cortex degradation and cuticle delamination is increased in fibers with increased PAH concentrations. Treating nondamaged hair fibers with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation leads to a more pronounced cortical damage especially around melanosomes of samples with higher PAH concentrations. Our study shows the detrimental effect of physiological concentrations of PAH together with UV irradiation on the hair microstructure but likely can be applied to other human tissues.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental , Cabelo/química , Cabelo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , China , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Cabelo/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Raios Ultravioleta
8.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0220451, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365547

RESUMO

Exposures to environmental arsenic (As) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been shown to independently cause dysregulation of immune function. Little data exists on the associations between combined exposures to As and PAH with immunotoxicity in humans. In this work we examined associations between As and PAH exposures with lymphoid cell populations in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), as well as alterations in differentiation and activation of B and T cells. Two hundred men, participating in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Bangladesh, were selected for the present study based on their exposure to As from drinking water and their cigarette smoking status. Blood and urine samples were collected from study participants. We utilized multiparameter flow cytometry in PBMC to identify immune cells (B, T, monocytes, NK) as well as the T-helper (Th) cell subsets (Th1, Th2, Th17, and Tregs) following ex vivo activation. We did not find evidence of interactions between As and PAH exposures. However, individual exposures (As or PAH) were associated with changes to immune cell populations, including Th cell subsets. Arsenic exposure was associated with an increase in the percentage of Th cells, and dose dependent changes in monocytes, NKT cells and a monocyte subset. Within the Th cell subset we found that Arsenic exposure was also associated with a significant increase in the percentage of circulating proinflammatory Th17 cells. PAH exposure was associated with changes in T cells, monocytes and T memory (Tmem) cells and with changes in Th, Th1, Th2 and Th17 subsets all of which were non-monotonic (dose dependent). Alterations of immune cell populations caused by environmental exposures to As and PAH may result in adverse health outcomes, such as changes in systemic inflammation, immune suppression, or autoimmunity.


Assuntos
Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Environ Health ; 18(1): 74, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439044

RESUMO

Air pollution is the most important environmental risk factor for disease and premature death, and exposure to combustion particles from vehicles is a major contributor. Human epidemiological studies combined with experimental studies strongly suggest that exposure to combustion particles may enhance the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including atherosclerosis, hypertension, thrombosis and myocardial infarction.In this review we hypothesize that adhered organic chemicals like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), contribute to development or exacerbation of CVD from combustion particles exposure. We summarize present knowledge from existing human epidemiological and clinical studies as well as experimental studies in animals and relevant in vitro studies. The available evidence suggests that organic compounds attached to these particles are significant triggers of CVD. Furthermore, their effects seem to be mediated at least in part by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The mechanisms include AhR-induced changes in gene expression as well as formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or reactive electrophilic metabolites. This is in accordance with a role of PAHs, as they seem to be the major chemical group on combustion particles, which bind AhR and/or is metabolically activated by CYP-enzymes. In some experimental models however, it seems as PAHs may induce an inflammatory atherosclerotic plaque phenotype irrespective of DNA- and/or AhR-ligand binding properties. Thus, various components and several signalling mechanisms/pathways are likely involved in CVD induced by combustion particles.We still need to expand our knowledge about the role of PAHs in CVD and in particular the relative importance of the different PAH species. This warrants further studies as enhanced knowledge on this issue may amend risk assessment of CVD caused by combustion particles and selection of efficient measures to reduce the health effects of particular matters (PM).


