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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(6): e19098, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028434

RESUMO

Cortisol is the main end product of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA axis), and melatonin (MT) has a regulating effect on HPA axis, and both are closely related to individual behavior and cognitive function. We aimed to evaluate cortisol and MT roles on children dyslexia in this study.A total of 72 dyslexic children and 72 controls were recruited in this study. Saliva samples were collected in the morning, afternoon, and night, respectively. The levels of saliva cortisol and MT were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Differences of cortisol and MT levels between dyslexic and normal children were compared, and the variation trend was also analyzed by dynamic monitoring in 3 time points.The levels of salivary cortisol and MT in children with dyslexia were all lower than those in normal children whether in the morning (7:30-8:30 AM ), at afternoon (15:30-16:30 PM ) or at night (21:30-22:30 PM ) (all P < .001). Compared with normal children, the circadian rhythm variations of salivary cortisol and MT in dyslexic children disappeared and became disordered. The salivary cortisol and MT levels in children with dyslexia were declined throughout the day; and the circadian rhythm was disordered or disappeared.The results suggest that cortisol and MT levels and their circadian rhythm may affect children dyslexia, but the mechanisms need further exploration.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cronobiológicos/metabolismo , Dislexia/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/análise , Melatonina/análise , Saliva/química , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , China , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/complicações , Ritmo Circadiano , Dislexia/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
2.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(8): 1825-1833, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002581

RESUMO

A selective cortisol sensor based on molecularly imprinted poly(glycidylmethacrylate-co ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (poly(GMA-co-EGDMA)) has been demonstrated for detection of cortisol in human sweat. The non-enzymatic biomimetric flexible sweat sensor was fabricated inexpensively by layer by layer (LbL) assembly. The sensor layers comprised a stretchable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) base with carbon nanotubes-cellulose nanocrystals (CNC/CNT) conductive nanoporous nanofilms. The imprinted (MIP) poly(GMA-co-EGDMA) deposited on the CNC/CNT was the cortisol biomimetric receptor. Rapid in analyte response (3 min), the cortisol MIP sensor demonstrated excellent performance. The sensor has a limit of detection (LOD) of 2.0 ng/mL ± 0.4 ng/mL, dynamic range of 10-66 ng/mL, and a sensor reproducibility of 2.6% relative standard deviation (RSD). The MIP sensor also had high cortisol specificity and was inherently blind to selected interfering species including glucose, epinephrine, ß-estradiol, and methoxyprogestrone. The MIP was four orders of magnitude more sensitive than its non-imprinted (NIP) counterpart. The MIP sensor remains stable over time, responding proportionately to doses of cortisol in human sweat. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Eletrodos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Impressão Molecular , Suor/química , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
3.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 21, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Professional caregivers working in child and youth welfare institutions are frequently faced with the complex mental health issues, emotional needs and challenging coping strategies of clients with cumulated traumatic experiences, leaving them prone to developing high levels of stress, burn-out and compassion fatigue. Trauma-informed care (TIC) is a milieu-therapeutic approach that aims to promote the self-efficacy and self-care of youth welfare staff by guiding them to a better understanding of their own and their clients' stress symptoms and countertransference. Despite increasing efforts to implement TIC practices, and more widespread recognition of their value in youth welfare systems, there is a lack of studies evaluating the effectiveness of this approach. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of TIC practices in youth welfare institutions on both the physiological stress of staff members and clients' physical aggression towards their caregivers. . METHODS: Data was obtained from a longitudinal study investigating the effectiveness of TIC in 14 residential youth welfare institutions. Our sample consisted of 47 youth welfare employees (66.0% female) aged from 23 to 60 years (M = 37.4, SD = 10.4 years). Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) and occurrences of client physical aggression were assessed at four annual measurement time points (T1 to T4). RESULTS: Participants in five institutions employing TIC practices (intervention group) showed significantly lower HCC at T4 than staff members from institutions who did not receive training in TIC (control group), indicating reduced physiological stress levels. At T4, the intervention group reported significantly less physical aggression than the control group. CONCLUSIONS: TIC might be a promising approach for reducing the emotional burden of employees and institutions should invest in training their staff in TIC practices. More research is necessary, to investigate the benefits and efficacy of TIC, both to youths and staff members, and to foster a better understanding of which specific factors may contribute to stress reduction.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Agressão/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Cabelo/química , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Hidrocortisona/análise , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Sci Med Sport ; 23(1): 69-74, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526664

