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1.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 38(8): 363-366, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35802483

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Painful infectious mouth conditions such as herpangina, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, and herpetic gingivostomatitis can cause pain, dehydration, and hospitalization in young children. Treatment for these conditions is generally supportive and directed toward pain relief from ulcerative lesions, thus facilitating oral intake, and preventing dehydration. Attempts at oral therapy at home and in the emergency department are often refused and immediately spit back out. This study evaluated the efficacy of intranasal fentanyl (INF) compared with a commonly used oral (PO) acetaminophen/hydrocodone formulation for the treatment of children with painful infectious mouth conditions. METHODS: This study was a prospective, nonblinded, randomized controlled noninferiority trial conducted in an academic tertiary care pediatric emergency department. The study enrolled children between the ages of 6 months and 18 years with painful infectious mouth lesions and poor oral intake. Patients were randomized to receive either INF (1.5 µg/kg, intervention) or PO acetaminophen/hydrocodone (0.15 mg/kg, control) based on the dose of hydrocodone. The primary outcome was volume of fluid intake per body weight (in milliliters per kilogram) 60 minutes after analgesic administration. Secondary outcomes included pain scores using a validated visual assessment scale (VAS; 1, no pain; 10, worst pain), hydration score (VAS; 1, well hydrated; 4, very dehydrated), admission rate and overall satisfaction score (VAS; 1, worst; 7, best). A priori power analysis indicated that 34 patients would achieve an 81% power with an α value of 0.05. RESULTS: Of the 34 patients enrolled, 17 were randomized to INF and 17 to PO. The demographics between both groups were similar in age, weight, sex, and race. There were no significant differences in parental perception of pain ( P = 0.69) or hydration status ( P = 0.78). Oral fluid intake at 60 minutes was 20 mL/kg for INF versus 18 mL/kg for PO ( P = 0.53). Pain scores at 15 and 30 minutes were 1.7 versus 2.9 ( P = 0.09) and 0.6 versus 1.6 ( P = 0.59). Parental perceptions of pain and hydration status at 60 minutes were 2.2 versus 2.4 ( P = 0.77) and 1.7 versus 1.5 ( P = 0.37). Overall parental satisfaction was 6.4 for INF versus 6.5 for PO ( P = 0.71), and admission rate was 0 vs 12% ( P = 0.49). There were no adverse events such as respiratory, cardiac, or central nervous system depression in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Intranasal fentanyl seems to be a safe and effective alternative to acetaminophen with hydrocodone in reducing pain and improving hydration status in children with painful infectious mouth lesions and poor oral intake.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Fentanila , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Administração Intranasal , Analgésicos Opioides , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Desidratação/complicações , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Hidrocodona/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/etiologia , Manejo da Dor , Medição da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos
2.
J Opioid Manag ; 18(3): 205-221, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35666477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To quantify the prevalence of opioid drug dependence and abuse in United States between 2017 and 2018 and identify which opioid molecules are associated with a higher level of dependence and abuse. DESIGN: National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) data for 2017 and 2018 have been extracted. The variables related to painkillers were studied, the most important ones were selected, and several variable crosses were made. After the data were extracted, they were analyzed using Microsoft Excel and PivotTables, calculating the relative prevalence and percentages of patients with abuse and dependence. RESULTS: In total, 1.4 million people had dependence on pain relievers (PRs) in 2018. The last PR used was mostly hydrocodone (33 percent) and oxycodone (24 percent). The main reasons for using a PR without a doctor's prescription were relieving pain (48 percent), feel good (16 percent), and relax or relieve tension (15 percent). Among patients who used a PR with a medical prescription, 1.5 million used it more frequently than prescribed, 1.2 million used it longer than prescribed, and 1.9 million used it in higher amounts than prescribed. CONCLUSIONS: Abuse and dependence to PRs is lower than expected with over 1.4 million people in the United States having dependence in 2018 (0.6 percent point prevalence). Most cases of dependence are associated with misuse or abuse of prescriptions without medical supervision or the use of medications without a prescription of their own. Oxycodone and hydrocodone are the molecules most associated with dependence, misuse, abuse, and use without prescription. The age of onset of oxycodone misuse is very early (14 years old). Fentanyl does not seem relevant in any of the variables studied.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Adolescente , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hidrocodona/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Oxicodona/efeitos adversos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Subst Use Misuse ; 57(7): 1097-1103, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35450512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2014, the Drug Enforcement Administration rescheduled hydrocodone combination products to Schedule II to reduce nonmedical use and diversion. METHODS: The impact of rescheduling was assessed using quarterly data from 2011 through 2019 from the Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS®) System Poison Center Program and IQVIATM Longitudinal Prescription Data. Trends and immediate changes in prescriptions dispensed and misuse exposures before and after rescheduling involving hydrocodone, oxycodone, and other Schedule II opioid analgesics were calculated using segmented regression. RESULTS: Hydrocodone prescriptions were stable pre-rescheduling, decreased by 2.7% (95% CI: -3.6%, -1.8%, p < 0.0001) per quarter post-rescheduling. Misuse exposures involving hydrocodone were decreasing by 3.2% (95% CI: -3.9%, -2.4%, p < 0.0001) per quarter pre-rescheduling and decreased by 4.9% (95% CI: -5.5%, -4.2%, p < 0.0001) post-rescheduling. Immediate decreases in hydrocodone prescriptions and misuse exposure rates in 2014Q4 compared to 2014Q3 were significant and different from oxycodone or other Schedule II opioids. Schedule II opioid analgesics prescriptions in aggregate were stable prior to rescheduling, decreased by 10.8% (95%CI: -14.0%, -7.6%, p < 0.0001) immediately after the rescheduling, and decreased by 2.3% per quarter (95% CI: -3.1%, -1.5%, p < 0.0001) subsequently. Misuse exposures involving these opioids were decreasing by 3.3% (95% CI: -4.1%, -2.5%, p < 0.0001) prior to rescheduling then by 2.8%, (95% CI: -3.4%, -2.2%, p < 0.0001) after rescheduling. The immediate change in misuse was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Rescheduling corresponded with changes in hydrocodone prescribing and misuse not offset by increases in other Schedule II opioid analgesics. Misuse exposures for hydrocodone and comparators were decreasing prior to rescheduling with little change post-intervention.