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Emissões de Veículos , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
10.
Environ Health ; 18(1): 69, 2019 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple factors, including co-exposure between lifestyle and environmental risks, are important in susceptibility to oxidative DNA damage. However, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) methylation can mediate the co-exposure effect between smoking and occupational polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in development of oxidative DNA damage. METHODS: We explored the associations between smoking and occupational PAH co-exposure effect, CYP1A1 methylation and oxidative DNA damage among 500 workers from a coke-oven plant in China. Urine biomarkers of PAH exposure (1-hydroxypyrene, 1-OHP; 2-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-NAP; 2-hydroxyfluorene, 2-FLU; and 9-hydroxyphenanthren, 9-PHE) and a marker of oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxy- 2'- deoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG) were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. CYP1A1 methylation was measured by pyrosequencing. Finally, mediation analysis was performed to investigate whether CYP1A1 methylation mediated smoking and occupational PAH co-exposure effect on oxidative DNA damage. RESULTS: We observed significant associations of smoking and 1-OHP co-exposure with CYP1A1 hypomethylation (OR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.01-3.47) and high 8-OHdG (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.14-3.97). There was a significant relationship between CYP1A1 hypomethylation and high 8-OHdG (1st vs. 3rd tertile = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.01-2.47, P for trend = 0.046). In addition, mediation analysis suggested CYP1A1 hypomethylation could explain 13.6% of effect of high 8-OHdG related to smoking and 1-OHP co-exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that the co-exposure effect of smoking and occupational PAH could increase the risk of oxidative DNA damage by a mechanism partly involving CYP1A1 hypomethylation.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/genética , Dano ao DNA , Metilação de DNA , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo
11.
Environ Int ; 131: 104985, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Production of crystal glass and colored art glassware have been going on in the south-eastern part of Sweden since the 1700s, at over 100 glassworks and smaller glass blowing facilities, resulting in environmental contamination with mainly arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAH). High levels of metals have been found in soil, and moderately elevated levels in vegetables, mushrooms and berries collected around the glassworks sites compared with reference areas. Food in general, is the major exposure source to metals, such as Cd and Pb, and PAHs. Exposure to these toxic metals and PAH has been associated with a variety of adverse health effects in humans including cancer. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of cancer in a cohort from the contaminated glasswork area in relation to long-term dietary intake of locally produced foods, while taking into account residential, occupational and life styles factors. METHODS: The study population was extracted from a population cohort of 34,266 individuals who, at some time between the years 1979-2004, lived within a 2 km radius of a glassworks or glass landfill. Register information on cancer incidence and questionnaire information on consumption of local foods (reflecting 30 years general eating habits), life-time residence in the area, life style factors and occupational exposure was collected. Furthermore, blood (n = 660) and urine (n = 400) samples were collected in a subsample of the population to explore associations between local food consumption frequencies, biomarker concentrations in blood (Cd, Pb, As) and urine (PAH metabolite 1-OHPy) as well as environmental and lifestyle factors. The concurrent exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from food was also considered. A case-control study was performed for evaluation of associations between intakes of local food and risk of cancer. RESULTS: Despite high environmental levels of Cd, Pb and As at glasswork sites and landfills, current metal exposure in the population living in the surrounding areas was similar or only moderately higher in our study population compared to the general population. Reported high consumption of certain local foods was associated with higher Cd and Pb, but not As, concentrations in blood, and 1-OHPy in urine. An increased risk of cancer was associated with smoking, family history of cancer, obesity, and residence in glasswork area before age 5 years. Also, a long-term high consumption of local foods (reflecting 30 years general eating habits), i.e. fish and meat (game, chicken, lamb), was associated with increased risk of various cancer forms. CONCLUSIONS: The associations between consumption of local food and different types of cancer may reflect a higher contaminant exposure in the past, and thus, if consumption of local food contributes to the risk of acquiring cancer, that contribution is probably lower today than before. Furthermore, it cannot be ruled out that other contaminants in the food contribute to the increased cancer risks observed.


Assuntos
Dieta , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos , Metais/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Vidro , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Indústria Manufatureira , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218834, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265451

