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1.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127357, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947670

RESUMO

Diffusive isotope fractionation of non- and perdeuterated benzenes and toluenes in aqueous solution was investigated. The experimental method was based on a Stokes diaphragm cell. The isotope composition of diffusate and retentate was found to be identical within a range of uncertainty of ±5‰ for benzene and ±10‰ for toluene. These data are consistent with a previous fractionation study using phase-transition kinetics as the potentially fractionating step. The present study contributes to strengthening the data base for diffusive isotope fractionation of organic compounds in aqueous solution. According to the presented data, diffusion of naturally occurring, monodeuterated organic compounds does not significantly affect their hydrogen isotope pattern.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Benzeno , Isótopos de Carbono , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Difusão , Hidrogênio , Isótopos , Cinética , Tolueno , Água
2.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127310, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947673

RESUMO

We characterized the aerosol composition and sources of particulate matter (PM) in Sanmenxia, a polluted city located in the Fen-Wei Plain region of Central China. The PM2.5 concentration decreased by 18% from 72 µg m-3 in 2014 to 59 µg m-3 in 2019. All chemical species presented pronounced seasonal variations, with their highest concentrations in winter due to enhanced emissions and the frequent stagnant meteorological conditions. Nitrate was the major fraction of PM2.5 during all seasons (35-41%) except summer (25%), while sulfate was a dominant species in summer (29%) compared to other seasons (16-18%) from July 2018 to June 2019. The detailed analysis of a wintertime severe haze episode that lasted for approximately half a month demonstrated that secondary aerosols, including secondary organic aerosol, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium, contributed 89% to non-refractory PM1 (NR-PM1), indicating the remarkable role of secondary aerosol formation in air pollution in Sanmenxia. Positive matrix factorization analysis further showed considerably enhanced low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (OA) and hydrocarbon-like OA during severe haze episodes, while significant contributions in semi-volatile oxygenated OA and coal combustion OA during clean periods. Severe pollution events in the city were generally associated with air masses from the southwest, and we also found that aerosol species, especially secondary aerosol species, showed distinct forenoon increases that were caused by the subsidence of air pollutants aloft. Our results highlight that future air quality improvement would benefit substantially from a more efficient control of gaseous precursors, particularly the NOx emissions from industry and vehicle emissions.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Cidades , Carvão Mineral/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Nitratos/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Emissões de Veículos/análise
3.
J Chromatogr A ; 1627: 461405, 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823110

RESUMO

This study focused on the measurements and validity of relative distribution constants of vaporized hydrocarbons between air and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using commercially available capillary columns. Capillary column gas chromatography (CCGC) measurements, using two columns containing a PDMS stationary phase with different film thicknesses, were conducted to determine the relative distribution constants of n-heptane, toluene, n-octane, p-xylene, n-nonane, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene between air and PDMS at 90 and 120 °C. To validate the accuracy of the relative distribution constants via CCGC, the compositions of three headspace samples containing different amounts of hydrocarbons were calculated using the relative distribution constants via CCGC and extracted amounts via PDMS solid phase microextraction (SPME) at 90 and 120 °C. It was found that calculated hydrocarbon compositions of headspace samples were comparable to true headspace hydrocarbon compositions via direct vapor analysis, with an average absolute relative error of 3.2%. Our results indicate that CCGC is an alternative method that can provide a reliable and convenient method to determine the relative distribution constants of various hydrocarbons between air and PDMS for quantitative chemical analysis of headspace.


Assuntos
Ar , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Volatilização
4.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127576, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688317

