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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111621, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396141

RESUMO

The study explored the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon tolerance of indigenous biosurfactant producing microorganisms. Three bacterial species were isolated from crude oil contaminated sites of Haldia, West Bengal. The three species were screened for biosurfactant production and identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Brevundimonas sp. IITISM 11, Pseudomonas sp. IITISM 19 and Pseudomonas sp. IITISM 24. The strains showed emulsification activities of 51%, 57% and 63%, respectively. The purified biosurfactants were characterised using FT-IR, GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy and found to have structural similarities to glycolipopeptides, cyclic lipopeptides and glycolipids. The biosurfactants produced were found to be stable under a wide range of temperature (0-100 °C), pH (4-12) and salinity (up to 20% NaCl). Moreover, the strains displayed tolerance to high concentrations (275 mg/L) of anthracene and fluorene and showed a good amount of cell surface hydrophobicity with different hydrocarbons. The study reports the production and characterisation of biosurfactant by Brevundimonas sp. for the first time. Additionally, the kinetic parameters of the bacterial strains grown on up to 300 mg/L concentration of anthracene and fluorene, ranged between 0.0131 and 0.0156 µmax (h-1), while the Ks(mg/L) ranged between 59.28 and 102.66 for Monod's Model. For Haldane-Andrew's model, µmax (h-1) varied between 0.0168 and 0.0198. The inhibition constant was highest for Pseudomonas sp. IITISM 19 on anthracene and Brevundimonas sp. IITISM 11 on fluorene. The findings of the study suggest that indigenous biosurfactant producing strains have tolerance to high PAH concentrations and can be exploited for bioremediation purposes.


Assuntos
Antracenos/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Fluorenos/metabolismo , Tensoativos/metabolismo , Antracenos/química , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fluorenos/química , Glicolipídeos , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Cinética , Petróleo/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Tensoativos/química
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111540, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157514

RESUMO

The current study combined chemical data on trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from sediment and used a multibiomarker approach in the catfish Sciades herzbergii to evaluate two different sites in São Marcos Bay, Brazil. Higher diffuse contaminations by trace elements and PAH were detected in the sediment of Porto Grande (PG) harbor than in the Ilha dos Caranguejos (IC) reference area. A multibiomarker was used in catfish to evaluate the bioavailability of PAH in bile and the effects of pollutants in target tissues. The parameters considered were oxidative stress biomarkers (SOD, CAT, GSH, GST and LPO) and histopathological alterations and were compared between two seasons. The biological responses revealed adverse effects on the population, as indicated by the presence of trace elements and PAH as stressors. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the biomarkers corroborated these results and indicated that fish from the PG site during the rainy season in 2019 exhibited many biological effects compared to 2018. Overall, the present study showed that environmental contamination increased over the years and provides information on the contamination of sediments in the São Marcos Bay, Brazil. The results showed that the presence of contaminants was correlated with the health status of the catfish S. herzbergii.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Brasil , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127573, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745791

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread, persistent environmental pollutants. They exert toxic effects at different developmental stages of plants. Plant defense mechanisms against PAHs are poorly understood. To this end, transcriptomics and widely targeted metabolomic sequencing were used to study the changes in gene expression and metabolites that occur in the roots of Salix viminalis subjected to phenanthrene stress. Significant variations in genes and metabolites were observed between treatment groups and the control group. Thirteen amino acids and key genes involved in their biosynthesis were upregulated exposed to phenanthrene. Cysteine biosynthesis was upregulated. Sucrose, inositol galactoside, and mellidiose were the main carbohydrates that were largely accumulated. Glutathione biosynthesis was enhanced in order to scavenge reactive oxygen species and detoxify the phenanthrene. Glucosinolate and flavonoid biosynthesis were upregulated. The production of pinocembrin, apigenin, and epigallocatechin increased, which may play a role in antioxidation to resist phenanthrene stress. In addition, levels of six amino acids and N,N'-(p-coumaroyl)-cinnamoyl-caffeoyl-spermidine were significantly increased, which may have helped protect the plant against phenanthrene stress. These results demonstrated that S. viminalis had a positive defense strategy in response to phenanthrene challenge. Subsequent defense-related reactions may have also occurred within 24 h of phenanthrene exposure. The findings of the present study would be useful in elucidating the molecular mechanisms regulating plant responses to PAH challenges and would help guide crop and plant breeders in enhancing PAH resistance.


