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1.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225363, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800599

RESUMO

Exposure to air pollutants is known to have adverse effects on human health; however, little is known about the association between hydrocarbons in air and an ischemic stroke (IS) event. We investigated whether long-term exposure to airborne hydrocarbons, including volatile organic compounds, increased IS risk. This retrospective cohort study included 283,666 people aged 40 years or older in Taiwan. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to fit single- and multiple-pollutant models for two targeted pollutants, total hydrocarbons (THC) and nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and estimated the risk of IS. Before controlling for multiple pollutants, hazard ratios (HRs) of IS with 95% confidence intervals for the overall population were 2.69 (2.64-2.74) at 0.16-ppm increase in THC and 1.62 (1.59-1.66) at 0.11-ppm increase in NMHC. For the multiple-pollutant models controlling for PM2.5, the adjusted HR was 3.64 (3.56-3.72) for THC and 2.21 (2.16-2.26) for NMHC. Our findings suggest that long-term exposure to THC and NMHC may be a risk factor for IS development.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Hidrocarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taiwan
2.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222895, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550294

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate whether long-term exposure to airborne hydrocarbons, including volatile organic compounds, increases the risk of developing retinal vein occlusion (RVO) among the population of Taiwan. A retrospective cohort study involving 855,297 people was conducted. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis fitted the multiple pollutant models for two targeted pollutants, including total hydrocarbons (THC), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) were used, and the risk of RVO was estimated. The chi-squared test and one-way analysis of variance were used to test differences in demographics and comorbidity distribution among tertiles of the targeted pollutants. Before controlling for multiple pollutants, hazard ratios for the overall population were 19.88 (95% CI: 17.56-22.50) at 0.51-ppm increases in THC and 4.33 (95% CI: 3.97-4.73) at 0.27-ppm increases in NMHC. The highest adjusted hazard ratios for different multiple pollutant models of each targeted pollutant were statistically significant (all p values were ≤0.05) for all patients at 29.67 (95% CI: 25.57-34.42) for THC and 16.24 (95% CI: 14.14-18.65) for NMHC. Our findings suggest that long-term exposure to THC and NMHC contribute to RVO development.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 675, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Animal data suggest that jet fuels such as JP-8 are associated with hearing deficits when combined with noise and that the effect is more pronounced than with noise exposure alone. Some studies suggest peripheral dysfunction while others suggest central auditory dysfunction. Human data are limited in this regard. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible chronic adverse effects of JP-8 combined with noise exposure on the peripheral and central auditory systems in humans. METHODS: Fifty-seven participants who were current personnel from the Royal Australian Air Force were selected. Based on their levels of exposure to jet fuels, participants were divided into three exposure groups (low, moderate, high). Groups were also categorised based on their noise exposure levels (low, moderate, high). All participants were evaluated by tympanometry, pure-tone audiometry (1-12 kHz), distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), auditory brainstem response (ABR), words-in-noise, compressed speech, dichotic digit test, pitch pattern sequence test, duration pattern sequence test and adaptive test of temporal resolution. All auditory tests were carried out after the participants were away from the Air Force base for a minimum of two weeks, thus two weeks without jet fuel and noise exposure. RESULTS: Jet fuel exposure was significantly associated with hearing thresholds at 4 and 8 kHz; average hearing thresholds across frequencies in the better ear; DPOAEs at 2.8, 4 and 6 kHz; ABR wave V latency in the right ear; compressed speech and words-in-noise. Further analyses revealed that participants with low exposure level to jet fuels showed significantly better results for the aforementioned procedures than participants with moderate and high exposure levels. All results were controlled for the covariates of age and noise exposure levels. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that jet fuel exposure, when combined with noise exposure, has an adverse effect on audibility in humans. Taking all the test results into consideration, jet fuel exposure combined with noise exposure specifically seems to affect the peripheral hearing system in humans.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Hidrocarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Testes Auditivos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 678: 486-498, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077927