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study profiled the 24h neuromuscular, endocrine and mood responses to a single versus a double training day in soccer players. DESIGN: Repeated measures. METHODS: Twelve semi-professional soccer players performed small-sided-games (SSG's; 4 vs 4+goalkeepers; 6×7-min, 2-min inter-set recovery) with neuromuscular (peak-power output, PPO; jump height, JH), endocrine (salivary testosterone, cortisol), and mood measures collected before (pre) and after (0h, +24h). The following week, the same SSG protocol was performed with an additional lower body strength training session (back-squat, Romanian deadlift, barbell hip thrust; 4×4 repetitions, 4-min inter-set recovery; 85% 1 rep-max) added at 2h after the SSG's. RESULTS: Between-trial comparisons revealed possible to likely small impairments in PPO (2.5±2.2Wkg-1; 90% Confidence Limits: ±2.2Wkg-1), JH (-1.3; ±2.0cm) and mood (4.6; ±6.1AU) in response to the double versus single sessions at +24h. Likely to very likely small favourable responses occurred following the single session for testosterone (-15.2; ±6.1pgml-1), cortisol (0.072; ±0.034ugdl-1) and testosterone/cortisol ratio (-96.6; ±36.7AU) at +24h compared to the double session trial. CONCLUSIONS: These data highlight that performance of two training sessions within a day resulted in possible to very likely small impairments of neuromuscular performance, mood score and endocrine markers at +24h relative to a single training session day. A strategy of alternating high intensity explosive training days containing multiple sessions with days emphasising submaximal technical/tactical activities may be beneficial for those responsible for the design and delivery of soccer training programs.


Assuntos
Afeto , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/análise , Futebol/fisiologia , Testosterona/análise , Atletas , Fadiga , Humanos , Masculino , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Saliva/química , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
5.
Talanta ; 206: 120225, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514839

RESUMO

In this study, we developed an impedimetric sensor system by using molecularly cortisol imprinted acrylamide polymers on fullerene modified carbon electrode to detect cortisol in real saliva samples. The polymer layer was formed on fullerene modified screen printed carbon electrodes with the ratio of 1:2 (cortisol:acrylamide) and ammonium persulfate (APS) was used as the initiator of polymerization. The sensor surface was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Performances of the electrode were determined as follows; calibration curve was calculated between 0.5 nM and 64 nM, R2 = 0.9939, LOD and LOQ were 0.14 nM and 0.44 nM, respectively. Real human saliva samples were obtained from 15 participants between 25 and 32 ages regardless of gender. The samples, which were collected at least 30 min after waking up and the new sensor method analysis were compared tandem mass spectroscopy coupled liquid chromatography system (LC-MS/MS). The sensor analysis showed a significant correlation with LC-MS/MS results (R2 = 0.9727).


Assuntos
Acrilamida/química , Fulerenos/química , Hidrocortisona/análise , Saliva/química , Espectroscopia Dielétrica/instrumentação , Espectroscopia Dielétrica/métodos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/química , Limite de Detecção , Impressão Molecular/métodos , Análise de Regressão
6.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(4): 617-622, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885236