RESUMO

In this study, a hydrocarbon-contaminated marine sediment was treated applying ex-situ thermal desorption (ESTD) at bench-scale. Temperatures up to 280 °C and heating times (t) in the 5-30 min range were investigated. Results revealed that temperatures in the range 200-280 °C led to Total Petrol Hydrocarbon (TPH)-removal efficiency (RE) from 75 to 85% (t = 10 min). The maximum RE of 89% was obtained at 200 °C for 30 min. However, a shorter remediation time of 5 min (or lower temperatures of 160 and 180 °C with longer times) is needed to reach the TPH standard limit. Data also demonstrated the selectivity of the treatment in TPH fraction removal. The modelling of the TPH removal kinetics and desorption isotherm jointly with activation energy calculation (>30 kJ mol-1) indicated that ESTD process is quite unfavorable for marine sediments. This is due to the fact that ESTD is regulated by chemisorption processes and occurred in two distinct TPH removal phases: evaporation and boiling vaporization. This depends on the strong affinity of the TPH with the fine sediment particles, as well as on the high initial water, salinity, organic matter and sulfides content. However, the comparison between alternative processes has shown that ESTD is the most feasible treatment process for TPH-contaminated marine sediment remediation. Obtained results also add relevant information that can be used as a basis for future scaling-up investigations of ESTD for hydrocarbon-contaminated marine sediments.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Poluição por Petróleo , Cinética , Mar Mediterrâneo , Salinidade , Temperatura , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
5.
Food Chem ; 333: 127488, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682229

RESUMO

A mild mixed-solvent of n-hexane/isopropanol is proposed for extracting total mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH) from commercial milk powder products. Unlike acid-hydrolysis, the mixed-solvent extraction was performed at ambient temperature and the low-boiling-point hydrocarbons were retained to the greatest extent. After extraction, total MOH was determined by on-line liquid chromatography-gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (LC-GC-FID). The validation of the proposed extraction method revealed a recovery efficacy of 83.0-107.5% and a limit of quantification of 0.5 mg/kg. Then, the total MOH in ten commercial milk powders was determined and mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH)/polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons (POSH) were found to be within the range of 0.61-5.46 mg/kg. The comparison of the total and surface MOSH/POSH indicated that a major part of the contamination was derived from sources before packaging. The present study provides a robust method for the extraction and determination of total MOH in milk powders.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos/isolamento & purificação , Leite/química , Óleo Mineral/química , Solventes/química , Animais , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Pós
6.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126732, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320831

RESUMO

Effective targeted delivery of nanoparticle agents may enhance the remediation of soils and site characterization efforts. Nanoparticles coated with Pluronic, an amphiphilic block co-polymer, demonstrated targeted binding behaviour toward light non-aqueous phase liquids such as heavy crude oil. Various factors including coating concentration, oil concentration, oil type, temperature, and pH were assessed to determine their effect on nanoparticle binding to heavy crude oil-impacted sandy aquifer material. Nanoparticle binding was increased by decreasing the coating concentration, increasing oil concentration, using heavier oil types, and increasing temperature, while pH over the range of 5-9 was found to have no effect. Nanoparticle transport and binding in columns packed with clean and oily porous media demonstrated the ability for efficient nanoparticle targeted binding. For the conditions explored, the attachment rate coefficient in columns packed with clean sand was 2.10 ± 0.66 × 10-4 s-1; however, for columns packed with oil-impacted sand a minimum attachment rate coefficient of 8.86 ± 0.43 × 10-4 s-1 was estimated. The higher attachment rate for the oil-impacted sand system indicates that nanoparticles may preferentially accumulate to oil-impacted zones present at heterogeneous impacted sites. Simulations were used to demonstrate this hypothesis using the set of parameters generated in this effort. This work contributes to our understanding of the application conditions that are required for efficient targeted binding of nanoparticles to crude-oil impacted porous media.


Assuntos
Compostos Férricos/química , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Petróleo , Poluentes do Solo/química , Água Subterrânea/química , Hidrocarbonetos/isolamento & purificação , Poloxâmero/química , Porosidade , Dióxido de Silício/química , Poluentes do Solo/isolamento & purificação
7.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230630, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218607