RESUMO

Organic pollutants are continuously being introduced in seawater with uncharacterized impacts on the engines of the marine biogeochemical cycles, the microorganisms. The effects on marine microbial communities were assessed for perfluoroalkyl substances, organophosphate esters flame retardants and plasticizers, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and n-alkanes. Dose-response experiments were performed at three stations and at three depths in the NW Mediterranean with contrasted nutrient and pollutant concentrations. In these experiments, the microbial growth rates, the abundances of the main bacterial groups, measured by Catalyzed Reporter Deposition Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (CARD-FISH), and extracellular enzymatic activities, were quantified. Increasing concentrations of organic pollutants (OPs) promoted different responses in the communities that were compound, organism and nutrient availability (trophic status). The largest differences between OP treatments and controls in the growth rates of both heterotrophic and phototrophic microbial groups were observed in seawater from the deep chlorophyll maxima. Furthermore, there was a compound specific stimulation of different extracellular enzymatic activities after the exposure to OPs. Our results revealed that marine microbial communities reacted not only to hydrocarbons, known to be used as a carbon source, but also to low concentrations of organic pollutants of emerging concern in a complex manner, reflecting the variability of various environmental variables. Multiple linear regressions suggested that organic pollutants modulated the bacterial growth and extracellular enzymatic activities, but this modulation was of lower magnitude than the observed pronounced response of the microbial community to nutrient availability.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Bactérias/enzimologia , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mar Mediterrâneo , Compostos Orgânicos/efeitos adversos , Água do Mar/química , Espanha
5.
Histol Histopathol ; 34(10): 1141-1150, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973180

RESUMO

To investigate the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, (MMP)-13, E-Cadherin and Ki-67 expressions in road pavers' skin chronically exposed to bitumen products in order to contribute to a better understanding of the earlier tissue alteration. Skin punch biopsies from 16 daily exposed workers and a control group were studied by immunohistochemistry. Morphometric and densitometric analyses were also conducted. Morphological specimen evaluation of skin of road pavers showed epidermal thinning, flattening and loss of intercellular junction with a decreased expression of E-cadherin confined to the basal skin layer, together with MMP-9 and MMP-13 overexpressions in all epidermis layers, vascular structures and adnexa. No immunohistochemical alteration was reported for Ki-67 vs normal skin. Results from this study show that overexpression of MMP-9 and MMP-13 may represent an early response of the first human barrier to exposure to bitumen products. Regulation of MMPs could be one of the strategies to prevent primary skin disease.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Hidrocarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Antígenos CD/análise , Antígenos CD/biossíntese , Caderinas/análise , Caderinas/biossíntese , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Antígeno Ki-67/análise , Antígeno Ki-67/biossíntese , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 13 da Matriz/análise , Metaloproteinase 13 da Matriz/biossíntese , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/análise , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/biossíntese , Pele/patologia
6.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(5): 917-927, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698634

RESUMO

Exposure to total hydrocarbons (THC) and volatile organic compounds from air pollution is associated with risk of coronary heart disease. THC exposure from oil spills might be similarly associated, but no research has examined this. We assessed the relationship between THC exposure during the response and cleanup of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (Gulf of Mexico) and heart attack risk among 24,375 oil spill workers enrolled in the Gulf Long-Term Follow-up Study. There were 312 first heart attacks (self-reported physician-diagnosed myocardial infarction, or fatal coronary heart disease) ascertained during the study period (2010-2016). THC exposures were estimated using a job-exposure matrix incorporating self-reported activities and personal air measurements. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios, with inverse-probability weights to account for confounding and censoring. Maximum THC levels of ≥0.30 parts per million (ppm) were associated with heart attack risk, with a 1.8-fold risk for exposure of ≥3.00 ppm versus <0.30 ppm (hazard ratio = 1.81, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 2.95). The risk difference for highest versus lowest THC level was 10 excess cases per 1,000 workers. This is the first study of the persistent health impacts of THC exposure during oil spill work, and results support increased protection against oil exposure during cleanup of future spills.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/induzido quimicamente , Hidrocarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Seguimentos , Golfo do México , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Poluição por Petróleo , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adulto Jovem
7.
Toxicol Sci ; 168(1): 179-189, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517752