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In epidemiology, generalized linear models are the main statistical methods used to explore associations. However, the use of other methods such as Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) is gradually increasing. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to illustrate the use of SEM in the assessment of salivary cortisol concentration in infants as a biomarker of perinatal exposure to inorganic arsenic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a cohort study of pregnant women recruited from public health care centres in Arica, Chile, in 2013. Socio-demographic information and urine samples to assess inorganic arsenic were collected during the second trimester of pregnancy. Saliva samples were collected to assess cortisol in infants between 18-24 months of age. Four linear regression models (LRMs) and two SEMs were run to estimate the effect of prenatal exposure to inorganic arsenic on cortisol concentration in infants. RESULTS: According to LRMs and SEMs, prenatal exposure to inorganic arsenic and salivary cortisol were not associated. However, the association between maternal cortisol and cortisol in infants was statistically significant in all models; for each increase in standard deviation of the covariate Ln(maternal cortisol), the outcome Ln(cortisol in infant) increased by 0.49 units of variance in both SEMs. CONCLUSIONS: LRMs and SEMs were useful to assess the effect of prenatal exposure to inorganic arsenic on cortisol in infants. However, SEM allowed the adjustment of estimations by an estimated latent that obtained the information about income, occupation, education and ethnicity in a more comprehensive way than achieved by LRM.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Hidrocortisona/análise , Saúde do Lactente , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Arsênico/toxicidade , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Gravidez , Saliva/química
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574899

RESUMO

As nursing is one of the most stressful occupations worldwide, its management warrants more attention to identify possible ways to cope with its pressures. This study aims to evaluate whether animal-assisted therapy (AAT) with the presence of a dog affects the stress level of nurses. As a stress biomarker, we used salivary cortisol level testing. Twenty female nurses (mean age: 30) in physical medicine (PMR) (n = 11) and the department of internal medicine and long-term care (IM < C) (n = 9). On each of the three observed days, saliva was collected at 10 a.m. and then again after 50 min. The first sampling was performed during a normal working process without a break (Condition A), the second was carried out during a normal working process with a break of choice (Condition B), and the third sampling was performed during a normal working process with a break with AAT (Condition C). All participants were enrolled in all three interventional conditions in a randomized order. The results demonstrated the effect of a reduction of cortisol levels in Condition C, where AAT was included (p = 0.02) only in nurses recruited from the IM < C department. By way of explanation, nurses from the PMR department already showed low cortisol levels at baseline. We propose including AAT with a dog in healthcare facilities where nurses are at a high risk of stress.


Assuntos
Terapia Assistida por Animais , Cães , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Estresse Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Animais , República Tcheca , Feminino , Hospitais Militares , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Estresse Ocupacional/metabolismo , Saliva/química
9.
Forensic Sci Int ; 305: 109968, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622855

RESUMO

In the present study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed, validated, and applied for measuring cortisol in human hair. Baseline levels of cortisol in hair were taken from 12 control subjects, with concentrations for adult controls (n = 8) of 1.7 to 9.1 pg/mg and a median of 4.7 pg/mg and for child controls (n = 4) of 1.1 to 7.2 pg/mg and a median of 3.1 pg/mg. However, the concentrations in the hair of two children whose mother had been applying a cortisol-containing hand cream 2-3 times per week ranged from 30 to 390 pg/mg. No external contamination was observed with the children as judged from wash water concentrations. The mother had hair cortisol concentrations of 80-220 pg/mg. External contamination was observed in her proximal hair segments (0-4 cm) but not in distal ones (8-12 cm). In an experiment, cortisol cream (1%) was applied on the fingers of a subject, who then scratched the head hair once in a while. Hair was collected 1, 5, and 30 days after exposure to the cream. The cortisol level in the hair one day after exposure was 20-186 times higher than the pre-exposure level. High levels in the wash fraction agreed with external contamination. Cortisol concentrations in the hair at 5 and 30 days after exposure were 15-38 and 9-11 times higher, respectively, than the pre-exposure levels. However, no external contamination was suggested from the wash water concentrations in the hair collected 5 and 30 days after exposure. The results showed that the externally applied cortisol had, after some time, been incorporated into the hair matrix and was not removed by a pre-analysis washing. Therefore, the use of a standard decontamination procedure prior to analysis of hair may not be able to prevent the spread of cortisol from applied hand cream within a family.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Cabelo/química , Hidrocortisona/análise , Creme para a Pele , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Família , Feminino , Dermatoses da Mão/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(11): 2905-2908, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490432