RESUMO

Two long-term potentially oil exposed Baltic Sea coastal sites near old oil refineries and harbours were compared to nearby less exposed sites in terms of bacterial, archaeal and fungal microbiomes and oil degradation potential. The bacterial, archaeal and fungal diversities were similar in oil exposed and less exposed sampling sites based on bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene and fungal 5.8S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing from both DNA and RNA fractions. The number of genes participating in alkane degradation (alkB) or PAH-ring hydroxylation (PAH-RHDα) were detected by qPCR in all water and sediment samples. These numbers correlated with the number of bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies in sediment samples but not with the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons or PAHs. This indicates that both the clean and the more polluted sites at the Baltic Sea coastal areas have a potential for petroleum hydrocarbon degradation. The active community (based on RNA) of the coastal Baltic Sea water differed largely from the total community (based on DNA). The most noticeable difference was seen in the bacterial community in the water samples were the active community was dominated by Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria whereas in total bacterial community Actinobacteria was the most abundant phylum. The abundance, richness and diversity of Fungi present in water and sediment samples was in general lower than that of Bacteria and Archaea. Furthermore, the sampling location influenced the fungal community composition, whereas the bacterial and archaeal communities were not influenced. This may indicate that the fungal species that are adapted to the Baltic Sea environments are few and that Fungi are potentially more vulnerable to or affected by the Baltic Sea conditions than Bacteria and Archaea.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Microbiota/genética , Poluição por Petróleo/efeitos adversos , Petróleo/microbiologia , Archaea/química , Archaea/genética , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Humanos , Oceanos e Mares , Petróleo/efeitos adversos , Filogenia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos
13.
Indoor Air ; 29(5): 817-827, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230378

RESUMO

PM10 -bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels were monitored at urban locations (outdoor/indoor) within the city of Madrid between May 2017 and April 2018. Fourteen PAH congeners were measured, potential emission sources were identified as were potential carcinogenic risks. The ΣPAHs averaged 0.577 and 0.186 ng/m3 in outdoor and indoor air, with a high linear correlation per individual mean PAH and month. The largest contributors to the ΣPAHs were the high-molecular-weight PAHs. Principal component analysis-multiple linear regression results showed that emissions from diesel and vehicular processes explained 27% and 23% of the total variance of outdoor and indoor air, while combustion processes accounted for 30% and 25% in ambient and indoor air, respectively. During the cold season, biomass burning plus coal and wood combustion were additional sources of outdoor emissions. The heavy-, medium- and light-molecular-weight PAH originating from outdoor sources accounted for 72%, 80%, and ~60% of the indoor levels of the three respective PAH groups. Average BaP concentration was 0.029 and 0.016 ng/m3 in outdoor and indoor air, respectively. Estimated BaPeq concentration averaged 0.072, 0.035, and 0.027 ng/m3 for outdoor, indoor, and indoor-generated individual PAH concentrations, respectively. The estimated carcinogenic risk falls within the range of acceptable risk targeted by the US-EPA.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Exposição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Espanha , População Urbana
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 684: 458-465, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154218

RESUMO

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure has been associated with lung function decline, but impact of PM2.5 constituents especially for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on lung function is unclear among community population. We enrolled 224 Chinese participants who participated in two study periods (2014-2015 and 2017-2018) of the Wuhan-Zhuhai cohort as a panel, and quantified the associations of personal PM2.5 and sixteen PM2.5-bound PAHs with lung function levels as well as lung function change in three years by linear mixed models. Diagnostic ratios were calculated to identify potential sources of PM2.5-bound PAHs in Wuhan and Zhuhai separately. In single-constituent models, we found that each one interquartile-range increase of naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluoranthene and pyrene were associated with 26.82, 60.99, 45.25 and 23.37 mL decline in FVC respectively; while fluoranthene and pyrene were associated with 27.43 and 15.49 mL decline in FEV1 respectively. Similar results were observed in consitituent-PM2.5 joint models and single-constituent residual models. Persistently long-term high levels of three HMW-PAHs (benzo[a]anthracene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, and benzo[ghi]perylene) were associated with 214.65, 226.13, and 265.00 mL decline in FVC decline in three years, compared with persistently low exposure level groups. The associations were different between Wuhan and Zhuhai. The results of diagnostic ratios suggested the differences in PAH emissions between two cities. Our findings provide evidence that both short- and long-term PM2.5-bound PAH exposures might affect lung function.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Respiratória
15.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 72, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have found that prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is associated with increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs). Aberrant DNA methylation, excessive apoptosis, and oxidative stress have been implied as the mechanism underlying the association between PAH exposure and NTDs, respectively. However, the role of DNA methylation aberration of apoptotic initiator CASP8 (caspase-8, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase) in the formation of NTDs in association with PAH exposure is not known. By combining a case-control study and mouse model, we aimed to explore the full spectrum of the links from PAH exposure, oxidative stress, CASP8 methylation change, caspase-8 activation, apoptosis, to NTD formation. RESULTS: Hypomethylation of CASP8 promoter was noticed in the microarray profiled by Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip using neural tissues from 10 terminated NTD fetuses and 8 terminated non-malformed fetuses (14 CpG sites, with ß difference ranging between 8.8 and 26.3%), and was validated in a larger case-control sample performed with neural tissues from 80 NTD cases and 32 non-malformed fetuses, using the Sequenom MassARRAY system (7 CpG sites). Hypomethylation of CASP8 was a risk factor for NTDs (aOR = 1.11; 95% CI, 1.05-1.17) based on the logistic regression model. According to Pearson's correlation, methylation levels of CASP8 were inversely correlated with PAH concentrations in maternal serum and with oxidative stress markers in fetal neural tissues (p < 0.05). In the animal study, increased NTD rates (13.5% frequency), Casp8 hypomethylation, caspase-8 upregulation, increased caspase-8 cleavage, and excessive apoptosis were found in mouse embryos cultured with benz(a)pyrene (BaP) in vitro. Antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and BaP co-treatment attenuated the changes found in BaP treatment group. CONCLUSIONS: Hypomethylation of Casp8 promoter is associated with the formation of NTDs, and Casp8 hypomethylation may be induced by oxidative stress that resulted from exposure to PAHs.