Assuntos
Fenantrenos/toxicidade , Salix/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Metabolômica , Fenantrenos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Salix/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
4.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128041, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854013

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental pollutants that represent a serious threat to the health of humans and ecosystems. The effects of plant root and artificial root exudates (ARE) on the biodegradation of phenanthrene (PHE) and their impact on soil bacterial community structure was the focus of this work using four treatments for 180 days. Treatments included; control treatment (CK), low concentration of ARE (AREL), high concentration of ARE (AREH), and planting Koelreuteria paniculata saplings (KOE). The diversity and composition of soil bacterial community were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that KOE treatments had the most significant effect on the biodegradation of PHE compared to controls. ARE treatments had the similar effects on the biodegradation of PHE in soil with high efficiency in AREH than AREL. Both KOE and ARE treatments reduced diversity of bacterial community but increased the abundance of PAHs degrading bacterial populations within representative phyla, including Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. During the study, the total bacterial OTUs showed the number of unique genus types initially increased, then lowered in the later stages of the incubation process. Specific bacterial populations enriched by the treatments and supported by the exudates seemed to determine the biodegradation of PHE and not the overall bacterial diversity.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Exsudatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Sapindaceae/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Exsudatos e Transudatos/metabolismo , Fenantrenos/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Características de Residência , Solo/química
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16109, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999304

RESUMO

Pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) was employed to characterize bacterial communities colonizing the rhizosphere of plants with C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways grown in soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) after 60 and 120 days. The results of this study exhibited a clear difference in bacterial diversity between the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere samples and between the rhizospheres of the C3 and C4 plants after 120 days. In both C3 and C4 rhizospheres, an incremental change in PAHs degrading bacterial genera was observed in the 120th day samples compared to the 60th day ones. Among the PAHs degrading bacterial genera, Pseudomonas showed good resistance to PAHs in the 120th day rhizosphere of both C3 and C4 plants. Conversely, the genus Sphingomonas showed sensitivity to PAHs in the 120th day rhizosphere soils of C3 plants only. Also, a significant increase in the PAHs degrading genera was observed at 120th day in the C4 rhizosphere in comparison to the C3 rhizosphere, which was reflected in a reduced PAHs concentration measured in the soil remediated with C4 plants rather than C3 plants. These results suggest that the rhizoremediation of PAHs was primarily governed by the plant photosystems, which led to differences in root secretions that caused the variation in bacterial diversity seen in the rhizospheres. This study is the first report to demonstrate the greater effectiveness of C4 plants in enhancing the PAHs degrading bacterial community than C3 plants.


Assuntos
Plantas/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Ciclo do Carbono/genética , Fotossíntese/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rizosfera , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 206: 111087, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871516