Assuntos
Hidrocodona , Venenos , Analgésicos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Controladas , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Humanos , Oxicodona , Padrões de Prática Médica
5.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266561, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35381052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydrocodone and oxycodone are prescribed commonly to treat pain. However, differences in risk of opioid-related adverse outcomes after an initial prescription are unknown. This study aims to determine the risk of opioid-related adverse events, defined as either chronic use or opioid overdose, following a first prescription of hydrocodone or oxycodone to opioid naïve patients. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of multiple linked public health datasets in the state of Oregon. Adult patients ages 18 and older who a) received an initial prescription for oxycodone or hydrocodone between 2015-2017 and b) had no opioid prescriptions or opioid-related hospitalizations or emergency department visits in the year preceding the prescription were followed through the end of 2018. First-year chronic opioid use was defined as ≥6 opioid prescriptions (including index) and average ≤30 days uncovered between prescriptions. Fatal or non-fatal opioid overdose was indicated from insurance claims, hospital discharge data or vital records. RESULTS: After index prescription, 2.8% (n = 14,458) of individuals developed chronic use and 0.3% (n = 1,480) experienced overdose. After adjustment for patient and index prescription characteristics, patients receiving oxycodone had lower odds of developing chronic use relative to patients receiving hydrocodone (adjusted odds ratio = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.00) but a higher risk of overdose (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.65, 95% CI 1.45-1.87). Oxycodone monotherapy appears to greatly increase the hazard of opioid overdose (aHR 2.18, 95% CI 1.86-2.57) compared with hydrocodone with acetaminophen. Oxycodone combined with acetaminophen also shows a significant increase (aHR 1.26, 95% CI 1.06-1.50), but not to the same extent. CONCLUSIONS: Among previously opioid-naïve patients, the risk of developing chronic use was slightly higher with hydrocodone, whereas the risk of overdose was higher after oxycodone, in combination with acetaminophen or monotherapy. With a goal of reducing overdose-related deaths, hydrocodone may be the favorable agent.


