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1.
Chemosphere ; 263: 127992, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835981

RESUMO

Fur has been validated as a useful biomarker medium for chemical exposures and biological responses in wildlife. Mercury (Hg) is known to act as an endocrine disruptor by altering brain neurochemistry. In this study, we investigated the spatial patterns of relationships between total Hg (THg) and cortisol in the fur of river otter (Lontra canadensis). Geotagged fur samples were obtained from a wildlife biomonitoring program (n = 72) and the North American Fur Auction (n = 37) between 2014 and 2017. Fur THg was measured using direct thermal decomposition and fur cortisol was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The average fur THg concentration was 11.50 ± 12.40 µg/g fur weight (f.w.), and the fur cortisol concentration was 5.71 ± 8.24 pg/mg. Results from the global ordinary least squares regression show no relationship between THg and fur cortisol concentrations. However, both Hg and cortisol were heterogeneously distributed across the landscape. When a localized geographically weighted regression (GWR) was used, a geographically distinct bi-phasic relationship was observed. We suggest this bi-phasic relationship is associated with a threshold THg concentration, beyond which, there was a negative association with measured fur cortisol. Results of a break-point analysis, with one break, indicate that the threshold is 16 ± 1.27 µg/g f. w of THg in fur. This research highlights the need to use appropriate spatial methods when assessing exposure-response relationships in wildlife across large geographical areas. The identified threshold can be used for regulatory purposes.


Assuntos
Pelo Animal/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocortisona/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Lontras , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0225023, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326450

RESUMO

Dog training methods range broadly from those using mostly positive punishment and negative reinforcement (aversive-based) to those using primarily positive reinforcement (reward-based). Although aversive-based training has been strongly criticized for negatively affecting dog welfare, there is no comprehensive research focusing on companion dogs and mainstream techniques, and most studies rely on owner-reported assessment of training methods and dog behavior. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of aversive- and reward-based training methods on companion dog welfare within and outside the training context. Ninety-two companion dogs were recruited from three reward-based schools (Group Reward, n = 42), and from four aversive-based schools, two using low proportions of aversive-based methods (Group Mixed, n = 22) and two using high proportions of aversive-based methods (Group Aversive, n = 28). For evaluating welfare during training, dogs were video recorded for three sessions and six saliva samples were collected, three at home (baseline levels) and three after training (post-training levels). Video recordings were used to examine the frequency of stress-related behaviors (e.g., lip lick, yawn) and the overall behavioral state of the dog (e.g., tense, relaxed), and saliva samples were analyzed for cortisol concentration. For evaluating welfare outside the training context, dogs participated in a cognitive bias task. Results showed that dogs from Group Aversive displayed more stress-related behaviors, were more frequently in tense and low behavioral states and panted more during training, and exhibited higher post-training increases in cortisol levels than dogs from Group Reward. Additionally, dogs from Group Aversive were more 'pessimistic' in the cognitive bias task than dogs from Group Reward. Dogs from Group Mixed displayed more stress-related behaviors, were more frequently in tense states and panted more during training than dogs from Group Reward. Finally, although Groups Mixed and Aversive did not differ in their performance in the cognitive bias task nor in cortisol levels, the former displayed more stress-related behaviors and was more frequently in tense and low behavioral states. These findings indicate that aversive-based training methods, especially if used in high proportions, compromise the welfare of companion dogs both within and outside the training context.


Assuntos
Animais de Estimação/psicologia , Reforço Psicológico , Afeto/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Condicionamento Psicológico/fisiologia , Cães , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Punição/psicologia , Recompensa , Saliva/química , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Gravação em Vídeo
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238051, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915796