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a small rod shaped Gram-negative bacterium of Gammaproteobacteria class known for its metabolic versatility. P. aeruginosa PFL-P1 was isolated from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated site of Paradip Port, Odisha Coast, India. The strain showed excellent biofilm formation and could retain its ability to form biofilm grown with different PAHs in monoculture as well as co-cultures. To explore mechanistic insights of PAHs metabolism, the whole genome of the strain was sequenced. Next generation sequencing unfolded a genome size of 6,333,060 bp encoding 5857 CDSs. Gene ontology distribution assigned to a total of 2862 genes, wherein 2235 genes were allocated to biological process, 1549 genes to cellular component and 2339 genes to molecular function. A total of 318 horizontally transferred genes were identified when the genome was compared with the reference genomes of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and P. aeruginosa DSM 50071. Further comparison of P. aeruginosa PFL-P1 genome with P. putida containing TOL plasmids revealed similarities in the meta cleavage pathway employed for degradation of aromatic compounds like xylene and toluene. Gene annotation and pathway analysis unveiled 145 genes involved in xenobiotic biodegradation and metabolism. The biofilm cultures of P. aeruginosa PFL-P1 could degrade ~74% phenanthrene within 120 h while degradation increased up to ~76% in co-culture condition. GC-MS analysis indicated presence of diverse metabolites indicating the involvement of multiple pathways for one of the PAHs (phenanthrene) degradation. The strain also possesses the genetic machinery to utilize diverse toxic aromatic compounds such as naphthalene, benzoate, aminobenzoate, fluorobenzoate, toluene, xylene, styrene, atrazine, caprolactam etc. Common catabolic gene clusters such as benABCD, xylXYZ and catAB were observed within the genome of P. aeruginosa PFL-P1 which play key roles in the degradation of various toxic aromatic compounds.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Fenantrenos/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biologia Marinha , Plasmídeos/genética , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo
7.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126880, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957287

RESUMO

Electro-bioremediation is a promising technology for remediation of soil contaminated with persistent organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). During electro-bioremediation, electrical fields have been shown to increase pollutant degradation. However, it remains unclear whether there is an optimal strength for the electrical field applied that is conductive to the maximum role played by microbes. This study aimed to determine the optimal strength of electric field through the analysis of the effects of different voltages on the microbial community and activity. Four bench-scale experiments with voltages of 0, 1, 2 and 3 V cm-1 were conducted for 90 days in an aged PAH-contaminated soil. The spatiotemporal changes of the soil pH, moisture content and temperature, microbial biomass and community structure, and the degradation extent of PAHs were researched over 90 days. The results indicated that the total microbial biomass and degradation activity were highest at voltages of 2 V cm-1. The concentration of total phospholipid fatty acids, used to quantify soil microbial biomass, reached 65.7 nmol g-1 soil, and the mean degradation extent of PAHs was 44.0%. Similarly, the maximum biomass of actinomycetes, bacteria and fungus also occurred at the voltage of 2 V cm-1. The Gram-positive/Gram-negative and (cy17:0+cy 19:0)/(16:1ω7+18:1ω7) ratios also showed that the intensity of electric field and electrode reactions strongly influenced the microbial community structure. Therefore, to optimize the electro-bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil, the strength of electric field needs to be selected carefully. This work provides reference for the development of novel electrokinetically enhanced bioremediation processes.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Microbiota , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biomassa , Fungos/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
8.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127779, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736249

RESUMO

Rhizo-box experiments were conducted to analyze the phyto-microbial remediation potential of a grass (Lolium multiflorum L.) and a crop (Glycine max L.) combined with exogenous strain (Pseudomonas sp.) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soils. The dynamics of bacterial community composition, abundances of 16 S rDNA and ring hydroxylating dioxygenases (RHDα) genes, and removal of PAHs were evaluated and compared on four culture stages (days 0, 10, 20, and 30). The results showed that 8.65%-47.42% of Σ12 PAHs were removed after 30 days of cultivation. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis indicated that treatments with soybean and ryegrass rhizosphere markedly increased the abundances of total bacteria and PAH-degraders, especially facilitated the growth of gram-negative degrading bacteria. Flavobacterium sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were the main and active strains in the control soil. However, the presence of plants and/or exogenous Pseudomonas sp. changed the soil bacterial community structure and modified the bacterial diversity of PAH-degraders. On the whole, this study showed that the high molecular weight PAHs removal efficiency of phyto-microbial remediation with ryegrass was better than those of remediation with soybean. Furthermore, the removals of PAHs strongly coincided with the abundance of PAH-degraders and bacterial community structure.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Bactérias/metabolismo , Dioxigenases/genética , Lolium , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Pseudomonas , Rizosfera , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
9.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127332, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554009