RESUMO

Cintineo, HP and Arent, SM. Anticipatory salivary cortisol and state anxiety before competition predict match outcome in Division I collegiate wrestlers. J Strength Cond Res 33(11): 2905-2908, 2019-Anticipation of exercise and other stressors has been shown to result in physiological and psychological changes, which include increased levels of cortisol and anxiety. Combat sports, in particular, typically elicit robust anticipatory responses because of the distinct nature of these sports. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between state anxiety scores, anticipatory cortisol response, and performance outcomes in college wrestlers. A secondary purpose was to determine the correlation between anticipatory cortisol and state anxiety scores. Twenty-six collegiate wrestlers were recruited to undergo saliva collection and to complete the State Anxiety Inventory before a wrestling match and again on a rest day in a time-matched, control session. Univariate analyses revealed that both salivary cortisol and anxiety were greater before competition than on a rest day. In addition, it was found that losers had higher levels of anticipatory cortisol and anxiety compared with winners. A significant correlation between salivary cortisol and anxiety was found as well. These data show that higher cortisol and anxiety may negatively affect performance. Athletes and coaches should work together to determine optimal levels of arousal and should aim to replicate this during both training and competition to ensure consistently high levels of performance through appropriate preparation.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Comportamento Competitivo , Hidrocortisona/análise , Saliva/química , Luta Romana/psicologia , Adolescente , Nível de Alerta , Atletas , Humanos , Masculino , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
11.
Environ Int ; 131: 105062, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cortisol, a stress hormone released by the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, is critical to the body's adaptive response to physiological and psychological stress. Cortisol has also been implicated in the health effects of air pollution through the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. This study evaluates the cross-sectional and longitudinal association between several air pollutants and salivary cortisol. METHODS: We used data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a cohort of 45-85 years old participants from six US cities. Salivary cortisol was evaluated at two time points between 2004 and 2006 and then again from 2010 to 2012. Cortisol samples were taken several times per day on two or three consecutive days. Particulate matter <2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the year prior to cortisol sampling were examined. We used piecewise linear mixed models that were adjusted for demographics, socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors to examine both cross-sectional and longitudinal associations. Longitudinal models evaluated change in cortisol over time. RESULTS: The pooled cross-sectional results revealed largely null results with the exception of a 9.7% higher wake-up cortisol associated with a 10 ppb higher NO2 (95% CI, -0.2%, 20.5%). Among all participants, the features of the cortisol curve became flatter over 5 years. The wake-to-bed slope showed a more pronounced flattening over time (0.014, 95% CI, 0.0, 0.03) with a 10 ppb higher NO2 level. Other air pollutants were not associated with change in cortisol over time. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest only a moderate association between traffic related air pollution and cortisol. Very few epidemiologic studies have examined the long-term impact of air pollution on the stress response systems, thus warranting further exploration of these findings.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aterosclerose , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saliva/química , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 211, 2019 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase levels in children aged between 6 and 9 years, 3 months and 1 year after the successful completion of dental treatment through either pharmacological or non-pharmacological behavior management techniques. METHODS: A total of 1567 patients aged between 6 and 9 years who had completed dental treatment were screened. A total of 703 patients who were caries free at the end of 3 months were classified based on Frankl behavior score and administered the Arabic version of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule- Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS) and accordingly allocated to one of three groups; (Phobic Patients, Anxious Patients, Control Group). A total of 183 patients met the inclusion criteria and were followed up for 1 year. A total of 151 patients completed the study. Patients' heart rate on recall, salivary cortisol and salivary amylase were compared between the groups. RESULTS: The results of the study showed that amylase and cortisol levels had a significant association with the level of dental fear. The phobic patients had the highest levels of salivary amylase and salivary cortisol levels with no significant associations observed with either heart rate or extent of dental treatment. Control and anxious patients had significantly lower amylase levels when compared to phobic patients. There was no significant difference between the salivary cortisol levels of anxious and phobic patients. These findings were replicated on 1-year recall. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of this study we can conclude that salivary amylase is an indicator of of acute stress that can differentiate between anxiety and dental fear; while salivary cortisol appears to be a marker of long-term stress that lacks the sensitivity to differentiate between the two.