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of vibration (Vib versus noVib) during a maximal graded cycling exercise on hormonal response, precisely on cortisol (C) and testosterone (T). Twelve active males (25 ± 5yrs; 181 ± 5cm; 80.7 ± 11.1kg) randomly performed two maximal incremental cycling tests on two separate days and at the same time of the day (09:00). The protocol consisted of incremental steps of 3 min duration performed on a PowerBIKETM that induces vibration cycling. The study was a repeated measures design and participants performed the test with and without vibration. Gas exchange and heart rate (HR) were continuously assessed and blood lactate (Bla) was recorded at the end of each incremental stage. Saliva samples were collected before and immediately after the test, and analysed for (C) and (T). The results show that C and T increased in both cycling conditions; however, the C's magnitude of change was significantly higher by 83% after Vib cycling in comparison to the no Vib (p = 0.014), whereas the T's magnitude of change were not statistically different between trials (p = 0.715). Vibration induced a decrease of the T/C ratio (p = 0.046) but no significant changes were observed following noVib (p = 0.476). As a conclusion, the investigation suggests that adding mechanical vibration to cycling may potentiate a catabolic exercise-induced state, which could have potential clinical implications in rehabilitation and injury treatment. Sport experts should take this message home to carefully plan the recovery process and time during training and competitions.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Vibração , Adolescente , Adulto , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Testosterona/análise , Adulto Jovem
4.
Pain Physician ; 23(4S): S283-S294, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a common complication associated with epidural steroid injections (ESIs). However, the effect of different doses is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to compare the differences in the duration of HPA suppression following treatment with different doses of ESI; triamcinolone acetate (TA) 40 mg and TA 20 mg. The secondary objectives were to compare the extent of salivary cortisol (SC) reduction, the incidence of adrenal insufficiency (AI), and the differences in a numeric rating scale (NRS) depending on the varying levels of TA dose used for ESI. STUDY DESIGN: A double-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Pain clinics in a university hospital. METHODS: The patients were treated with TA epidurally and divided into 2 groups (T20 and T40) depending on the dose of TA (20 mg and 40 mg). The SC concentration was measured before and after ESI to calculate the duration of HPA axis suppression, the extent of SC concentration reduction, and the SC recovery rate. Additionally, NRS and adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation tests were used. RESULTS: Thirty patients were analyzed. The T40 group showed longer HPA suppression (19.7 ± 3.1 days) compared with that of the T20 group (8.0 ± 2.4 days). The recovery rate of the T40 group was lower than that of the T20 group (P < 0.015). However, there was no difference in the extent of reduction in SC concentration after ESI, the occurrence of AI, and pain reduction. LIMITATIONS: There were selection bias and no placebo control. CONCLUSIONS: Although the difference in pain relief according to the ESI dose is not significant, the HPA suppression is prolonged with a higher dose than a lower dose, and the recovery is slower. Therefore, the time interval between consecutive ESIs should be adjusted depending on the steroid dose to ameliorate the adverse effects of steroids.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Triancinolona/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Adrenal/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/etiologia , Saliva/química , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/complicações , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/tratamento farmacológico , Triancinolona/efeitos adversos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752242

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Comparison of the activity of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in the placenta and the umbilical cord blood cortisol level between caesarean sections with or without uterine contraction and vaginal delivery groups. Cortisol is the main stress hormone responsible for the normal adaptation of the neonate to extrauterine life. The disorders resulting from a dysfunction of the 11ß-HSD 2-cortisol system can explain the higher risk of developing diseases in children born by caesarean section. METHODS: 111 healthy, pregnant women in singular pregnancy at term of delivery were included into the study. The study comprised 11ß-HSD 2 in placental tissue from 49 pregnant women delivering by elective caesarean section and 46 pregnant women delivering by vagina. In 16 cases of the elective caesarean section, regular uterine contractions were declared. Cortisol level was estimated in umbilical cord blood directly after delivery. RESULTS: We found no statistically significant differences in the activity of 11ß-HSD 2 in placentas delivered via caesarean sections (29.61 on average in elective caesarean sections and 26.65 on average in intrapartum caesarean sections) compared to vaginal deliveries (31.94 on average, p = 0.381), while umbilical cord blood cortisol in the elective caesarean sections group was significantly lower (29.86 on average) compared to the vaginal deliveries (55.50 on average, p < 0.001) and intrapartum caesarean sections (52.27 on average, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The model of placental 11ß-HSD 2 activity and umbilical cord blood cortisol concentration seems to be significant in conditions of stress associated with natural uterine contractions in labour.