RESUMO

Oil pipelines are vulnerable at river crossings since floods can expose and rupture pipes, releasing oil that floats and coats floodplain vegetation. This study investigated the consequences of oil coatings on leaves of cottonwoods (riparian poplars), the predominant trees in floodplain woodlands around the Northern Hemisphere. The study compared conventional crude oil (CO) versus diluted bitumen (dilbit, DB), heavy oil originating from the Alberta oil sands; with petroleum jelly (PJ) as a reference. The treatments increased leaf surface temperatures (Tleaf) in narrowleaf and plains cottonwoods (Populus angustifolia, P. deltoides) and balsam poplars (P. balsamifera) (Control = 21.8°C, PJ = 23.7°C; CO = 26.2°C; DB = 28.1°C; Tair = 25°C). The leaf warming followed stomatal occlusion from the foliar coating, which would reduce transpiration and evaporative cooling, combined with increased solar warming with the darker oils. Tleaf varied across the three cottonwood species, with cooler, narrow, narrowleaf cottonwood leaves; intermediate plains cottonwood leaves; and warmer, darker, balsam poplar leaves (average Tleaf: narrowleaf = 23.8°C, plains = 24.3°C, and balsam = 26.7°C), with similar warming in each species following the different treatments. Across species and treatments, Tleaf was tightly correlated with foliar condition, which assessed turgor versus wilting of leaf blades and petioles, along with leaf necrosis and senescence (r2 = 0.980, narrowleaf; 0.998, plains; 0.852, balsam). This tight association indicates validity of both Tleaf and foliar condition as diagnostic measures. Crude oil and dilbit had similar foliar impacts, and for both, leaf abscission occurred within 2 to 3 weeks. Consequently, following an oil spill, remediation should commence quickly but extending vegetation removal beyond a few weeks would have limited benefit since the contaminated leaves would have abscised.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos/química , Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo/análise , Populus/fisiologia , Alberta , Inundações , Hidrocarbonetos/toxicidade , Modelos Lineares , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Petróleo/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Populus/química , Populus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura
8.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126206, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092571

RESUMO

In this study, total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal from fuel-contaminated field soil was investigated. The influence of the washing method (washing before/after sieving), washing time, soil-to-water ratio, and soil particle size on TPH removal efficiency was evaluated under constant stirring speed. Washing the whole contaminated soil is more efficient than separating the soils into particle size fractions and separately washing the fractions. Particles with differing diameters would be more in contact with each other resulting in detachment of contaminants from the soil particle surface. Effects of soil washing time and soil-to-water ratio on TPH removal were not significant in coarse soil particles (greater than 0.15 mm diameter) but significantly affected TPH removal in fine particles (less than 0.15 mm diameter). This study suggests a threshold washing time of 1 h and a threshold soil-to-water ratio of 1:6 for the whole soil in soil washing. However, soil particles less than 0.075 mm (<75 µm) should be separated after washing to meet the Korean soil TPH limit of less than 500 mg/kg. This study demonstrates the importance of finer soils as debrading media and particle size fraction composition of fuel-contaminated soil in soil washing.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Petróleo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Solo , Água
9.
Chemosphere ; 248: 126043, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007768

RESUMO

A Pt catalyst supported on activated carbon (Pt/AC) was used for an environmentally friendly thermal treatment of food waste under an inert atmosphere (i.e., pyrolysis). This catalyst influenced the amounts of condensable hydrocarbons and noncondensable gases but not that of the solid remaining after the pyrolysis; in particular, it contributed to shifting the carbon distribution from the condensable hydrocarbons to the noncondensable gases for the food waste pyrolysis. Moreover, its use suppressed the generation of harmful chemical compounds, especially at high temperatures. For example, a Pt/AC-catalyzed pyrolysis at 700 °C produced about 4 times fewer benzene derivatives than the same treatment without a catalyst; this probably occurred because the Pt sites catalyzed the decyclization reaction and/or the free radical mechanism, which is dominant in the thermal cracking of carbon-containing feedstock. This study suggests that a Pt/AC-catalyzed pyrolysis would be a more environmentally benign food waste treatment method.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Pirólise , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Catálise , Gases , Temperatura Alta , Platina/química
10.
Aquat Toxicol ; 221: 105423, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006756