Assuntos
Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/análise , Pacientes/psicologia , Saliva/química , alfa-Amilases Salivares/análise , alfa-Amilases/sangue , Fatores Etários , Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Arábia Saudita
13.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 195: 105476, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561001

RESUMO

The presence of estrogens, androgens and glucocorticoids as well as their receptors and steroid converting enzymes in adipose tissue has been established. Their contribution to diseases such as obesity, diabetes and hormone-dependent cancers is an active area of research. Our objective was to develop a LC-MS/MS method to quantify bioactive estrogens and glucocorticoids simultaneously in human adipose tissue. Estrogens and glucocorticoids were extracted from adipose tissue samples using solid-phase extraction. Estrogens were derivatized using 1-(2,4-dinitro-5-fluorophenyl)-4-methylpiperazine (PPZ) and methyl iodide to generate a permanently charged molecule (MPPZ). Steroids were separated and quantified by LC-MS/MS. The limit of quantitation for the steroids was between 15 and 100 pg per sample. Accuracy and precision were acceptable (<20%). Using this method, estradiol, estrone, cortisone and cortisol were quantified in adipose tissue from women with and without breast cancer. This novel assay of estrogens and glucocorticoids by LC-MS/MS coupled with derivatization allowed simultaneous quantification of a panel of steroids in human adipose tissue across the endogenous range of concentrations encountered in health and disease.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/química , Estrogênios/análise , Glucocorticoides/análise , Neoplasias da Mama , Cromatografia Líquida , Cortisona/análise , Estradiol/análise , Estrona/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
Behav Processes ; 167: 103916, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386887

RESUMO

Male mate discrimination may be affected by the social environment (presence or absence of rival males or mates), which can also affect stress and sex hormones (e.g., cortisol and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT)). The Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa, is an all-female fish species dependent on sperm from mating with male P. latipinna. We investigated male mate choice in P. latipinna between conspecific females and P. formosa with a rival male present and no rival male present. We measured cortisol and 11-KT release rates from all fish. The presence of a rival male had no effect on male mate choice for conspecific females nor overall mating effort. Male 11-KT decreased on the second day after exposure to a rival male on the first day. Focal male 11-KT is positively correlated with the size of the rival male. Both conspecific and heterospecific females released more 11-KT when in the rival male treatment than when not. Neither male nor female cortisol was affected by the presence or absence of the rival male. We did not find an effect of rival males on male mate choice in contrast to our prediction. Instead, our findings may indicate a hormonal response to social competition.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona/análise , Preferência de Acasalamento Animal/fisiologia , Testosterona/análogos & derivados , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Poecilia/fisiologia , Reprodução , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Testosterona/análise , Água/química
15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(36): 32758-32768, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381297

RESUMO

Stable and efficient conjugates between antibodies and gold nanoparticles (GNP-Ab) are sought to develop highly sensitive and robust biosensors with applications in medicine, toxicology, food safety controls, and targeted drug delivery. Several strategies have been proposed for directing the antibody attachment to GNPs thus preserving antibody activity, including covalently coupling the antibody to a polymer grafted on GNP surface and exploiting the high affinity of bioreceptors as mediators for the binding. Both approaches also allow for shielding GNPs with a protective layer that guarantees the robustness of the conjugate. Notwithstanding, antibodies freely adsorb to GNP with high binding efficiency. The nonspecific adsorption is far more simple, fast, and inexpensive than any mediated coupling. Therefore, it is preferred for most applications, although it is considered to produce GNP-Ab with a limited activity. In this work, we compared three strategies for producing GNP-Ab, such as (i) covalent coupling mediated by a chemical layer, (ii) affinity-based binding mediated by a biomolecular layer composed of Staphylococcal protein A, and (iii) direct attachment via adsorption. The so-prepared GNP-Ab were employed as probes in a colorimetric lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for measuring salivary cortisol as a model biosensor that relies on the use of active GNP-Ab conjugates. Unexpectedly, the biosensors fabricated using the three probes were completely comparable in terms of their ability to measure salivary cortisol. Furthermore, we observed that the sensitivity of the LFIA primarily depended on the amount of the antibody bound to GNPs rather than on the method by which it was bound. The probes prepared using both the direct adsorption approach and mediated coupling via the biochemical mediator enabled development of point-of-care devices for the fast, sensitive, and reliable measurement of human salivary cortisol.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/química , Ouro/química , Hidrocortisona/análise , Imunoensaio/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Reologia , Saliva/química , Adsorção , Adulto , Humanos , Proteína Estafilocócica A/metabolismo
16.
Ann Endocrinol (Paris) ; 80(4): 250-258, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445667