RESUMO

Prioritizing chemicals posing threats to drinking water resources is crucial for legislation considering the cost of water treatment, remediation, and monitoring. We profiled in vitro potential endocrine disrupting activities (both agonistic and antagonistic) of 18 contaminants most prevalent in Walloon raw water resources intended for drinking water production, including several compound groups: pesticides, perfluorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, a corrosion inhibitor, and bisphenol A. Mixtures thereof relevant for human realistic exposure were also investigated. Seven luciferase reporter gene cell lines were used i.e. three (human and rat) responsive to dioxins through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and four (human) responsive to steroids through the estrogen (ER), androgen (AR), progesterone (PR), and glucocorticoid (GR) receptors. Among the 18 compounds, ten caused at least one response in at least one receptor. Specifically, chlorpyrifos, bisphenol A, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, and benzo [a]pyrene displayed significant activities on several receptors. Bisphenol A agonized ER, but abolished the cells' response to androgen and progesterone. While fluoranthene and phenanthrene strongly reduced human AhR and AR transactivation, benzo [a]pyrene strongly activated AhR and ER, but inhibited GR and AR. In human breast cancer cells, benzo [a]pyrene dramatically activated AhR, inducing a 10-fold higher response than 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) at concentrations possibly found realistically in human blood. The mixture of the 18 compounds exerted both ER and rat AhR agonism, with the main contribution being from benzo [a]pyrene or its combination with bisphenol A. Moreover, the mixture significantly inhibited TCDD-induced CYP1A activity (detected only by EROD assays) in human hepatoma cells.


Assuntos
Água Potável/química , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Benzo(a)pireno/metabolismo , Estrogênios , Genes Reporter , Humanos , Praguicidas , Fenóis , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Ratos , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Recursos Hídricos
10.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(8): 2033-2058, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506150

RESUMO

Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered as hazardous organic priority pollutants. PAHs have immense public concern and critical environmental challenge around the globe due to their toxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties, and their ubiquitous distribution, recalcitrance as well as persistence in environment. The knowledge about harmful effects of PAHs on ecosystem along with human health has resulted in an interest of researchers on degradation of these compounds. Whereas physico-chemical treatment of PAHs is cost and energy prohibitive, bioremediation i.e. degradation of PAHs using microbes is becoming an efficient and sustainable approach. Broad range of microbes including bacteria, fungi, and algae have been found to have capability to use PAHs as carbon and energy source under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions resulting in their transformation/degradation. Microbial genetic makeup containing genes encoding catabolic enzymes is responsible for PAH-degradation mechanism. The degradation capacity of microbes may be induced by exposing them to higher PAH-concentration, resulting in genetic adaptation or changes responsible for high efficiency towards removal/degradation. In last few decades, mechanism of PAH-biodegradation, catabolic gene system encoding catabolic enzymes, and genetic adaptation and regulation have been investigated in detail. This review is an attempt to overview current knowledge of microbial degradation mechanism of PAHs, its genetic regulation with application of genetic engineering to construct genetically engineered microorganisms, specific catabolic enzyme activity, and application of bioremediation for reclamation of PAH-contaminated sites. In addition, advanced molecular techniques i.e. genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic techniques are also discussed as powerful tools for elucidation of PAH-biodegradation/biotransformation mechanism in an environmental matrix.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Biodegradação Ambiental , Microbiologia Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Fungos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biotransformação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/metabolismo , Engenharia Genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Genoma Fúngico/genética
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110886, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585487