Assuntos
11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 2 , Cesárea , Hidrocortisona , Trabalho de Parto , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 2/metabolismo , Criança , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Recém-Nascido , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Estresse Fisiológico , Contração Uterina
7.
Arerugi ; 69(5): 334-340, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When corticosteroids are used for a long time in patients with bronchial asthma, a decrease in adrenal cortex function occurs. We investigated the use of salivary cortisol measurements as a simple, noninvasive method for the evaluation of the adrenal cortex function in pediatric asthmatic patients. METHODS: Plasma and salivary cortisol levels were measured from 8:00 am to 10:00 am in 248 pediatric asthmatic patients aged 0-18 years that were under long-term care management at the National Hospital Organization Fukuoka National Hospital in 2011-2013. We determined the correlation between plasma and salivary cortisol levels and calculated a salivary cortisol cut-off value for screening adrenocortical function. RESULTS: There was a significant positive correlation between salivary cortisol levels and plasma cortisol levels in all patients, patients under age 3, and patients over age 3 (r=0.759, r=0.563, r=0.827, respectively). Salivary cortisol cut-off values were 0.015µg/dL for plasma cortisol levels below 3µg/dL (sensitivity 83%, specificity 82%), and 0.045µg/dL those below 5µg/dL (sensitivity 83%, specificity 75%). 5µg/dL or less is an abnormal value, and 3µg/dL or less is considered to be adrenal insufficiency. CONCLUSION: Salivary cortisol levels were positively correlated with plasma cortisol levels in pediatric asthmatic patients. This is a useful method for frequently monitoring young children with adrenal dysfunction or severe asthma that are treated with high doses of inhaled corticosteroids.


Assuntos
Córtex Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Insuficiência Adrenal , Asma , Hidrocortisona/análise , Saliva/química , Adolescente , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Adrenal/diagnóstico , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668818

RESUMO

Police officers are frequently engaged in a variety of high-stress scenarios, such as high-speed chases and other suspect conflicts, that cause significant increases in a variety of physiological and psychological stress markers. The purpose of this study was to investigate salivary and blood markers of stress in response to an active shooter training drill (ASD). Thirty-one participants (n = 31; males = 15, females = 16; Age: 21 ± 3.5 years) participated in an ASD involving professional actors playing the role of one active gunman, as well as four victims. The ASD lasted approximately 50 s. Blood samples were collected 15 min prior as well as after the ASD and analyzed for epinephrine (EPI) and norepinephrine (NE) levels. Saliva samples were collected 30 and 5 min prior to the ASD and 5 and 30 min after the ASD, were analyzed for cortisol, α-amylase, and secretory immunoglobulin-A (SigA). The ASD resulted in significant (p < 0.05) increases in EPI, α-amylase, and SigA levels. The increase in NE from pre to post ASD approached significance (p = 0.06). These results demonstrate that a short duration (~50 s) ASD results in significant increases in both blood and salivary markers of stress. These data may provide meaningful implications for those engaged in high-stress tactical occupations, especially law enforcement and military personnel, as chronic exposure to such occupational stressors can contribute to cardiometabolic disease.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Polícia , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Polícia/psicologia , Saliva/química , Adulto Jovem , alfa-Amilases
9.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(8): 2305-2316, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506233

RESUMO

RATIONAL: The ability of conditioned stimuli to affect instrumental responding is a robust finding from animal as well as human research and is assumed as a key factor regarding the development and maintenance of addictive behaviour. OBJECTIVES: While it is well known that stress is an important factor for relapse after treatment, little is known about the impact of stress on conditioned substance-associated stimuli and their influence on instrumental responding. METHODS: We administered in the present study a Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) paradigm with stimuli associated with smoking- and chocolate-related rewards using points in a token economy to light to moderate smokers who also indicated to like eating chocolate. After completion of the first two phases of the PIT paradigm (i.e. Pavlovian training and instrumental trainings), participants were randomly allocated to the socially evaluated cold pressor test or a control condition before the final phase of the PIT paradigm, the transfer phase, was administered. RESULTS: The presentation of a smoking-related stimulus enhanced instrumental responding for a smoking-related reward (i.e. 'smoking-PIT' effect) and presentation of a chocolate-related stimulus for a chocolate-related reward (i.e. 'chocolate-PIT' effect) in participants aware of the experimental contingencies as indicated by expectancy ratings. However, acute stress did not change (i.e. neither enhanced nor attenuated) the 'smoking-PIT' effect or the 'chocolate-PIT' effect, and no overall effect of acute stress on tobacco choice was observed in aware participants. CONCLUSIONS: The established role of stress in addiction appears not to be driven by an augmenting effect on the ability of drug stimuli to promote drug-seeking.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Recompensa , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Transferência de Experiência/fisiologia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Comportamento Aditivo/metabolismo , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Chromatogr A ; 1623: 461212, 2020 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505296