RESUMO

Canada's oil sands industry continues to expand and the volume of diluted bitumen (dilbit) transported across North America is increasing, adding to spill risk and environmental contamination. Dilbit exposure is known to cause adverse effects in fish, but linking molecular and cellular changes with ecologically-relevant individual performance metrics is needed to better understand the potential consequences of a dilbit spill into the aquatic environment. Therefore, this study examined the effects of dilbit exposure on subcellular responses in cardiac and skeletal muscle in relation to swimming performance in a migratory fish species at risk of exposure, Atlantic salmon. Smolts were exposed subchronically to environmentally relevant concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of dilbit (WSFd) for 24 d, and then a subset of exposed fish underwent a depuration period of 7 or 14 d, for a total of 3 experimental time points. At each time point, repeat swimming performance was assessed using sequential critical swimming speed tests (Ucrit) separated by a 24 h rest period, and then several tissues were collected to determine biotransformation enzyme activation, energetic responses, and gene expression changes. Ucrit was unaffected in fish exposed to 67.9 µg/L total initial polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), but fish showed a decreased reliance on lipid metabolism for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the heart that was maintained through 7 d depuration. In contrast, Ucrit increased in fish exposed to 9.65 µg/L PAC, corresponding to an increased reliance on anaerobic metabolic pathways in cardiac and red skeletal muscle, with partial recovery after 7 d depuration. As expected, at both concentrations WSFd hepatic cyp 1A-mediated biotransformation reactions increased, as measured by EROD activity, which remained elevated for 7 d but not after 14 d depuration. Transcript abundance of cyp1a was also increased in muscle tissue and recovered by 14 d depuration. The expression of other stress-related genes increased in white muscle of dilbit-exposed fish, but were largely unchanged in cardiac and red muscle. The transcriptional profile of cardiac tissue was compared to that of sockeye salmon similarly exposed to WSFd in a previous experiment, and is provided in supplemental text. Combined, these results demonstrate that dilbit exposure alters gene expression and enzyme activities related to xenobiotic exposure, cellular stress, and muscle energetics in juvenile Atlantic salmon without impairing swimming performance, and that most of these changes are recoverable within 14 d depuration.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos/toxicidade , Salmo salar/metabolismo , Natação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , América do Norte , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Salmo salar/genética , Solubilidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
11.
Aquat Toxicol ; 221: 105419, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014643

RESUMO

Petrogenic chemicals are common and widespread contaminants in the aquatic environment. In Canada, increased extraction of bitumen from the oil sands and transport of the major crude oil export product, diluted bitumen (dilbit), amplifies the risk of a spill and contamination of Canadian waterways. Fish exposed to sublethal concentrations of crude oil can experience a variety of adverse physiological effects including osmoregulatory dysfunction. As regulation of water and ion balance is crucial during the seawater transition of anadromous fish, the hypothesis that dilbit impairs seawater acclimation in Atlantic salmon smolts (a fish at risk of exposure in Canada) was tested. Smolts were exposed for 24 d to the water-soluble fraction of dilbit in freshwater, and then transferred directly to seawater or allowed a 1 wk depuration period in uncontaminated freshwater prior to seawater transfer. The seawater acclimation response was quantified at 1 and 7 d post-transfer using established hematological, tissue, and molecular endpoints including gill Na+/K+-ATPase gene expression (nka). All smolts, irrespective of dilbit exposure, increased serum Na+ concentrations and osmolality within 1 d of seawater transfer. The recovery of these parameters to freshwater values by 7 d post-transfer was likely driven by the increased expression and activity of Na+/K+-ATPase in the gill. Histopathological changes in the gill were not observed; however, CYP1A-like immunoreactivity was detected in the pillar cells of gill lamellae of fish exposed to 67.9 µg/L PAC. Concentration-specific changes in kidney expression of a transmembrane water channel, aquaporin 3, occurred during seawater acclimation, but were resolved with 1 wk of depuration and were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, apart from a robust CYP response in the gill, dilbit exposure did not greatly impact common measures of seawater acclimation, suggesting that significant osmoregulatory dysfunction is unlikely to occur if Atlantic salmon smolts are exposed sub-chronically to dilbit.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos/toxicidade , Salmo salar/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Canadá , Água Doce/química , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Petróleo/metabolismo , Salmo salar/metabolismo , Água do Mar/química , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Solubilidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(3): 34, 2020 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088773