RESUMO

A field investigation was conducted to study the dynamic distribution and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in winter wheat in the surrounds of a coal-fired power plant. During March to June 2019, various tissues of winter wheat and the corresponding rhizosphere soil were collected for determination of PAHs. A clear spatial downward trend was found in concentration of Σ15PAHs in rhizosphere soil and wheat grain (194-237 µg kg-1 DM) with the increasing distance from the coal-fired power plant. Moreover, Σ15PAHs concentration in rhizosphere soil (1081 µg kg-1 DM), root (464 µg kg-1 DM) and stem (365 µg kg-1 DM) of winter wheat at regreening stage and leaf (323 µg kg-1 DM) at anthesis stage were significantly (p < 0.001) higher than that (895, 432, 287 and 265 µg kg-1 DM) at maturity stage, respectively. From regreening to maturity stage, root concentration factors (RCF) of 3- and 4-ring PAHs exhibited an increasing trend but the 5-ring PAHs showed an apparently downward trend. However, stem concentration factors (SCF) of 3- and 4-ring PAHs showed a decrease trend while the 5- and 6-ring showed first down and then stable trend. There were positive linear relationship between logKow and logSCF at anthesis (r = 0.681, p < 0.05) and maturity stage (r = 0.751, p < 0.05). Based on linear regression analysis, PAHs in grain mainly came from the transfer of vegetative tissues, and the contribution of PAHs from stem and leaf to grain was higher than that from root. In addition, the present study also found that the physicochemical properties of PAHs play a crucial role in transfer of PAHs from root to vegetative tissues and then to grain. The present research provided more comprehensive information on the fate of PAHs in winter wheat and the safety of the agricultural products.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Triticum/química , Agricultura , Grão Comestível/química , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo
12.
J Biol Chem ; 295(27): 9033-9051, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409577

RESUMO

Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) catalyzes the metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and is transcriptionally regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)/AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) complex upon exposure to PAHs. Accordingly, inhibition of CYP1A1 expression reduces production of carcinogens from PAHs. Although transcription of the CYP1A1 gene is known to be repressed by transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß), how TGF-ß signaling is involved in the suppression of CYP1A1 gene expression has yet to be clarified. In this study, using mammalian cell lines, along with shRNA-mediated gene silencing, CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing, and reporter gene and quantitative RT-PCR assays, we found that TGF-ß signaling dissociates the B[a]P-mediated AhR/ARNT heteromeric complex. Among the examined Smads, Smad family member 3 (Smad3) strongly interacted with both AhR and ARNT via its MH2 domain. Moreover, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), which is stabilized upon TGF-ß stimulation, also inhibited AhR/ARNT complex formation in the presence of B[a]P. Thus, TGF-ß signaling negatively regulated the transcription of the CYP1A1 gene in at least two different ways. Of note, TGF-ß abrogated DNA damage in B[a]P-exposed cells. We therefore conclude that TGF-ß may protect cells against carcinogenesis because it inhibits CYP1A1-mediated metabolic activation of PAHs as part of its anti-tumorigenic activities.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/genética , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Células A549 , Animais , Translocador Nuclear Receptor Aril Hidrocarboneto/genética , Translocador Nuclear Receptor Aril Hidrocarboneto/metabolismo , Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Células COS , Chlorocebus aethiops , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Pirenos , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/fisiologia
13.
Chemosphere ; 256: 126928, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442796

RESUMO

Phenols and trans-1,2-dihydro-1,2-diols are metabolites commonly formed in vivo in fish upon exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These metabolites are excreted via the bile and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of bile is becoming more frequently used for evaluating PAH exposure levels in fish. Current protocols focus on the detection and quantification of phenols formed during in vivo oxidation of PAHs, leaving out analyses and quantification of other oxidation products such as trans-1,2-dihydro-1,2-diols, potentially underestimating exposure levels. Herein, four trans-1,2-dihydro-1,2-diols, namely trans-1,2-dihydronaphthalene-1,2-diol, trans-6-methyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene-1,2-diol, trans-5,7-dimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene-1,2-diol, and trans-4,6,7-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene-1,2-diol, were successfully prepared and used as standards in the GC-MS analysis, aiming to further develop this qualitative and quantitative analytical method for the determination of PAH exposures. This study shows that the currently used GC-MS analysis, including sample workup, is not suitable for determining the quantity of the corresponding diols derived from naphthalene and methylated naphthalenes. Alternative approaches are needed to provide a correct estimate of PAH exposure levels.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Bile/metabolismo , Peixes , Gadus morhua/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Naftalenos
14.
Chemosphere ; 251: 126352, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443248