RESUMO

Non-ionic surfactants such as polysorbates, known as Tween™ 20 and Tween™ 80, are routinely used within the healthcare and pharmaceutical industry to enhance solubility. This work focuses on analysing the two aforementioned polysorbates, each considered at three purity levels with four model compounds, across the critical micellar concentration (CMC) range for each surfactant. Such data is of interest to investigate the influence of micelle formation upon compound-polysorbate interaction. Two analytical techniques were utilised, namely spectroscopic solubility determination and micellar liquid chromatography (MLC). In all cases it was apparent that the maximum solubility for all four compounds increased substantially at concentrations greater than the CMC and that, in most cases, a different retention profile was observed using MLC once the CMC had been exceeded. This paper is the first to have used such techniques to investigate the behaviour of these polysorbates over a series of concentrations and three levels of polysorbate purity. The findings indicate that the solubilisation potential of polysorbates differs once the CMC has been surpassed and is dependent upon the level of purity selected, i.e. compound-surfactant interactions are partially a consequence of the presence of micelles rather than monomer as well as polysorbate purity. Thus, formulators should include such polysorbates at optimised concentrations and purity if they wish to maximise their solubilisation potential.


Assuntos
Micelas , Polissorbatos/química , Acetaminofen/análise , Benzamidas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Hidrocortisona/análise , Solubilidade , Tensoativos/química
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233718, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Person and environment-related childhood adverse events have been demonstrated to increase the risk of impaired mental health in later life differently for boys and girls. Altered hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis functioning has been suggested as a key mechanism underlying this association. Cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are both output hormones of the HPA-axis. DHEA may have a protective function against long-term exposure to increased levels of cortisol, but has been little investigated in relation to childhood adversity. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test the associations between person-, and environment-related childhood adversity and levels of cortisol, DHEA and cortisol/DHEA ratio in adolescent boys and girls. METHODS: A total of 215 Dutch adolescents participated in the study and filled out the 27-item Adverse Life Events Questionnaire for the assessment of childhood adversity, which was split up in separate scores for person-related and environment-related events. Cortisol and DHEA concentrations and cortisol/DHEA ratio were determined in proximal 3 cm long hair segments. Additionally, saliva samples were collected immediately and 30 minutes after waking up, at noon and at 8 pm. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to test associations between childhood adversity and cortisol and DHEA concentrations, for boys and girls separately, with age, BMI and pubertal development as covariates. RESULTS: Data were available for 74 boys and 116 girls with a mean age of 15.7 years (SD = 2.0). Higher levels of person-related childhood adversity were associated with higher hair DHEA levels in girls and with higher hair cortisol levels in boys. A trend towards a significant association was observed between higher levels of environment-related childhood adversity and higher DHEA levels in boys. Neither person- nor environment related childhood adversity was associated with cortisol/DHEA ratio. A trend was observed for environment-related childhood adversity and lower daily cortisol output in boys. CONCLUSION: We found differential associations between childhood adversity and cortisol and DHEA levels in girls and boys, for respectively person-related and environment-related childhood adversity. Our findings suggest that different types of childhood adversity are not only linked to levels of cortisol, but also to DHEA concentrations, in a sex-specific manner, with possible future implications for mental health.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Desidroepiandrosterona/análise , Hidrocortisona/análise , Adolescente , Desidroepiandrosterona/metabolismo , Feminino , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Masculino , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Saliva/química , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234971, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584863