RESUMO

Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), the most common occupational cutaneous illness, is an acute inflammatory response caused by topical irritant exposure. Multiple factors are associated with the manifestation and severity of ICD and contribute to the lack of effective prophylactic and treatment strategies. To determine the pathomechanism of ICD caused by the irritants, benzalkonium chloride (BKC) and JP-8 jet fuel, 2 mouse strains, C57BL/6 and Balb/c, were assessed due to their differential immune predispositions. Dermatitis lesions were obtained for histological examination, cytokine protein expression analysis, and determination of immune cell infiltration via flow cytometric analysis. Following acute (3-day) BKC exposure C57BL/6 skin displayed increased neutrophils and expression of 19 distinct cytokines, but fewer dendritic cells and lower expression of IL-1α and IL-9 as compared with Balb/c skin. Following prolonged (7-day) exposure to BKC, inflammatory cell populations trended similar to 3-day exposure; however, only 6 distinct cytokines were higher in C57BL/6, whereas Balb/c displayed higher expression of IL-27, 28, and 31. Following acute JP-8 exposure, C57BL/6 skin displayed higher levels of γδ T cell infiltration, G and M-CSF expression, but lower populations of neutrophils, monocytes, and dendritic cells compared with Balb/c skin. As with BKC, skin inflammatory cell populations following 7-day JP-8 exposure trended similar to 3-day exposure. However, C57BL/6 skin displayed higher levels of IL-6 and LIF, whereas Balb/c showed increased IL-1ß, IL-27, G-CSF, TNFα, and 7 additional chemokines. These findings further define the pathology of ICD, partially explain individual variation of ICD, and offer insight into biomarkers for risk assessment.


Assuntos
Dermatite Irritante/genética , Dermatite Irritante/imunologia , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Irritantes/toxicidade , Fenótipo , Animais , Compostos de Benzalcônio/efeitos adversos , Antígenos CD11 , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hidrocarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia
8.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 35(8): e147-e149, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29210888

RESUMO

Pneumonia in children due to hydrocarbon aspiration is usually the result of an uncommon accidental event. However, an acute and severe type of pneumonia induced by hydrocarbon aspiration is occasionally experienced by entertainers known as fire-eaters. Different approaches to treat fire-eater's pneumonia appear in the literature. Although there is no consensus regarding the management of this condition, the use of antibiotic therapy is well recognized and recommended by some, whereas others recommend only supportive treatment. Steroids are indicated in severe cases.Here, we report the case of a boy who developed severe pneumonia after inhaling hydrocarbons during an attempt to mimic a fire-eater show. Slow resolution was achieved after broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy in addition to systemic and inhaled steroids and physiotherapy.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Aspirativa/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia Aspirativa/diagnóstico por imagem , Administração Intravenosa , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Fogo , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos/toxicidade , Inalação , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/administração & dosagem , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Aspirativa/tratamento farmacológico , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Burn Care Res ; 40(1): 140-142, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29757438

RESUMO

A chemical alkali burn caused by ash and soot is quite rare, resulting from its high pH-value, and underestimated in its potential to cause injury. In folkloric medicine, ash was purportedly used to relieve pain. We present an unusual case of a 27-year-old man who used a self-mixed cream of soot of wooden pellets, milking grease and baby oil to blacken his face and hands for a traditional Krampus procession.


Assuntos
Álcalis/efeitos adversos , Queimaduras Químicas/etiologia , Traumatismos Faciais/induzido quimicamente , Traumatismos da Mão/induzido quimicamente , Hidrocarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/induzido quimicamente , Fuligem/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Áustria , Queimaduras Químicas/cirurgia , Traumatismos Faciais/cirurgia , Traumatismos da Mão/cirurgia , Férias e Feriados , Humanos , Masculino , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/cirurgia
10.
Heart Lung ; 48(2): 169-172, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30185391