RESUMO

Limited data are available on seasonal associations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure with oxidative DNA damage. We conducted a pilot study with 20 postgraduates, and measured urinary levels of mono-hydroxyl PAHs (OH-PAHs) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) for 7 consecutive days in the four seasons. We assessed the relationships of urinary OH-PAHs with urinary 8-OHdG in the whole year as well as cold- and warm-seasons. Summed OH-PAHs (∑OH-PAHs) were higher in cold season than in warm season. Each ln-unit (ln-transformed unit) increase in ∑OH-PAHs in the whole year corresponded to a 34%, 16% or 23% increase in urinary 8-OHdG levels at lag0, lag1 or lag2 day as well as a 26% increase in urinary 8-OHdG levels at lag0-2 days (cumulative effects). Each ln-unit increase in ∑OH-PAHs corresponded to a 36%, 26% or 46% increase in urinary 8-OHdG levels in cold season at lag0 day, lag1 day or lag2 day as well as a 36% increase in urinary 8-OHdG in warm season at lag0 day. Distributed non-linear cumulative lag models (DLNMs) indicated that each ln-unit increase in ∑OH-PAHs within the range of 5.7-8.1 nmol/mmol Cr had a stronger effect (coefficient ß: 1.11-2.97 nmol/mmol Cr) on urinary 8-OHdG rather than non-cumulative DLNMs (coefficient ß: 1.08-1.43 nmol/mmol Cr) as well as the non-linear dose-response relationships of ∑OH-PAHs with urinary 8-OHdG. PAHs exposure exhibited the lagged and cumulative effects on urinary 8-OHdG levels.


Assuntos
8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina/urina , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Biomarcadores/urina , Dano ao DNA , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Estações do Ano , Estudantes
15.
Chemosphere ; 255: 126955, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416390

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can induce skin toxicity. Although some investigations have been conducted to assess the skin toxicity of different PAHs, few comparisons using a series of PAHs with different ring numbers and arrangements have been done. We aimed to explore the skin absorption of 6 PAH compounds and their effect on cutaneous inflammation. In vitro skin permeation was rated by Franz cell with pig skin. Molecular docking was employed to compute the PAH interaction with stratum corneum (SC) lipids. Cultured keratinocytes were exposed to PAHs for analyzing cytotoxicity, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), chemokines, and differentiation proteins. The in vivo topical PAH exposure in mice was characterized by skin absorption, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), PGE2 level, and histology. The skin deposition from the aqueous vehicle increased following the increase of PAH lipophilicity and molecular size, with benzo[a]pyrene (5-ring PAH) showing the greatest absorption. Pyrene was the compound showing the highest penetration across the skin (flux). Although the PAHs fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, and 1,2-benzanthracene all had 4 rings, the skin permeation was quite different. 1,2-Benzanthracene showed the greatest absorption among the 4-ring compounds. The PAHs with higher absorption exhibited stronger interaction with SC lipids according to the in silico modeling. Chrysene and 1,2-benzanthracene generally showed the highest COX-2 and PGE2 expression, followed by benzo[a]pyrene. The lowest COX-2 and PGE2 upregulation was observed for naphthalene (2-ring PAH). A contrary tendency was detected for the upregulation of chemokines. Filaggrin and integrin ß1 in keratinocytes were suppressed at a comparable level by all PAHs. The skin's absorption of PAHs showed strong in vivo-in vitro correlation. 1,2-Benzanthracene and benzo[a]pyrene highly disrupted the skin barrier and elevated the inflammation in vivo. The tendency toward in vivo inflammation caused by various PAHs could be well predicted by the combined estimation using in vitro skin absorption and a keratinocyte bioassay. This study also established the structure-permeation relationship (SPR) of PAHs.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Absorção Cutânea , Pele/metabolismo , Animais , Benzo(a)Antracenos , Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Crisenos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Queratinócitos , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Naftalenos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Pirenos , Suínos
16.
Chemosphere ; 253: 126748, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464779