Assuntos
Hidrocodona , Overdose de Opiáceos , Acetaminofen , Adolescente , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidrocodona/efeitos adversos , Oxicodona/uso terapêutico , Prescrições , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 22(2): 117-123, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35102242

RESUMO

The study of sex-specific genetic associations with opioid response may improve the understanding of inter-individual variability in pain treatments. We investigated sex-specific associations between genetic variation and opioid response. We identified participants in the RIGHT Study prescribed codeine, tramadol, hydrocodone, and oxycodone between 01/01/2005 and 12/31/2017. Prescriptions were collapsed into codeine/tramadol and hydrocodone/oxycodone. Outcomes included poor pain control and adverse reactions within six weeks after prescription date. We performed gene-level and single-variant association analyses stratified by sex. We included 7169 non-Hispanic white participants and a total of 1940 common and low-frequency variants (MAF > 0.01). Common variants in MACROD2 (rs76026520), CYP1B1 (rs1056837, rs1056836), and CYP2D6 (rs35742686) were associated with outcomes. At the gene level, FAAH, SCN1A, and TYMS had associations for men and women, and NAT2, CYP3A4, CYP1A2, and SLC22A2 had associations for men only. Our findings highlight the importance of considering sex in association studies on opioid response.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Arilamina N-Acetiltransferase , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Codeína/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocodona , Masculino , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Oxicodona/efeitos adversos
7.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 149(3): 651-660, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35041636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: North American surgeons continue to routinely order narcotic medication for postoperative pain relief after carpal tunnel surgery. For some patients, this instigates persistent use. This double-blind, multicenter trial investigated whether over-the-counter medications were inferior to opioid pain control after carpal tunnel release. METHODS: Patients undergoing carpal tunnel release in five centers in Canada and the United States (n = 347) were randomly assigned to postoperative pain control with (opioid) hydrocodone/acetaminophen 5/325 mg versus over-the-counter ibuprofen/acetaminophen 600/325 mg. The two primary outcome measures were the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (0 to 10) and the six-item Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System Pain Interference T-score. Secondary outcome measures were total medication used and overall satisfaction with pain medication management. RESULTS: The authors found no significant differences between opioid and over-the-counter patients in the Numeric Pain Rating Scale scores, Pain Interference T-scores, number of doses of medication, or patient satisfaction. The highest Numeric Pain Rating Scale group difference was the night of surgery, when opiate patients had 0.9/10 more pain than over-the-counter patients. The highest group difference in Pain Interference T-scores (2.1) was on the day of surgery, when the opiate patients had more pain interference than the over-the-counter group. Patient nationality or sex did not generate significant pain score differences. CONCLUSIONS: Pain management is not inferior for patients managed with over-the-counter acetaminophen/ibuprofen versus opioids. This study provides high-quality evidence that U.S. and Canadian surgeons should stop the routine prescription of narcotics after carpal tunnel surgery for patients who are not taking pain medicines daily before surgery. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, II.


Assuntos
Analgésicos não Narcóticos/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/cirurgia , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocodona/uso terapêutico , Ibuprofeno/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Pain ; 163(1): 47-57, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261978

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Opioids relieve acute pain, but there is little evidence to support the stability of the benefit over long-term treatment of chronic noncancer pain. Previous systematic reviews consider only group level published data which did not provide adequate detail. Our goal was to use patient-level data to explore the stability of pain, opioid dose, and either physical function or pain interference in patients treated for 12 months with abuse deterrent formulations of oxycodone and hydrocodone. All available studies in the Food and Drug Administration Document Archiving, Reporting, and Regulatory Tracking System were included. Patient-level demographics, baseline data, exposure, and outcomes were harmonized. Individual patient slopes were calculated from a linear model of pain, physical function, and pain interference to determine response over time. Opioid dose was summarized by change between baseline and the final month of observation. Patients with stable or less pain, stable or lower opioid dose, and stable or better physical function (where available) met our prespecified criteria for maintaining long-term benefit from chronic opioids. Of the complete data set of 3192 patients, 1422 (44.5%) maintained their pain level and opioid dose. In a secondary analysis of 985 patients with a measured physical function, 338 (34.3%) maintained their physical function in addition to pain and opioid dose. Of 2040 patients with pain interference measured, 788 (38.6%) met criteria in addition. In a carefully controlled environment, about one-third of patients successfully titrated on opioids to treat chronic noncancer pain demonstrated continued benefit for up to 12 months.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Ação Retardada/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidrocodona/uso terapêutico , Oxicodona/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
9.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 79(8): e97, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260692

RESUMO

This article has been withdrawn due to a publisher error that caused the article to be duplicated. The definitive version of this article is published under DOI 10.1093/ajhp/zxab293.