Assuntos
Caspase 8/genética , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/induzido quimicamente , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Troca Materno-Fetal , Camundongos , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/genética , Estresse Oxidativo , Gravidez , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 677: 626-636, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071665

RESUMO

Organic pollutants associated with diesel exhaust particles (DEP), such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives, may negatively impact human health. However, a comprehensive overview of their effects on endocrine nuclear receptor activities is still missing. Here, we evaluated the effects of extracts and chromatographic fractions (fractionated according to increasing polarity) of two standard reference materials derived from distinct types of diesel engines (SRM 2975, SRM 1650b), on activation of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and thyroid receptor α (TRα), using human cell-based reporter gene assays. Neither DEP standard modulated AR or GR activities. Crude extracts and fractions of SRM 1650b and SRM 2975 suppressed ERα-mediated activity in the ER-CALUX™ assay; however, this effect could be partly linked to their cytotoxicity in this cell line. We observed that only SRM 2975 extract and its fractions were partial PPARγ inducers, while SRM 1650b extract was not active towards this receptor. Importantly, we found that both extracts and polar fractions of SRM activated TRα and significantly potentiated the activity of endogenous TRα ligand, triiodothyronine. Based on a detailed chemical analysis of both extracts and their polar fractions, we identified several oxygenated PAH derivatives, that were present at relatively high levels in the analyzed DEP standards, including 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), anthracene-9,10-dione, phenanthrene-9,10-dione, 9H-fluoren-9-one or benzo[a]anthracene-7,12-dione, to activate TRα activity. Nevertheless, these compounds provided only a minor contribution to the overall TRα activity identified in polar fractions. This suggests that yet unidentified polar polyaromatic compounds associated with DEP may, apart from their known impact on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor or steroid signaling, deregulate activities of additional nuclear receptors, in particular of TRα. This illustrates the need to better characterize endocrine disrupting activities of DEP.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Emissões de Veículos , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo
17.
Occup Environ Med ; 76(8): 537-544, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study if children of women exposed to organic particles and combustion products at work during pregnancy, have an increased risk of low birth weight, preterm birth or small for gestational age. METHODS: A nationwide cohort of all occupationally active mothers and their children from single births during 1994 to the end of 2012 (1 182 138 observations) was formed. Information on birth outcome was obtained from the medical birth register. Information on absence from work, education, occupation, age, nationality and smoking habits was obtained from national registers. A job exposure matrix (FINJEM) was used to assess the exposure. RESULTS: Pregnant women with low absence from work and high (>50th percentile) exposure to organic particles had an increased risk of giving birth to children with low birth weight (OR=1.19; 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.32), small for gestational age (OR=1.22; 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.38) or preterm birth (OR=1.17; 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.27). Subgroup analyses showed an increased risk of small for gestational age in association with exposure to oil mist. Exposure to oil mist and cooking fumes was associated with low birth weight. Paper and other organic dust was associated with preterm birth. Exposure to combustion products showed an increased risk of small for gestational age (OR=1.40; 95% CI: 1.15 to 1.71). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that occupational exposure to organic particles or combustion products during pregnancy is associated with restriction of fetal growth and preterm birth. More studies are needed to confirm a casual association.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Culinária , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Óleos/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Suécia/epidemiologia
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 678: 611-617, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078851