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are key air pollutants that may contribute to the risk of numerous diseases by inducing inflammation and oxidative stress. Individuals with metabolic disorders may be more susceptible to PAH-induced inflammation and oxidative stress. To test this hypothesis, we designed a panel study involving 60 patients with pre-type 2 diabetes (pre-T2D) and 60 reference participants, and conducted up to seven repeated clinical examinations. Urinary metabolites of PAHs (i.e., OH-PAHs), measured as indicators of total PAH exposure, showed significant associations with markers of respiratory and systemic inflammation, including exhaled nitric oxide, interleukin (IL)-6 in exhaled breath condensate, and blood IL-2 and IL-8 levels and leucocyte count. The most significant effect was on urinary malondiadehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation; a onefold increase of OH-PAHs was associated with 9.2-46.0% elevation in MDA in pre-T2D participants and 9.8-31.2% increase in healthy references. Pre-T2D participants showed greater increase in MDA, suggesting that metabolic disorder enhanced the oxidative damage induced by PAH exposure. This study revealed the association between PAH exposure and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and the enhanced responses of pre-T2D patients suggested that individuals with metabolic disorders were more susceptible to the adverse health effects of PAH exposure.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Desoxiguanosina/urina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo
17.
Chemosphere ; 256: 126998, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470727

RESUMO

Efficient degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a petroleum-contaminated soil was challenging which requires ample PAH-degrading flora and nutrients. In this study, we investigated the effects of 'natural attenuation', 'bioaugmentation', 'compost only (raw materials of compost included pig manure and rice husk mixed at a 1:2 proportion, supplemented with 2.5% charcoal)', and 'compost with bioaugmentation' treatments on degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and microbial community shifts during the remediation of petroleum-contaminated soil. After sixteen weeks of incubation, the removal efficiencies of PAHs were 0.52 ± 0.04%, 6.92 ± 0. 32%, 9.53 ± 0.29%, and 18.2 ± 0.64% in the four treatments, respectively. 'Compost with bioaugmentation' was the most effective for PAH removal among all the treatments. Illumina sequencing analysis suggested that both the 'compost only' and 'compost with bioaugmentation' treatments changed soil microbial community structures and enhanced microbial biodiversity. Some of the microorganisms affiliated with the compost including Azomonas, Luteimonas, Pseudosphingobacterium, and Parapedobacter were able to survive and become dominant in the contaminated soil. The 'bioaugmentation and 'natural attenuation' treatments had no significant effects on soil microbial community structure. Inoculation of the PAH degraders including Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter directly into the contaminated soil led to lower biodiversity under natural conditions. This result suggested that compost addition increased the α-diversity of both the bacterial and fungal communities in petroleum-contaminated soil, leading to higher PAH degradation efficiency in petroleum-contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Petróleo/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carvão Vegetal/metabolismo , Compostagem , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Microbiota , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Suínos
18.
Occup Environ Med ; 77(7): 488-495, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385190