Assuntos
Substâncias Controladas , Alta do Paciente , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Gabapentina , Humanos , Hidrocodona , Padrões de Prática Médica
10.
Am J Emerg Med ; 51: 192-196, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763238

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There has been increased focus nationally on limiting opioid prescriptions. National data demonstrates a decrease in annual opioid prescriptions among emergency medicine physicians. We analyzed data from 2012 to 2020 from a large academic health system in California to understand trends in opioid prescribing patterns for emergency department (ED) discharged patients and assessed the potential impact of two initiatives at limiting local opioid prescriptions. METHODS: In 2012-2020, monthly ED visit data was used to evaluate the total number of outpatient opioid prescriptions and percent of ED visits with opioid prescriptions (as primary outcomes). Descriptive statistics, graphic representation, and segmented regression with interrupted times series were used based on two prespecified time points associated with intensive local initiatives directed at limiting opioid prescribing1) comprehensive emergency medicine resident education and 2) electronic health record (EHR)-based intervention. RESULTS: Between March 2012 and July 2020, a total of 41,491 ED discharged patients received an opioid prescription. The three most commonly prescribed drugs were hydrocodone (84.1%), oxycodone (10.8%), and codeine (2.8%). After implementing comprehensive emergency medicine resident education, the total number of opioid prescriptions, the percentage of opioid prescriptions over total ED visit numbers and the total tablet number showed decreasing trends (p's ≤ 0.01), in addition to the natural (pre-intervention) decreasing trends. In contrast, later interventions in the EHR tended to show attenuated decreasing trends. CONCLUSIONS: From 2012 to 2020, we found that total opioid prescriptions decreased significantly for discharged ED patients. This trend is seen nationally. However, our specific interventions further heightened this downward trend. Evidence-based legislation, policy changes, and educational initiatives that impact prescribing practices should guide future efforts.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Adulto , California , Codeína/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina de Emergência/educação , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocodona/uso terapêutico , Internato e Residência , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxicodona/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 12(7): 910-916, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and septoplasty are commonly performed procedures without standardized postoperative pain regimens. There is reluctance to prescribe opioids for postoperative pain given their potential for abuse. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been demonstrated to reduce or even obviate the need for opioid pain medications after otolaryngologic surgeries, but prospective validation is lacking. METHODS: A randomized, controlled study comparing the efficacy of diclofenac sodium to hydrocodone/acetaminophen (APAP) after ESS with or without septoplasty was performed. Participants were given a 100-mm visual analog pain scale (VAS) at postoperative days (PODs) 1, 2, 3, and 5 after ESS. Two-sample t tests were used to compare pain scores between groups. RESULTS: One hundred patients enrolled, and 74 patients provided pain scores to the survey. Pain was greatest for both groups on POD 1. Treatment with diclofenac sodium vs hydrocodone/APAP did not statistically impact pain scores at PODs 1, 2, 3, or 5. No cases of epistaxis requiring an emergency room visit or return to the operating room were noted during the study period. CONCLUSION: Diclofenac sodium may be non-inferior to hydrocodone/APAP in treating pain after ESS with or without septoplasty in opioid naive patients without pre-existing pain conditions. Further studies with larger samples are warranted to investigate the potential superiority of diclofenac to hydrocodone/APAP in certain patients after ESS and septoplasty.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen , Hidrocodona , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Diclofenaco/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidrocodona/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico
13.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258526, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637453

RESUMO

Opioid misuse is a public health crisis in the United States. The origin of this crisis is associated with a sharp increase in opioid analgesic prescribing. We used the urban scaling framework to analyze opioid prescribing patterns in US commuting zones (CZs), i.e., groups of counties based on commuting patterns. The urban scaling framework postulates that a set of scaling relations can be used to predict health outcomes and behaviors in cities. We used data from the Drug Enforcement Administration's Automated Reports and Consolidated Ordering System (ARCOS) to calculate counts of oxycodone/hydrocodone pills distributed to 607 CZs in the continental US from 2006 to 2014. We estimated the scaling coefficient of opioid pill counts by regressing log(pills) on log(population) using a piecewise linear spline with a single knot at 82,363. Our results show that CZs with populations below the knot scaled superlinearly (ß = 1.36), i.e., larger CZs had disproportionally larger pill counts compared to smaller CZs. On the other hand, CZs with populations above the knot scaled sublinearly (ß = 0.92), i.e., larger CZs had disproportionally smaller pill counts compared to smaller CZs. This dual scaling pattern was consistent across US census regions. For CZs with population below the knot, the superlinear scaling of pills is consistent with the explanation that an increased number of successful matches between prescribers and users will lead to higher prescribing rates. The non-linear scaling behavior observed could be the result of a combination of factors, including stronger health care systems and prescribing regulation in largely populated commuting zones, as well as high availability of other opioids such as heroin in these commuting zones. Future research should explore potential mechanisms for the non-linearity of prescription opioid pills.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hidrocodona/administração & dosagem , Modelos Lineares , Oxicodona/administração & dosagem , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/economia , Estados Unidos , População Urbana
14.
JAMA Surg ; 156(11): e214287, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495283