RESUMO

Intensive pig management involves in a commercial setting the housing and implementation of certain procedures, such as castration and tail docking, which may be stressful for the animal. Good farming practices include the reduction of stress due to management processes, but assessing the level of stress perceived entirely through behavioural observations can be challenging. The monitoring stress-related physiological markers, like glucocorticoids (GC), can be an accurate alternative that would presumably be more objective. In order to avoid an additional stressor by taking blood, a non-invasive approach is advisable. We used an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test and the effect of transport to examine the suitability of different enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for monitoring adrenocortical function in domestic pigs using saliva and faeces as sample matrices. An assay measuring faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCMs) with a 3ß,11ß-diol group has proven suited to determine adrenocortical activity, showing an overall increase of 180% in fGCM concentrations related to ACTH administration and of 70% related to transport, respectively. A cortisol EIA was used to detect salivary glucocorticoid (sGC) concentrations, revealing a 1100% increase in sGC concentrations after ACTH administration. The stability of fGCM concentrations post-defecation was determined to assess possible changes in measured fGCM concentrations in unpreserved faecal material over time, with fGCM concentrations being relatively stable (maximal 12% change) under natural conditions for approximately two days after defecation. This implicates that untreated faecal material from pigs can be analysed for up to two days after collection without appreciable level of depreciation in fGCM concentrations. Being able to assess the physiological stress response of domestic pigs non-invasively can help to improve the well-being of commercially reared pigs.


Assuntos
Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/análise , Bem-Estar do Animal , Hidrocortisona/análise , Estresse Fisiológico , Sus scrofa , Córtex Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/metabolismo , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Feminino , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Saliva/química
13.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 121(6): 428-430, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Many studies use stimulated saliva for the assessment of cortisol. However, it is not yet clear how stimulation affects the flow of specific markers. The aim was to assess whether stimulation of salivation affects the physiological flow of cortisol during a stressing day as compared to an ordinary day. The second aim was to show how the normalising factor affects the outcome of the study. METHODS: Stimulated saliva was taken from 42 children at 8:00 a.m. and 12:00 a.m. on two separate days one month apart. During the first day, the children were exposed to stress situation, while the second day was considered a control day. The concentration of cortisol was analysed using ELISA. RESULTS: The highest level of cortisol was observed in the morning of the stress day (p 0.99). CONCLUSION: Based on our results, the examination of the cortisol diurnal rhythm is not reliable in stimulated saliva. Moreover, the effect of saliva stimulation has to be taken into account for every marker individually (Fig. 2, Ref. 22).


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Saliva , Estresse Fisiológico , Biomarcadores , Criança , Ritmo Circadiano , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Saliva/química
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512943

RESUMO

Recently, biological markers of maternal prenatal stress, hair cortisol, along with saliva, blood, and urine cortisol, have received attention. However, it is necessary to validate measuring hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) as a biomarker of perceived stress among healthy and high-risk pregnant women. This study aimed to confirm the correlation between HCC and the perceived stress of pregnant women over 18 years of age. In this systematic review, we used various search engines to extract relevant articles using specific keywords related to pregnancy, hair cortisol, and psychological stress. Four out of 3639 studies met the inclusion criteria. We conducted a quality assessment with the help of three independent reviewers using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement. The correlation between HCC and perceived stress was confirmed in one study. There was only one study on hair washing, shampoo, conditioner, and hair structure that could affect hair samples. In four studies, hair samples differed in length, methods of storage, and laboratory analysis. The review was limited to confirming the relationship between HCC and perceived stress in pregnant women based on the current evidence. Studies on hair cortisol need regulated and standardized methods for collection, storage, and analysis of hair samples.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Recém-Nascido , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20190601, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401941