RESUMO

Adrenal incidentaloma refers to an asymptomatic adrenal mass detected through an imaging procedure performed for reasons unrelated to adrenal dysfunction or suspected dysfunction. In general, adrenal incidentalomas are non-functioning adrenal adenomas, but in some cases, may require therapeutic intervention: eg., adrenocortical carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, primary aldosteronism, cortisol hypersecretion, or adrenal insufficiency. Hormone assessment is crucial to characterize adrenal incidentaloma. Nowadays, various hormone assay methods are available, such as immunoassay and mass spectrometry. However, there are several pitfalls that should be considered: e.g., circadian rhythm, gender/age dependency, preanalytical and analytical issues, and drug interactions. Pharmacological or analytical interference can lead to false serum concentrations and may result in misinterpretation of results and thus inappropriate treatment. The purpose of this review was to study the main interferences that may be observed in the different tumor types of adrenal incidentalomas in order to help physicians in their clinical decision-making and for the overall benefit of patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Endócrino/normas , Hormônios/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/sangue , Artefatos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Hormônios/sangue , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Achados Incidentais , Testes de Função Adreno-Hipofisária/métodos , Testes de Função Adreno-Hipofisária/normas , Fase Pré-Analítica/normas
17.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(2): 162-171, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291220

RESUMO

In this project, we recruited a sample of 150 patients with first episode of psychosis with schizophrenia features (FEP) and 100 healthy controls. We assessed the differences between these two groups, as well as the changes between the acute phase of illness and subsequent remission among patients over 18-month longitudinal follow-up. The assessments were divided into four work packages (WP): WP1- psychopathological status, neurocognitive functioning and emotional recognition; WP2- stress response measured by saliva cortisol during a stress paradigm; cerebral blood perfusion in the resting state (with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and during activation paradigm (with Transcranial Ultrasonography Doppler (TCD); WP3-post mortem analysis in histologically prepared human cortical tissue of post mortem samples of subjects with schizophrenia in the region that synaptic alteration was suggested by WP1 and WP2; WP4- pharmacogenetic analysis (single gene polymorphisms and genome wide association study (GWAS). We expect that the analysis of these data will identify a set of markers that differentiate healthy controls from patients with FEP, and serve as an additional diagnostic tool in the first episode of psychosis, and prediction tool which can be then used to help tailoring individualized treatment options. In this paper, we describe the project protocol including aims and methods and provide a brief description of planned post mortem studies and pharmacogenetic analysis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Farmacogenética , Estudos Prospectivos , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Saliva/química , Esquizofrenia/complicações
18.
Riv Psichiatr ; 54(3): 120-126, 2019.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282492