RESUMO

Importance: Historically, opioid pain medications have been overprescribed following thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Many narcotic prescriptions are incompletely consumed, creating waste and opportunities for abuse. Objective: To determine whether limiting opioid prescriptions after outpatient thyroid and parathyroid surgery to patients who opt in to narcotic treatment reduces opioid consumption without increasing postoperative pain compared with usual care (routine narcotic prescriptions). Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized clinical trial of Postoperative Opt-In Narcotic Treatment (POINT) or routine narcotic prescription (control) was conducted at a single tertiary referral center from June 1 to December 30, 2020. A total of 180 adults undergoing ambulatory cervical endocrine surgery, excluding patients currently receiving opioids, were assessed for eligibility. POINT patients received perioperative pain management counseling and were prescribed opioids only on patient request. Patients reported pain scores (0-10) and medication use through 7 daily postoperative surveys. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with opioid consumption. Interventions: Patients in the POINT group were able to opt in or out of receiving prescriptions for opioid pain medication on discharge. Control patients received routine opioid prescriptions on discharge. Main Outcomes and Measures: Daily peak pain score through postoperative day 7 was the primary outcome. Noninferiority was defined as a difference less than 2 on an 11-point numeric rating scale from 0 to 10. Analysis was conducted on the evaluable population. Results: Of the 180 patients assessed for eligibility, the final study cohort comprised 102 patients: 48 randomized to POINT and 54 to control. Of these, 79 patients (77.5%) were women and median age was 52 (interquartile range, 43-62) years. A total of 550 opioid tablets were prescribed to the control group, and 230 tablets were prescribed to the POINT group, in which 23 patients (47.9%) opted in for an opioid prescription. None who opted out subsequently required rescue opioids. In the first postoperative week, 17 POINT patients (35.4% of survey responders in the POINT group) reported consuming opioids compared with 27 (50.0%) control patients (P = .16). Median peak outpatient pain scores were 6 (interquartile range, 4-8) in the control group vs 6 (interquartile range, 5-7) in the POINT group (P = .71). In multivariate analysis, patients with a history of narcotic use were 7.5 times more likely to opt in (95% CI, 1.61-50.11; P = .02) and 4.8 times more likely to consume opioids (95% CI, 1.04-1.52; P = .01). Higher body mass index (odds ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.01-1.23; P = .03) and highest inpatient postoperative pain score (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.04-1.52; P = .02) were also associated with opioid consumption. Conclusions and Relevance: In this trial, an opt-in strategy for postoperative narcotics reduced opioid prescription without increasing pain after cervical endocrine surgery. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04710069.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Paratireoidectomia/efeitos adversos , Preferência do Paciente , Tireoidectomia/efeitos adversos , Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos não Narcóticos/administração & dosagem , Codeína/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocodona/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Tramadol/administração & dosagem
15.
Clin Chim Acta ; 522: 105-113, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydrocodone is the most prescribed opioid in the US. The objective was to evaluate associations between genetic, intrinsic, and extrinsic patient factors, plasma hydrocodone and metabolites, common side effects, and pain scores in a cohort of orthopedic surgery patients. METHODS: Data for each patient was collected by review of the electronic hospital record (EHR), and patient interview. Patients were recruited from those with trauma or undergoing scheduled elective surgery for total knee replacement or total hip at the University of Louisville Hospital, Baptist East Hospital, and Jewish Hospital, Louisville, KY. Plasma opiate concentrations and a targeted genotyping panel was performed. RESULTS: There were statistically significant correlations with daily (p < 0.001) and total dose (p = 0.002) of hydrocodone in hospital and duration of opioid therapy. The length of opioid administration was significantly shorter in CYP2D6 EM/UM versus CYP2D6 PM/IM patients (p = 0.018). Subjects with the OPRM1 c.118G variant were also on opioids longer (p = 0.022). The effect of co-administration of a CYP2D6 inhibitor had a significant effect on the length of opioid therapy (P < 0.001). And not surprisingly the effect of the inhibitor adjusted CYP2D6 phenotype was greater in both the hospital stay period and days of opioid use post hospital discharge (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Based on this study, patients should be evaluated for the use of inhibitors of CYP2D6, during hydrocodone therapy can alter the phenotype of the patient (phenocopy) and increase the probability that the patient will be on opioids for longer periods of time.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Dor Pós-Operatória , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/genética , Humanos , Hidrocodona/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Prev Med ; 146: 106466, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636196