RESUMO

Jet Propulsion Fuel 8 (JP-8) is a kerosene based fuel commonly used in aviation. Occupational exposure to JP-8 may lead to negative health outcomes, which were described in a small number of studies. We report a case of 33-year-old Caucasian male veteran with a history of JP-8 exposure who presented with chronic dyspnea and recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax. To our knowledge, this is the first case of chronic inhalation injury from JP-8 exposure complicated with recurrent secondary spontaneous pneumothorax.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Adulto , Animais , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Querosene , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico , Radiografia Torácica , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
12.
Med. segur. trab ; 64(252): 271-294, jul.-sept. 2018. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182336

RESUMO

ANTECEDENTES: Policías de tráfico, conductores y otros profesionales, están expuestos de forma aguda y crónica a hidrocarburos ambientales del tráfico que pueden conllevar un riesgo para la salud. Dichos tóxicos, están presentes en la contaminación ambiental. En la literatura revisada no hemos encontrado protocolos ni EPIs para estas profesiones laborales, poniendo de relieve que aún queda mucho por desarrollar en este campo. En este artículo, revisamos la evidencia existente en cuanto a efectos nocivos en la salud por la exposición laboral a hidrocarburos en ambiente exterior. OBJETIVOS: Determinar la evidencia científica existente en la literatura acerca de los efectos biológicos de la exposición crónica laboral a hidrocarburos ambientales en los trabajadores expuestos a tráfico (y/o rodeados de HAPs). Material y MÉTODOS: Búsqueda bibliográfica en Pubmed, Toxnet, Scopus, Embase, y webs institucionales de donde recopilamos 25 artículos. RESULTADOS: Se han evidenciado cambios y efectos biológicos nocivos por exposición a los hidrocarburos ambientales (en su mayoría debidos al tráfico), así como la presencia de metabolitos en análisis biológicos de trabajadores expuestos. Dichos efectos han afectado al sistema reproductor, al sistema cardiovascular e incluso a la reparación de DNA. CONCLUSIONES: Parecen existir efectos nocivos para el organismo debidos a la exposición laboral ambiental. Se encontró asociación estadística significativa en la disminución de la reparación del DNA y en el aumento de metabolitos relacionados con hidrocarburos en sangre y orina


BACKGROUND: Traffic officers, drivers and other professionals previously exposed to other environmental traffic hydrocarbons, are acutely and chronically exposed to multiple hazardous substances that can affect health. These toxics are present in environmental pollution. In the literature reviewed, neither protocols nor PPEs have been found for these professions, which highlight the need to be taken into consideration. In this article, the existing evidence regarding the adverse health effects due to the exposure to hydrocarbons in external working environments is reviewed. OBJECTIVES: To determine the existing scientific evidence in literature about the biological effects of the work-related chronic exposure to environmental hydrocarbons in jobs exposed to traffic (and/or surrounded by PAHs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 25 articles have been compiled from Bibliographic research in Pubmed, Toxnet, Scopus, Embase, and institutional websites. RESULTS: Changes and harmful biological effects due to exposure to environmental hydrocarbons (most of them caused by traffic) and the presence of metabolites in the biological analyses of exposed workers have been evidenced. Such effects have affected both the reproductive and cardiovascular systems and even DNA repair. CONCLUSIONS: Adverse effects on the organism due to environmental exposure in the workplace seem to take place. Significant statistical association was found in the decrease of DNA repair and in the increase of metabolites related with hydrocarbons in blood and urine