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with bipolar disorder show a high relapse rate generally related to their poor adherence to the prescribed medications and to their high stress vulnerability, linked to genetic, neuroendocrine and cognitive factors. AIMS: The first aim of this study was to verify if for a group of pharmacologically stabilized bipolar patients, the attendance to a Group Psychoeducation program according to the Barcelona model would result in an improvement of their stress resilience, as measurable by evaluating their morning cortisol secretory profile. The second aim of the study has been to verify if these effects would maintain stable over time, organizing follow-up evaluations, after one year and after two years form the end of the group psychoeducation program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 96 patients who had been euthymic for at least 6 months and were under stabilized pharmacologic maintenance treatment, were randomized in two groups: pharmacological treatment as usual (TAU) or pharmacological treatment plus group Psychoeducation (PE). Patients in both groups underwent a psychological assessment (HAMD, YMRS e ARMS), and to a functional assessment of the HPA axis activity, obtained evaluating cortisol levels from salivary samples collected in 5 different moments of the day: at baseline, at the end of the group psychoeducation program, and after 1 year and 2 years from the end of the last PE session. RESULTS: At the end of the study, both groups (PE and TAU) did not show any significant intergroup difference with regard to all the clinical variables and the patients' adherence to the prescribed medications. On the contrary, significative intergroup differences were observed with regard to morning cortisol secretory profile, that was found normalized at the endpoint only among patients of the PE group, but not among those of the TAU group. This normalization of the morning cortisol secretory profile observed among patients of the PE group, proved to maintain stably overtime, since it was observed also in the two follow-up assessments, organized after 1 year and after 2 year from the end the treatment. DISCUSSION: Data collected in this study may indicate that the efficacy of the psychoeducation programs for bipolar patients may activate an improvement of the functional activation of the HPA axis, and so obtaining a reduction of their stress vulnerability.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Transtorno Bipolar/terapia , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistemas Neurossecretores , Cooperação do Paciente , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Saliva/química
19.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 128(7): 645-657, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282686

RESUMO

Some people develop symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after having experienced a traumatic event, whereas others do not. Intrusive memories are a cardinal symptom of PTSD and a better understanding of encoding and consolidation of intrusive memory may yield important insights on differences in the response to trauma. The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether psychosocial stress induction (Trier Social Stress Test) versus active control (placebo version) leading to respective biological stress responses during the encoding and consolidation of a film-elicited analogue trauma influences the development of intrusive memories over the course of 7 consecutive days. We hypothesized that the activation of the biological stress system increases the number of intrusive memories over the course of 7 days. This single-blind randomized placebo-controlled study examined 122 young healthy women. Biological stress response was measured by salivary cortisol, salivary α-amylase activity, and heart rate variability. Generalized linear mixed models were used to analyze longitudinal effects of activation of biological stress response on self-reported number of intrusive memories. Cross-validated regularized regression (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) was applied for data-driven feature selection including known biological and psychological predictors. Corroborating our hypothesis, biological stress-responders to the Trier Social Stress Test reported significantly more intrusive memories after trauma film. A priori designed post hoc tests point at significantly more intrusions on Day 1 and 2 in biological stress responders. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression revealed salivary cortisol, salivary α-amylase activity, heart rate variability, subjectively rated distress, fear, and (on trend level) dissociation during the trauma film as relevant predictors of intrusive memories. A heightened biological stress response in young women is associated with more intrusive memories the first days after experiencing a trauma analogue. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/análise , Memória/fisiologia , alfa-Amilases Salivares/análise , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Saliva/química , Autorrelato , Método Simples-Cego , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1140: 649-664, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347077

RESUMO

Determination of concentration of cortisol in various biological fluids can provide extensive information about a person's health. Historically, cortisol and its derivatives were (and still are) determined using immunoaffinity-based methods such as colorimetric ELISA assay, chemiluminescent immunoassay, fluorescence assays, radioimmunoassay, electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, immunochromatographic test, or sensors and immunosensors. Recently, mass spectrometry (MS)-based methods started to be used in determination of cortisol and its derivatives. These MS methods are net superior to immunoaffinity-based assays, but are not easily applicable and are also time-consuming and price prohibitive. Furthermore the standard MS instruments used are triple quadrupole instruments. Here we review the literature on the MS and non-MS based methods for determination of cortisol and its derivatives and also explore the use of a less used quadrupole-time of flight instrument in determination of these compounds.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Imunoensaio
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