RESUMO

Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effects of music at 432 Hz, 440 Hz, and no music on the clinical perception of anxiety and salivary cortisol levels in patients undergoing tooth extraction. Methodology A parallel-group randomized clinical trial was conducted. Forty-two patients (average age: 23.8±7.8 years, 27 women) with a moderate level of anxiety were distributed in three groups: use of music for 15 minutes at a frequency of 432 Hz (n=15), at 440 Hz (n=15) and a control group without music (n=12). The CORAH Dental Anxiety Scale and salivary cortisol levels, estimated by the solid phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), were measured and compared before and after the music intervention between groups (two-way ANOVA-Tukey p<0.05, RStudio). Results Significantly lower anxiety level values were observed at 432 Hz (8.7±2.67) and 440 Hz (8.4±2.84) compared to the control group (17.2±4.60; p<0.05). The salivary cortisol level at 432 Hz (0.49±0.37 µg/dL) was significantly lower than 440 Hz (1.35±0.69 µg/dL) and the control group (1.59±0.7 µg/dL; p<0.05). Conclusion The use of music significantly decreased clinical anxiety levels, and the frequency of 432 Hz was effective in decreasing salivary cortisol levels before tooth extraction.


Assuntos
Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/terapia , Hidrocortisona/análise , Musicoterapia/métodos , Música/psicologia , Saliva/química , Extração Dentária/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/psicologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233554, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many biologically active factors are present in human milk including proteins, lipids, immune factors, and hormones. The milk composition varies over time and shows large inter-individual variability. This study examined variations of human milk immune factors and cortisol concentrations in the first three months post-partum, and their potential associations with maternal psychosocial distress. METHODS: Seventy-seven healthy mothers with full term pregnancies were enrolled, of which 51 mothers collected morning milk samples at 2, 6 and 12 weeks post-delivery. Maternal psychosocial distress was assessed at 6 weeks post-delivery using questionnaires for stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Immune factors were determined using multiplex immunoassays and included innate immunity factors (IL1ß, IL6, IL12, IFNγ, TNFα), acquired immunity factors (IL2, IL4, IL10, IL13, IL17), chemokines (IL8, Groα, MCP1, MIP1ß), growth factors (IL5, IL7, GCSF, GMCSF, TGFß2) and immunoglobulins (IgA, total IgG, IgM). Cortisol was quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A linear mixed effects model was fit to test whether stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms individually predicted human milk cortisol concentrations after accounting for covariates. Repeated measurement analyses were used to compare women with high (n = 13) versus low psychosocial distress (n = 13) for immune factors and cortisol concentrations. RESULTS: Virtually all immune factors and cortisol, with the exception of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF), were detected in the human milk samples. The concentrations of the immune factors decreased during the first 3 months, while cortisol concentrations increased over time. No correlation was observed between any of the immune factors and cortisol. No consistent relationship between postnatal psychosocial distress and concentrations of immune factors was found, whereas higher psychosocial distress was predictive of higher cortisol concentrations in human milk. CONCLUSION: In the current study we found no evidence for an association between natural variations in maternal distress and immune factor concentrations in milk. It is uncertain if this lack of association would also be observed in studies with larger populations, with less uniform demographic characteristics, or with women with higher (clinical) levels of anxiety, stress and/or depressive symptoms. In contrast, maternal psychosocial distress was positively related to higher milk cortisol concentrations at week 2 post-delivery. Further investigation on maternal psychosocial distress in relation to human milk composition is warranted.


Assuntos
Citocinas/análise , Hidrocortisona/análise , Leite Humano/química , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/análise , Mães/psicologia
17.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 302(1): 93-99, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415469