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Exposure to high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may cause cancer in chimney sweeps and creosote-exposed workers, however, knowledge about exposure to low-molecular-weight PAHs in relation to cancer risk is limited. In this study, we aimed to investigate occupational exposure to the low-molecular-weight PAHs phenanthrene and fluorene in relation to different cancer biomarkers. METHODS: We recruited 151 chimney sweeps, 19 creosote-exposed workers and 152 unexposed workers (controls), all men. We measured monohydroxylated metabolites of phenanthrene and fluorene in urine using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. We measured, in peripheral blood, the cancer biomarkers telomere length and mitochondrial DNA copy number using quantitative PCR; and DNA methylation of F2RL3 and AHRR using pyrosequencing. RESULTS: Median PAH metabolite concentrations were higher among chimney sweeps (up to 3 times) and creosote-exposed workers (up to 353 times), compared with controls (p<0.001; adjusted for age and smoking). ∑OH-fluorene (sum of 2-hydroxyfluorene and 3-hydroxyfluorene) showed inverse associations with percentage DNA methylation of F2RL3 and AHRR in chimney sweeps (B (95% CI)=-2.7 (-3.9 to -1.5) for F2RL3_cg03636183, and -7.1 (-9.6 to -4.7) for AHRR_cg05575921: adjusted for age and smoking), but not in creosote-exposed workers. In addition, ∑OH-fluorene showed a 42% mediation effect on the inverse association between being a chimney sweep and DNA methylation of AHRR CpG2. CONCLUSIONS: Chimney sweeps and creosote-exposed workers were occupationally exposed to low-molecular-weight PAHs. Increasing fluorene exposure, among chimney sweeps, was associated with lower DNA methylation of F2RL3 and AHRR, markers for increased lung cancer risk. These findings warrant further investigation of fluorene exposure and toxicity.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Fluorenos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Creosoto/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Metilação de DNA , DNA Mitocondrial , Fluorenos/metabolismo , Fluorenos/urina , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Fenantrenos/metabolismo , Fenantrenos/urina , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Homeostase do Telômero
19.
Chemosphere ; 253: 126678, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278192

RESUMO

Hypoxia and petrogenic hydrocarbon contamination are two anthropogenic stressors that coexist in coastal environments. Although studies have estimated the impact of each stressor separately, few investigations have assessed the effects of these stressors in interaction. We therefore investigated the impact of these combined stressors on sea bass, (Dicentrarchus labrax) physiology. After experimental contamination with physically dispersed oil, fish were exposed to hypoxia or normoxia, and active/standard metabolic rates (AMR and SMR, respectively), and metabolic scope (MS) were estimated. At the protocol's end, the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was estimated by evaluating relative concentrations of bile metabolites. In terms of bile metabolites, our results validated the uptake of PAHs by contaminated fish in our experimental settings, and further suggest that the hypoxic period after contamination does not reduce or increase compound metabolization processes. Our data showed significant effects of hypoxia on all metabolic rates: a significant drastic AMR reduction and significant SMR diminution led to decreased MS. We also found that oil contamination significantly impacted AMR and MS, but not SMR. These results suggested that when evaluated separately, hypoxia or oil affect the metabolic rate of sea bass. On the other hand, when evaluated in combination, no cumulative effects were observed, since fish exposed to both stressors did not show a stronger impact on metabolism than fish exposed to hypoxia alone. This suggests that oil impacts fish metabolism when fish occupy normoxic waters, and that oil does not magnify hypoxia-induced effects on fish metabolism.


Assuntos
Bass/fisiologia , Poluição por Petróleo , Aerobiose/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bass/metabolismo , Bile/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Hipóxia/veterinária , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6437, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296072

RESUMO

Despite over seven decades of production and hundreds of oil spills per year, there were no comprehensive baselines for petroleum contamination in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) prior to this study. Subsequent to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill, we implemented Gulf-wide fish surveys extending over seven years (2011-2018). A total of 2,503 fishes, comprised of 91 species, were sampled from 359 locations and evaluated for biliary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations. The northern GoM had significantly higher total biliary PAH concentrations than the West Florida Shelf, and coastal regions off Mexico and Cuba. The highest concentrations of biliary PAH metabolites occurred in Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus albacares), Golden Tilefish (Lopholatilus chamaeleonticeps), and Red Drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Conversely, biliary PAH concentrations were relatively low for most other species including economically important snappers and groupers. While oil contamination in most demersal species in the north central GoM declined in the first few years following DWH, more recent increases in exposure to PAHs in some species suggest a complex interaction between multiple input sources and possible re-suspension or bioturbation of oil-contaminated sediments. This study provides the most comprehensive baselines of PAH exposure in fishes ever conducted for a large marine ecosystem.


Assuntos
Sistema Biliar/química , Peixes/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Sistema Biliar/metabolismo , Cuba , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Florida , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Golfo do México , Masculino , México , Poluição por Petróleo/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Água do Mar/química
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