RESUMO

Landfills are repository for complex microbial diversity responsible for bio-degradation of solid waste. To elucidate this complexity, samples from three different landfill sites of North India (sample V: Bhalswa near Karnal byepass road, New Delhi, India; sample T: Chandigarh, India and sample S3: Una, H.P., India) were analyzed using metagenomic approach. Selected landfill sites had different geographical location, varied in waste composition, size of landfill and climate zone. For comparison, one sample from high altitude (sample J) having less human interference was taken in this study. The aim of this study was to explore microbial diversity of communities responsible for degradation of landfill. Samples were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Data from three landfill sites showed abundance of phylum Proteobacteria while less contaminated sample from high altitude showed abundance of phylum Cholroflexi followed by phylum Proteobacteria. The most abundant genus was unknown suggesting that these landfills could be repository for various novel bacterial communities. Sample T was relatively more active in terms of microbial activity. It was relatively abundant in enzymes responsible for dioxin degradation, styrene degradation, steroid degradation, streptomycin biosynthesis, carbapenem biosynthesis, monobactam biosynthesis, furfural degradation pathways while sample J was predicted to be enriched in plant cell wall degrading enzymes. Co-occurrence analysis revealed presence of complex interaction networks between microbial assemblages responsible for bio-degradation of hydrocarbons. The data provides insights about synergetic interactions and functional interplay between bacterial communities in different landfill sites which could be further exploited to develop an effective bioremediation process.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Metagenômica/métodos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Altitude , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodegradação Ambiental , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Índia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Resíduos Sólidos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
13.
Chemosphere ; 248: 126029, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035385

RESUMO

The use of electrokinetic Fenton (EK Fenton) process, as promising soil remediation approach, was investigated by using an iron electrode with different supporting electrolytes (tap water, H2O2, and citric acid) to depollute soil spiked with petroleum where kaolin was selected as low hydraulic conductivity. The results clearly confirm that, the combination of electrokinetic remediation (EK) and Fenton technologies, is an efficient oxidizing approach for removing hydrocarbons from this kind of soil. In fact, the electrokinetic Fenton reactions and the control of the soil pH conditions by adding citric acid enhanced the oxidation process because the addition of the H2O2 with iron electrode resulted in higher removal efficiencies (89%) for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). These figures allowed to confirm that EK Fenton process with pH control contributed for the transport of H2O2 and Fe2+ ions in the soil by electromigration and eletro-osmotic phenomena. Conversely, no control of pH conditions when only EK was applied, achieved lower hydrocarbons removal (27%) after 15 d of treatment due to the precipitation of iron ions. Finally, the efficiency of the EK Fenton remediation prevented the generation of secondary effluent with higher organic content, avoiding its treatment by other advanced oxidation process.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Poluição por Petróleo , Poluentes do Solo/química , Ácido Cítrico/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Eletrodos , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/instrumentação , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ferro/química , Caulim/química , Osmose , Oxirredução , Solo/química
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 148: 1109-1117, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004608

RESUMO

In this work, cellulose nanofibres (CNFs) were extracted from sawdust, which is an underutilized by-product from the wood and timber industry. The extracted CNFs by chemical and mechanical treatments had a web-like structure with diameters ranging between 2 nm and 27 nm and lengths reaching a few microns. The obtained CNFs were further chemically modified with vegetable canola oil using two different esterification processes. In order to compare the effect of the surface modification of CNFs, the nanopapers were prepared from their prospective suspensions through solvent evaporation method, and then characterize with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV-vis spectroscopy and tensile tester. FTIR results indicated that both methods led to a successful grafting of the long chain hydrocarbon structure onto the CNFs, and became more hydrophobic when compared to unmodified CNFs-based nanopapers. The crystallinity, mechanical, light transmittance and thermal properties were significantly affected primarily by the esterification method employed, thus the degree of substitution. It was found that high degree of substitution adversely affected the crystallinity, light transmittance, mechanical and thermal properties. The crystallinity decreased from 70% to <40% when the degree of substation was about 0.8.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Ésteres/química , Nanofibras/química , Óleo de Brassica napus/química , Madeira/química , Cristalização , Esterificação , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Estrutura Molecular , Solventes/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Condutividade Térmica
15.
Aquat Toxicol ; 220: 105383, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924587