Assuntos
Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional , Hidrocarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/efeitos adversos , Benzeno/efeitos adversos , Polícia , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/legislação & jurisprudência , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade
13.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 89(7): 661-663, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29921359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Otitis externa secondary to irritant or chemical exposure is well documented; however, specifically secondary to jet fuel exposure and its associated toxicology is not. Over 2 million military and civilian personnel per year are occupationally exposed to aviation fuels. CASE REPORT: An aircraft maintainer presented with noninfectious acute otitis externa secondary to external ear canal exposure to JP-5 jet fuel. Proper exposure guidelines were followed, but it was not realized that the external ear canal was involved. The first symptoms to emerge were vertigo, dizziness, and disequilibrium; however, on physical exam it appeared that there was no middle ear involvement. DISCUSSION: Otitis externa normally does not present with vestibular symptoms as the pathology affects the external ear canal dermal tissue. Upon review of JP-5's toxicology profile, dermal absorption is a route of entry and can cause general neurological symptoms, including loss of coordination. This case highlights potential deficiencies in the standardized safety data sheets that are used after exposure. Without mention of possible auricular exposure one may focus on the logical protection of the eyes, mouth, and visible skin. This is concerning due to potential delayed exposure symptoms, dermal absorption, high level of dermal destruction, and the close proximity to the sensory system. The goal of this case report is to improve the knowledge of providers caring for personnel who may be exposed and to suggest possible revisions to the Safety Data Sheets for jet fuel.Long RJ, Charles RA. Aviation fuel exposure resulting in otitis externa with vertigo. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(7):661-663.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional , Otite Externa , Vertigem , Acidentes Aeronáuticos , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Militares , Otite Externa/diagnóstico , Otite Externa/etiologia , Otite Externa/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Vertigem/diagnóstico , Vertigem/etiologia , Vertigem/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Occup Environ Med ; 75(7): 494-500, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29848553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Controversy exists as to the health effects of exposure to asphalt and crumb rubber modified (CRM) asphalt, which contains recycled rubber tyres. OBJECTIVE: To assess exposures and effects on airway symptoms, lung function and inflammation biomarkers in conventional and CRM asphalt road pavers. METHODS: 116 conventional asphalt workers, 51 CRM asphalt workers and 100 controls were investigated. A repeated-measures analysis included 31 workers paving with both types of asphalt. Exposure to dust, nitrosamines, benzothiazole and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was measured in worksites. Self-reported symptoms, spirometry test and blood sampling were conducted prework and postwork. Symptoms were further collected during off-season for asphalt paving. RESULTS: Dust, PAHs and nitrosamine exposure was highly varied, without difference between conventional and CRM asphalt workers. Benzothiazole was higher in CRM asphalt workers (p<0.001). Higher proportions of asphalt workers than controls reported eye symptoms with onset in the current job. Decreased lung function from preworking to postworking was found in CRM asphalt workers and controls. Preworking interleukin-8 was higher in CRM asphalt workers than in the controls, followed by a decrement after 4 days of working. No differences in any studied effects were found between conventional and CRM asphalt paving. CONCLUSION: CRM asphalt workers are exposed to higher benzothiazole. Further studies are needed to identify the source of nitrosamines in conventional asphalt. Mild decrease in lung function in CRM asphalt workers and work-related eye symptoms in both asphalt workers were observed. However, our study did not find strong evidence for severe respiratory symptoms and inflammation response among asphalt workers.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos , Inflamação , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Ocupacional , Ocupações , Doenças Respiratórias , Borracha , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/sangue , Benzotiazóis/efeitos adversos , Benzotiazóis/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Poeira , Olho/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Interleucina-8/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrosaminas/efeitos adversos , Nitrosaminas/sangue , Doenças Profissionais/sangue , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/sangue , Doenças Respiratórias/sangue , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Borracha/efeitos adversos , Local de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
15.
Toxicol Lett ; 298: 134-140, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29894843