RESUMO

The CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain cautioned against high dose prescribing but did not provide guidance on type of opioid for new pain episodes. We determined if new prescriptions for Schedule II opioids vs. tramadol decreased in the 18 months after vs. before the CDC guideline and if this decrease was associated with physician specialty. New opioid prescriptions, provider type and covariates were measured using a nationally distributed, Optum® de-identified Electronic Health Record (EHR) data base. Eligible patients were free of cancer and HIV and started a new prescription for Schedule II opioids (i.e. codeine, hydrocodone, oxycodone) or Schedule IV (tramadol) in the 18 months before (n = 141,219) or 18 months after (n = 138,216) guideline publication. Fully adjusted multilevel multinomial models estimated the association between provider type (anesthesiology/pain medicine, surgical specialty, emergency, hospital, primary care, other specialty and unknown) before and after adjusting for covariates. New oxycodone prescriptions were most common among surgical and anesthesia/pain management, and new tramadol prescriptions were most common in primary care. The greatest decreases in odds of a Schedule II opioid vs. tramadol were observed in emergency care (oxycodone vs. tramadol OR = 0.82; 95%CI:0.76-0.88) and primary care (hydrocodone vs. tramadol OR = 0.85; 95%CI:0.81-0.89). Surgical specialists were least likely to start opioid therapy with tramadol. In the 18 months after vs. before the CDC guideline, emergency care and primary care providers increased tramadol prescribing. Guidelines tailored to specialists that frequently begin opioid therapy with oxycodone may enhance safe opioid prescribing.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Tramadol , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Codeína , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hidrocodona , Oxicodona , Padrões de Prática Médica , Estados Unidos
17.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 164(4): 841-849, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618561

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe opioid stewardship in ambulatory otologic surgery from 2005 to 2017. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study of US private insurance claims. SETTING: Nationwide deidentified private insurance claims database (Clinformatics DataMart; Optum). METHODS: A total of 17,431 adult opioid-naïve outpatients were included in the study. Patients were identified from CPT-4 codes (Current Procedural Terminology, Fourth Edition) as having undergone middle ear or mastoid surgery. Multiple regression was used to determine sociodemographic and geographic predictors of postoperative morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs) prescribed, including procedure type, year of procedure, age, sex, education, income level, and geographic region of the United States. RESULTS: The mean prescribed perioperative dose over the examined period was 203.03 MMEs (95% CI, 200.27-205.79; 5-mg hydrocodone pill equivalents, 40.61). In multivariate analysis, patients undergoing mastoid surgery were prescribed more opioids than those undergoing middle ear surgery (mean difference, 39.89 MME [95% CI, 34.37-45.41], P < .01; 5-mg hydrocodone pill equivalents, 8.0). Men were prescribed higher doses than women (mean difference, 15.39 [95% CI, 9.87-20.90], P < .01; 5-mg hydrocodone pill equivalents, 3.1). Overall MMEs prescribed by year demonstrates a sharp drop in MMEs from 2015 to 2017. CONCLUSION: While the amount of opioids prescribed perioperatively has declined in recent years, otologists should continue to be cognizant of potential overprescribing in light of previous studies of patients' relatively low opioid intake.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Hidrocodona/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otológicos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 152(4): 309-317, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown which procedures account for the most US dental opioid prescriptions. Moreover, few national studies have assessed opioid prescribing patterns for these procedures. These knowledge gaps impede the optimal targeting of dental opioid stewardship initiatives. METHODS: The authors analyzed claims data from the 2013 through 2018 IBM MarketScan Dental, Commercial, and Medicaid Multi-State Databases. Patients aged 13 through 64 years undergoing 1 of 120 procedures were identified. "Initial prescriptions" were opioid prescriptions dispensed on the date of procedures to 3 days afterward. For the procedures accounting for the 5 highest proportions of initial prescriptions, the authors fitted linear regression models assessing trends in the probability of 1 or more initial prescriptions and mean total morphine milligram equivalents prescribed-a standardized measure of opioid amount. Regressions were adjusted for demographic characteristics and comorbidities. RESULTS: The 9,482,976 procedures in the sample were associated with 2,721,688 initial prescriptions. Of these prescriptions, 5 procedures accounted for 95.2%: tooth extraction (65.2%), problem-focused limited oral evaluation (17.2%), endodontic therapy (8.4%), alveoloplasty (2.9%), and surgical implant services (1.5%). Among the 5 procedures, the median adjusted annual change in the probability of 1 or more initial prescriptions was -1.3 percentage points. The median adjusted annual change in mean total morphine milligram equivalents was -4.5 (roughly 1 pill containing 5 mg of hydrocodone). In 2018, 45.3% of tooth extractions resulted in 1 or more initial prescriptions. CONCLUSIONS: Five procedures accounted for 95.2% of dental opioid prescriptions, and tooth extraction accounted for almost two-thirds of those. Opioid prescribing for tooth extractions is declining but remains common, despite the availability of equally effective nonopioid alternatives. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Eliminating routine opioid prescribing for tooth extraction could reduce dental opioid exposure substantially.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Padrões de Prática Odontológica , Adolescente , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidrocodona , Seguro Saúde , Medicaid , Padrões de Prática Médica , Estados Unidos
19.
Math Med Biol ; 38(2): 202-217, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33585941