RESUMO

Current and proposed transcontinental pipelines for the transport of diluted bitumen (dilbit) from the Canadian oil sands traverse the coastal watersheds of British Columbia, habitat essential to Pacific salmonids. To determine the potential risks posed to these keystone species, juvenile sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka; 1+ parr) were acutely (24-96 h) or subchronically (21-42 d) exposed to 4 concentrations of the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of unweathered Cold Lake Blend dilbit (initial total PAC concentrations: 0, 13.7, 34.7 and 124.5 µg/L) in a flow-through system. Dilbit effects on iono-osmoregulation, the physiological stress response, and the immune system were assessed by both biochemical and functional assays. Hydrocarbon bioavailability was evidenced by a significant induction of liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in exposed fish. Acute and subchronic exposure significantly reduced gill Na+-K+-ATPase activity and resulted in lower plasma osmolality, Cl-, and Na+ concentrations. Acute exposure to dilbit resulted in a classic physiological stress response, however at 21 d of exposure, plasma cortisol remained elevated while other measured parameters had returned to baseline values. A compromised immune system was demonstrated by a 29.5 % higher mortality in fish challenged with Vibrio (Listonella) anguillarum following dilbit exposure compared to unexposed controls. Exposure of juvenile salmonids to the WSF of dilbit (at TPAC concentrations at the ppb level) resulted in sublethal effects that included a classic physiological stress response, and alterations in iono-osmoregulatory homeostasis and immunological performance.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Salmão/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Colúmbia Britânica , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ecossistema , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Fígado/enzimologia , Salmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solubilidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
16.
Acta Crystallogr C Struct Chem ; 76(Pt 1): 87-92, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919311

RESUMO

1,3-Enyne structural motifs are versatile building blocks in organic synthesis and occur widely in various natural products with many of them being highly active as cytotoxic macrolides and antitumour antibiotics. This article presents the crystal structure of three 1,1,4-triphenyl-substituted 1,3-enynes, viz. 4-(2-methylphenyl)-1,1-diphenylbut-1-en-3-yne, C23H18 (1), 4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1,1-diphenylbut-1-en-3-yne, C23H18O (2), and 4-(4-nitrophenyl)-1,1-diphenylbut-1-en-3-yne, C22H15NO2 (3). The benzene ring at position 4 of the but-1-en-3-yne group bears a weakly activating methyl group in compound 1, a moderately activating methoxy group in 2 and a strongly deactivating nitro group in 3. The crystal structures of 1 and 3 both have monoclinic symmetry, while that of 2 is orthorhombic, and all of them have one molecule in the asymmetric unit. All three compounds were investigated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. Interestingly, enyne 2 is the only compound tested that inhibited the growth of Aspergillus niger.


Assuntos
Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antifúngicos/química , Estrutura Molecular
17.
J Chromatogr A ; 1612: 460696, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892412

RESUMO

Thermodynamic modeling of GC × GC separations provides a tool for rapid method evaluation and optimization. Separations of 95 hydrocarbons on two cryogenically modulated GC × GC systems (atmospheric outlet and vacuum outlet) are modeled, displaying average second dimension retention time modeling absolute errors of 0.17 s and 0.12 s respectively, and generating modeled chromatograms which sufficiently represent experimental data. A web-based GC × GC modeling routine is presented which allows users to model separations, currently focused on hydrocarbons, with full control over all system parameters. The method translation capabilities of the application are further demonstrated by replicating Piotrowski et al.'s GC × GC-HRT temporal distribution plots of hydraulic fracturing flowback fluid hydrocarbons [28].