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We performed a cross-sectional study with the main aim of evaluating occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in workers involved in the pavement construction of a new highway in Northern Italy, where modified bitumen was used as binder for Hot Mix Asphalt. METHODS: We applied a combined approach of air and biological monitoring. Both the aerosol and vapour phases of bitumen were collected applying the NIOSH 5506 method. The 16 PAHs listed as high priority by EPA were determined by HPLC-UV. End-of-shift urine samples were collected from 144 workers to determine 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and 2-naphthol (2-NAP) concentrations after enzyme digestion and HPLC-UV analysis. Socio-demographic and lifestyle information was collected by a questionnaire. RESULTS: Paving workers were actually exposed to PAHs, including carcinogenic compounds, that were measurable only in the aerosol phase. Higher exposure as well as dose levels were measured for the paver group. Biological monitoring confirmed that 1-OHP was less affected by smoking habits as compared to 2-NAP and showed a higher association with occupational exposure. CONCLUSION: Carcinogenic PAH compounds were detectable only in the aerosol phase and this must be taken into account in the adoption of preventive measures. Biomonitoring supported the superiority of 1-OHP as compared to 2-NAP in assessing the internal dose in such workers.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/urina , Indústria da Construção , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Exposição por Inalação , Exposição Ocupacional , Saúde do Trabalhador , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/urina , Adulto , Aerossóis , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Gases , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Naftóis/urina , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Pirenos/urina , Eliminação Renal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Urinálise , Adulto Jovem
16.
Environ Health ; 17(1): 29, 2018 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29587765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asphalt workers are exposed to polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from hot mix asphalt via both inhalation and dermal absorption. The use of crumb rubber modified (CRM) asphalt may result in higher exposure to PAHs and more adverse effects. Our aim is to assess occupational exposure to PAHs from conventional and CRM asphalt paving by measuring PAH metabolites in urine, and to investigate the effects on mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) and telomere length. METHODS: We recruited 116 workers paving conventional asphalt, 51 workers paving CRM asphalt and 100 controls in Sweden, all males. A repeated-measures analysis included 31 workers paving both types of asphalt. Urine and blood samples were collected pre-working on Monday morning and post-working on Thursday afternoon after 4 days working. PAH metabolites: 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-PYR) and 2-hydroxyphenanthrene (2-OH-PH) were measured in urine by LC-MS/MS. Relative mtDNAcn and telomere length were measured by quantitative PCR. RESULTS: Conventional and CRM asphalt workers showed higher 1-OH-PYR and 2-OH-PH than controls (p < 0.001 for all). Relative mtDNAcn were 0.21 units (p < 0.001) higher in conventional asphalt workers and 0.13 units (p = 0.010) higher in CRM asphalt workers compared to controls. Relative telomere length did not differ across occupational groups, but it was positively associated with increment of 2-OH-PH (ß = 0.075, p = 0.037) in asphalt workers. The repeated-measures analysis showed no difference in either increment of 1-OH-PYP, or changes in effect biomarkers (mtDNAcn or telomere length) between paving with conventional and CRM asphalt. Increment of 2-OH-PH was smaller after paving with CRM asphalt. CONCLUSIONS: Road asphalt paving in open areas resulted in PAHs exposure, as shown by elevation of PAH metabolites in urine. Asphalt workers may experience oxidative stress, evidenced by alternation in mtDNAcn; however the effects could not be fully explained by exposure to PAHs from the asphalt mixture.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Materiais de Construção/efeitos adversos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Hidrocarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional , Homeostase do Telômero/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 81(10): 314-332, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29498600

RESUMO

Exposure to fuels continues to be a concern in both military and general populations. The aim of this study was to examine effects of in vivo rat repeated exposures to different types of jet fuel utilizing microelectrode arrays for comparative electrophysiological (EP) measurements in hippocampal slices. Animals were exposed to increasing concentrations of four jet fuels, Jet Propellant (JP)-8, Jet A, JP-5, or synthetic Fischer Tropsch (FT) fuel via whole-body inhalation for 20 d (6 hr/d, 5 d/week for 28 d) and synaptic transmission as well as behavioral performance were assessed. Our behavioral studies indicated no significant changes in behavioral performance in animals exposed to JP-8, Jet A, or JP-5. A significant deviation in learning pattern during the Morris water maze task was observed in rats exposed to the highest concentration of FT (2000 mg/m3). There were also significant differences in the EP profile of hippocampal neurons from animals exposed to JP-8, Jet A, JP-5, or FT compared to control air. However, these differences were not consistent across fuels or dose dependent. As expected, patterns of EP alterations in brain slices from JP-8 and Jet A exposures were more similar compared to those from JP-5 and FT. Further longitudinal investigations are needed to determine if these EP effects are transient or persistent. Such studies may dictate if and how one may use EP measurements to indicate potential susceptibility to neurological impairments, particularly those that result from inhalation exposure to chemicals or mixtures.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Aprendizagem Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Microeletrodos , Modelos Animais , Neurônios/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344
18.
Am J Ind Med ; 61(6): 471-476, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29512166