RESUMO

In 2016, more than 11 million Americans abused prescription opioids. The National Institute on Drug Abuse considers the opioid crisis a national addiction epidemic, as an increasing number of people are affected each year. Using the framework developed in mathematical modelling of infectious diseases, we create and analyse a compartmental opioid-abuse model consisting of a system of ordinary differential equations. Since $40\%$ of opioid overdoses are caused by prescription opioids, our model includes prescription compartments for the four most commonly prescribed opioids, as well as for the susceptible, addicted and recovered populations. While existing research has focused on drug abuse models in general and opioid models with one prescription compartment, no previous work has been done comparing the roles that the most commonly prescribed opioids have had on the crisis. By combining data from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (which tracked the proportion of people who used or misused one of the four individual opioids) with data from the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (which counted the total number of prescriptions), we estimate prescription rates and probabilities of addiction for the four most commonly prescribed opioids. Additionally, we perform a sensitivity analysis and reallocate prescriptions to determine which opioid has the largest impact on the epidemic. Our results indicate that oxycodone prescriptions are both the most likely to lead to addiction and have the largest impact on the size of the epidemic, while hydrocodone prescriptions had the smallest impact.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Hidrocodona , Humanos , Oxicodona , Prescrições , Probabilidade , Estados Unidos
20.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg ; 29(7): e337-e344, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591123

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic pathology that is treated across multiple specialties. Opioid prescribing practices for knee OA have not been described on a national level. The purpose of this study was to (1) investigate the trends in opioid prescriptions for knee OA, (2) characterize and identify predominant opioid based medications prescribed for knee OA, and (3) identify patient- and provider-related factors influencing opioid prescribing patterns in the treatment of knee OA in the outpatient setting. METHODS: The National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) was used to identify all patients in the United States who presented to an outpatient clinic for knee OA between 2007 and 2016. New opioid prescriptions were determined using a previously published algorithm. Generalized linear models were used to assess trends. RESULTS: A total of 41,389,332 patients were included, of which 12.8% were prescribed an opioid-based medication. Opioid prescription rose from 2007/2008 to 2013/2014. Analysis of the opioid type demonstrated that the prescription of hydrocodone-based medication and "other" traditional opioids followed the aforementioned trends. However, tramadol prescription demonstrated a sustained increase throughout the years peaking at 2015/2016. Patient income in the lowest quartile, a worker's compensation status, and depression were independently associated with higher odds of opioid prescription for knee OA. CONCLUSIONS: Opioid prescription for knee OA remains high. Decreases in traditional opioid prescription have been countered by increase in tramadol prescription. The risks and addictive potential of tramadol and patient and provider risk factors should be emphasized.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hidrocodona , Osteoartrite do Joelho/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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