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe patterns of physiological and psychological stress during induced labor and their correlation to obstetrical and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: This prospective, observational study included 167 women, with low-risk, singleton pregnancies, who delivered at term, at a tertiary academic center from 2015 through 2018. Among them, 72 (43%) underwent induction and 95 (57%) had spontaneous labor onset. Physiological stress was evaluated by salivary cortisol measurements and emotional stress by questionnaires (visual analogue stress scale 0-10) during latent phase, active phase and full dilation stages of labor, as well as 2 min and 2 h postpartum. Cord blood cortisol and pH were obtained. Stress patterns were compared between parturients who did or did not undergo induction. Modes of delivery, labor and delivery complications, and early neonatal outcomes were compared. Mothers completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. RESULTS: Induced women had lower cortisol concentrations during the latent phase compared to spontaneous onset of labor (p = 0.003), with no differences during active (p = 0.237), full dilation (0.668), 2 min and 2 h after delivery (p = 0.666). Stress scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores were similar between groups. Cord cortisol (p = 0.294), 1-min Apgar score ≤ 7 (p = 0.502) and 5-min Apgar score ≤ 7 (p = 0.37) were similar. All had cord pH > 7. CONCLUSIONS: Induction does not increase stress during labor. Moreover, it might have a positive effect on reducing cortisol during the latent phase. These findings might reassure women who are concerned about induction of labor.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona/análise , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/psicologia , Trabalho de Parto/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Saliva/química , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto/fisiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Estresse Fisiológico , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 39: 101153, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the effect of bergamot orange essence on anxiety, salivary cortisol, and alpha amylase in patients prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This clinical trial with pre-post design was conducted on 60 candidates for cholecystectomy. The participants were randomly divided into an intervention and a control group. The intervention group participants underwent aromatherapy using two drops of 3% bergamot orange essence, while the control group ones inhaled two drops of odourless grape seed oil. Anxiety mean score and salivary cortisol and alpha amylase levels were measured before and after the intervention. RESULTS: A significant difference was found between the groups regarding anxiety (F = 9.00, p = 0.004) and alpha amylase level (F = 9.46, p = 0.003) after the intervention. CONCLUSION: Bergamot orange essence decreased anxiety and salivary alpha amylase level. Therefore, this method can be used as a complementary technique to reduce patients' anxiety prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery. IRCT REGISTRATION NUMBER: IRCT20171113037428N2. It is available in following website: https://www.irct.ir/trial/27696 REGISTRATION DATE: 03/25/2018.


Assuntos
Aromaterapia/métodos , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/métodos , Citrus , Adulto , Ansiedade/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , alfa-Amilases/sangue
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392855

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of physical activities on human health in forests in countryside and rural areas. The test experiment was conducted in a countryside forest, whereas the controlled experiment was conducted in an urban area where the study participants resided. A total of 22 participants (aged 20.9 ± 1.3 years) were evaluated in this study. Heart rate variability and salivary cortisol level were used as indices of physiological conditions, and semantic differential method, profile of mood states (POMS), and state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) were used to evaluate the participants' emotional states. The participants were asked to walk around forest and urban areas for 15 min. The results were as follows. As compared to the urban area, in the forest area, (1) the power of the high-frequency (HF) component of the heart rate variability (HRV) was significantly higher; (2) low-frequency (LF)/(LF + HF) was significantly lower; (3) salivary cortisol level was significantly lower; (4) the participants felt more comfortable, natural, relaxed, and less anxious and showed higher levels of positive emotions and lower levels of negative emotions. Consequently, walking in the forest area induces relaxing short-term physiological and psychological effects on young people living in urban areas.


Assuntos
Relaxamento , Saúde da População Rural , Viagem , Adolescente , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349221

RESUMO

Our objective was to examine the feasibility of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) as a biomarker to predict clinical pregnancy outcomes and investigate its potential associations with perceived anxiety, resilience, and depressive symptoms. A total of 43 participants were assessed using HCC, the state trait anxiety inventory (STAI), resilience scale (RS), and the depression subscale of the symptom checklist 90-R (SCL-90-R). Participants were approached at their second consultation with the reproductive endocrinologist (T1), before scheduling their IVF cycle, and then 12 weeks after (T2), at their post-transfer visit with the study coordinators, before the human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) pregnancy test. The logistic regression model revealed that HCC at T2 predicted 46% of a positive pregnancy test [R2 = 0.46, (ß = 0.11, p < 0.05)]. Pregnant women had higher levels of resilience at T2 (M = 149.29; SD = 17.56) when compared with non-pregnant women at T2 (M = 119.96; SD = 21.71). Significant differences were found between both groups in depression at T2 (t = 3.13, p = 0.01) and resilience at T2 (t = -4.89, p = 0.01). HCC might be a promising biomarker to calculate the probability of pregnancy in women using assisted reproductive technologies (ART).


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Cabelo/química , Hidrocortisona , Complicações na Gravidez , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estresse Psicológico
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