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Termodinâmica
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 115, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940086

RESUMO

Nowadays, the growing concern about the environmental problems affecting the subsoil has focussed efforts on the detection and characterization of contaminated sites through geophysical prospecting methods. In the present study, a case of a contaminated site by hydrocarbons and their study by means of time domain-induced polarization tomography is presented. The response in chargeability of porous media due to this kind of pollutant allows its delimitation using this method. However, one of the limitations for the application of this technique is the presence of lithologies that contain electro-metallic salts. These salts can produce anomalies of chargeability and mask those due to nonaqueous phase liquids. The studies were conducted in an area contaminated by fuel leaks from supply tanks within a train maintenance facility. Those leaks occurred while the tanks were in use, but since their dismantling, the leak stopped. The geology of the area presented strong heterogeneities and the access was limited by train tracks. In order to locate and characterize the contaminant plume, measurements of resistivity and chargeability were carried out. A grid of monitoring wells in this area was also available from which information about free-phase pollutants was obtained, and a new drilling was carried out to verify an unexpected anomaly. The results obtained show that the location of the plume by the geophysical techniques employed can lead to ambiguity, as an anomaly that does not correspond to contaminated areas appeared but to the presence of clays rich in electro-metallic components such as Mg, Fe, Mn and Al.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Geologia , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Metais , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Tomografia
19.
Environ Geochem Health ; 42(2): 397-405, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309375

RESUMO

Asphalt concrete is one of the most important building materials in the modern world, but the leaching potential of metals from this composite material to the environment is poorly understood. In this study, metals leaching from four hot-mix asphalt samples were analyzed: two fresh samples of low-traffic and high-traffic composition and their weathered equivalents collected from roads in the city of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. A sequential extraction, based on the Community Bureau of Reference method, was applied to study the speciation and potential mobility of metals and metalloids in those samples. Major trace metals identified in all four samples were Mn, P, Ba, Sr, Zn, V, and Ni, with the highest metals concentrations generally found in weathered asphalt concrete. Of the major trace metals, P, Mn, Sr, and Zn were relatively mobile, having large portions of their total concentrations in the exchangeable/acid-soluble and reducible fractions. When considering the most mobile fraction (exchangeable/acid soluble) and using Canada as a model country, up to 180 t P, 440 t Mn, 50 t Ba, 36 t Sr, 11 t Zn, and 0.11-3.2 t of other metals and metalloids (including Cr, Ni, Cu, As, and Pb) could potentially leach from the top layer of Canada's total of paved public roads. To place these amounts into perspective, they were estimated to make up to 22‰ of Canada's annual release numbers into soil, water and air for these same metals and metalloids. However, they are concentrated in a small area around roads and highways, creating the potential for localized soil and groundwater contamination.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Alberta , Cidades , Materiais de Construção/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes do Solo/química , Oligoelementos/química , Tempo (Meteorologia)
20.
J Chem Ecol ; 46(1): 40-47, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808076

RESUMO

Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are the main components of the epicuticular wax layer that in many insects functions as a barrier against desiccation. CHCs also play many other roles, including serving as sex pheromones, kairomones, primer pheromones, and colony-, caste-, species- and sex-recognition signals. In insects, CHC profiles can vary depending upon age, species, sex, and strain. Understanding factors associated with variation in hydrocarbon profiles is important for identifying potential vulnerabilities relating to pest ecology and life histories and for developing tools for pest monitoring and management strategies. In this study, we assessed potential sources of variation in CHC profiles in the navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an economically important pest of nut crops in California. Using coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we characterized and compared CHC profiles between adults of pyrethroid-resistant (R347) and susceptible (ALMOND) strains. We further compared CHC profiles from adults differing in age (1, 3, 5, and 7 d post-eclosion) and sex. Hydrocarbon profiles comprised 47 different CHCs in detectable quantities that ranged from C17 to C43 in chain length and included straight-chain alkanes and a variety of mono-, di-, and tri-methylalkanes. Adults from resistant populations had greater quantities of CHCs in total than those from susceptible strains, but relative quantities of individual components were similar. The six most abundant compounds were n-pentacosane, n-heptacosane, n-nonacosane, n-hentriacontane, 11,25 + 13,23 + 15,21-dimethylpentatriacontane, and 13,23 + 11,25 + 9,17-dimethylheptatriacontane. Post-eclosion, total CHCs increased with adult age, with males producing greater quantities than females at all ages. Our results show that CHC profiles vary depending on age, sex, and strain and suggest that CHC profiles may be useful as biomarkers to differentiate between insecticide- resistant and susceptible populations.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos/química , Mariposas/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Mariposas/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
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