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We designed the present study to determine the effect of occupational exposure to asphalt fumes on oxidative status and DNA damage in road paving workers. METHODS: Sixty road paving workers exposed to asphalt fumes and forty non-exposed control subjects were recruited. Occupational exposure to PAHs was assessed by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) excretion. Serum thiol disulfide homeostasis (TDH), total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) and urinary 8-hydro-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) level were evaluated by automated colourimetric method. RESULTS: The urinary concentrations of 1-OHP and 8-OH-dG were significantly higher in the exposed group than in the control group (P < 0.001). Disulfide/thiol ratio, TOS, and TAS were also significantly higher for the asphalt workers. A positive correlation existed between urinary 1-OHP and 8-OH-dG, TOS and TAS. CONCLUSION: Study results indicate that exposure to PAHs induces oxidative stress and causes genotoxic effects in asphalt workers.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Dano ao DNA , Hidrocarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/sangue , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/urina , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Indústria da Construção , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos/sangue , Hidrocarbonetos/urina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/sangue , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/urina , Adulto Jovem
19.
Science ; 359(6377): 760-764, 2018 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29449485

RESUMO

A gap in emission inventories of urban volatile organic compound (VOC) sources, which contribute to regional ozone and aerosol burdens, has increased as transportation emissions in the United States and Europe have declined rapidly. A detailed mass balance demonstrates that the use of volatile chemical products (VCPs)-including pesticides, coatings, printing inks, adhesives, cleaning agents, and personal care products-now constitutes half of fossil fuel VOC emissions in industrialized cities. The high fraction of VCP emissions is consistent with observed urban outdoor and indoor air measurements. We show that human exposure to carbonaceous aerosols of fossil origin is transitioning away from transportation-related sources and toward VCPs. Existing U.S. regulations on VCPs emphasize mitigating ozone and air toxics, but they currently exempt many chemicals that lead to secondary organic aerosols.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Ácido Dioctil Sulfossuccínico , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Estados Unidos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
20.
Microbiologyopen ; 7(2): e00550, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29057585

RESUMO

The effect of pressure and temperature on microbial communities of marine environments contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons is understudied. This study aims to reveal the responses of marine bacterial communities to low temperature, high pressure, and contamination with petroleum hydrocarbons using seawater samples collected near an offshore Brazilian platform. Microcosms containing only seawater and those containing seawater contaminated with 1% crude oil were subjected to three different treatments of temperature and pressure as follows: (1) 22°C/0.1 MPa; (2) 4°C/0.1 MPa; and (3) 4°C/22 MPa. The effect of depressurization followed by repressurization on bacterial communities was also evaluated (4°C/22 MPaD). The structure and composition of the bacterial communities in the different microcosms were analyzed by PCR-DGGE and DNA sequencing, respectively. Contamination with oil influenced the structure of the bacterial communities in microcosms incubated either at 4°C or 22°C and at low pressure. Incubation at low temperature and high pressure greatly influenced the structure of bacterial communities even in the absence of oil contamination. The 4°C/22 MPa and 4°C/22 MPaD treatments resulted in similar DGGE profiles. DNA sequencing (after 40 days of incubation) revealed that the diversity and relative abundance of bacterial genera were related to the presence or absence of oil contamination in the nonpressurized treatments. In contrast, the variation in the relative abundances of bacterial genera in the 4°C/22 MPa-microcosms either contaminated or not with crude oil was less evident. The highest relative abundance of the phylum Bacteroidetes was observed in the 4°C/22 MPa treatment.


Assuntos
Bacteroidetes/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluição por Petróleo/efeitos adversos , Petróleo/efeitos adversos , Proteobactérias/metabolismo , Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Bacteroidetes/classificação , Bacteroidetes/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Microbiota/fisiologia , Proteobactérias/classificação , Proteobactérias/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Água do Mar/microbiologia
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