RESUMO

Extensive epidemiological studies have revealed that nearly 25% of the premature mortality from lung cancer is attributed to regional haze caused by a high level of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), with a lower volatility, are more likely to be absorbed with PM2.5 and to pose a threat to health, whereas there is insufficient information about carcinogenesis caused by NPAHs. Our study evaluated the carcinogenic effect of typical NPAHs on lung cancer cell adhesion and metastasis and revealed the possibly involved mechanism through in vitro experiments. For the specific mechanism, typical NPAHs could directly induce the inactivation of serine/threonine kinase (MST1/2) and large tumor suppressor (LATS1/2) and result in the nuclear translocation of Yes-associated protein (YAP). The nuclear YAP would then combine with TEA domain transcription factor (TEAD) and profoundly influence the transcription of migration and adhesion genes related to lung cancer metastasis. These findings remind us of the possible carcinogenicity of NPAHs absorbed with PM2.5 and provide a reference for the prevention and mitigation of tumorigenesis in a heavily polluted environment.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Nitrocompostos/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células A549 , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Adesão Celular , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica/fisiopatologia , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição
19.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(4): 1656-1663, 2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087905

RESUMO

In order to understand the sources and health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the PM2.5 fraction of road dust and soil dust in Nanchang city, PM2.5 samples were collected by a resuspension sampler and the concentrations of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected. The results showed that the ΣPAHs of the road dust ranged from 48.85 to 166.16 µg·kg-1, with a mean of (114.22±39.95) µg·kg-1. The ΣPAHs of the soil dust ranged from 31.05 to 62.92 µg·kg-1 with a mean of (40.79±9.39) µg·kg-1. The PAHs in the PM2.5 fraction of fugitive dust were mainly composed of 4-5 rings. The results of the principal component analysis and multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the PAHs in PM2.5 samples of road dust mainly originated from motor vehicle emissions, coal sources, and oil leakage, with contribution rates of 51.7% and 48.3%, respectively. For children and adult males, the carcinogenic risk values of PAHs in different exposure pathways followed the order dermal contact > ingestion > inhalation, while those for adult females followed the order ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. For all exposure pathways, the carcinogenic risks of the PAHs to adults were higher than those to children. For all populations, the total carcinogenic risk values of the PAHs were lower than the US EPA recommended carcinogenic risk threshold of 10-6, indicating no carcinogenic risk.


Assuntos
Poeira , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Adulto , Carcinógenos/análise , Criança , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos
20.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 21(4): 332-336, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014424

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the association of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during pregnancy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-related behaviors in toddlers. METHODS: A total of 348 toddlers who had accepted the measurement of PAH-DNA adduct in umbilical cord blood and evaluation of behavior problems at the age of 36 months were enrolled in this birth cohort study. Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) were used to evaluate behavior problems at the age of 36 months. The correlation of the concentration of PAH-DNA adduct in umbilical cord blood with CBCL and ABC scores at the age of 36 months were analyzed. RESULTS: The detection rate of PAH-DNA adduct in umbilical cord blood was 52.3%, and the median concentration was 0.68 ng/mL. The median total scores of CBCL and ABC scales were 23 and 8 respectively. In children aged 36 months, the concentration of PAH-DNA adduct was positively correlated with the score of social withdrawal in the CBCL scale (rs=0.205, P<0.05), the total score of the ABC scale (rs=0.412, P<0.05), and the self-care score of the ABC scale (rs=0.355, P<0.05). The concentration of PAH-DNA adduct was closely associated with the total score of the ABC scale in children aged 36 months (ß=0.122, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: PAH exposure during pregnancy may be a risk factor for ASD-related behaviors in toddlers. Effective reduction of PAH exposure during pregnancy and detection of PAH-DNA adduct in neonatal umbilical cord blood are of vital importance for early prevention, screening and intervention of ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/induzido quimicamente , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Humanos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente
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