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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26757, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397819

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The role of cognitive, social and biological factors in the etiology of chronic periodontitis has been reported.The aim of this study was to evaluate the salivary cortisol level and interleukin-1 B level in patients of Chronic periodontitis in smokers and stress and nonsmokers without stress.The design of study randomized, prospective, double-blinded, and prospective study.The total sample size was comprised of 600 subjects between the ages of 20 and 50 years. The sample size was divided into 300 males and 300 females. Out of 600 subjects, 200 subjects comprised of subjects with chronic periodontitis with positive depression level with a history of smoking (Group I), 200 subjects comprised of subjects with chronic periodontitis without depression and without smoking (Group II), and 200 subjects who were taken as the control group comprised of healthy subjects without chronic periodontitis, without depression level, and no smoking history (Group III). Salivary cortisol levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).The result showed that there was a positive correlation between morning and evening salivary cortisol level in all the groups with correlation coefficient. There was significant higher value of salivary cortisol in Group I patients when compared with Group II and Group III. However, when the comparison of salivary cortisol levels was done between the Group II and Control group, the result showed nonsignificant P value.It is suggested that stress is positively correlated with the salivary cortisol levels in smokers and nonsmokers.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica/sangue , Hidrocortisona/análise , Interleucina-1beta/análise , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Periodontite Crônica/diagnóstico , Periodontite Crônica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Saliva/enzimologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
2.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(6)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200643

RESUMO

In this study, we developed the portable chemiluminescence (CL)-based lateral flow assay (LFA) platform for the detection of cortisol in human serum. Cortisol is well-known as a stress hormone due to its high relevancy for human mental and physical health, such as hypertension or depression. To date, a number of optical devices have provided the sensitive determination of levels of analytes. However, this modality type still requires costly optical modules. The developed CL platform is simply composed of two detection modules along with a loading part for the LFA strip. The LFA membrane contains gold nanoparticle probes conjugated with antibodies against cortisol and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), which can also efficiently increase the luminescent signal by providing many areas for anti-cortisol antibody and HRP. The measured voltage signals coming from the photodiode in a CL reader were compared with a standard microplate reader for the evaluation of accuracy. The linear range observed for cortisol was measured to be 0.78-12.5 µg/dL (R2 = 0.99) with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.342 µg/dL. In addition, the CL-LFA reader showed a high correlation (R2 = 0.96) with the standard cortisol console (COBAS 8000, Roche), suggesting that our developed CL-based LFA platform can be usable in situ.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Anticorpos , Ouro , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Limite de Detecção , Luminescência , Medições Luminescentes , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Aplicativos Móveis , Testes Imediatos
3.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205537

RESUMO

In clinical practice, differences in glucocorticoid sensitivity among healthy subjects may influence the outcome and any adverse effects of glucocorticoid therapy. Thus, a fast and accurate methodology that could enable the classification of individuals based on their tissue glucocorticoid sensitivity would be of value. We investigated the usefulness of untargeted plasma metabolomics in identifying a panel of metabolites to distinguish glucocorticoid-resistant from glucocorticoid-sensitive healthy subjects who do not carry mutations in the human glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) gene. Applying a published methodology designed for the study of glucocorticoid sensitivity in healthy adults, 101 healthy subjects were ranked according to their tissue glucocorticoid sensitivity based on 8:00 a.m. serum cortisol concentrations following a very low-dose dexamethasone suppression test. Ten percent of the cohort, i.e., 11 participants, on each side of the ranking, with no NR3C1 mutations or polymorphisms, were selected, respectively, as the most glucocorticoid-sensitive and most glucocorticoid-resistant of the cohort to be analyzed and compared with untargeted blood plasma metabolomics using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The acquired metabolic profiles were evaluated using multivariate statistical analysis methods. Nineteen metabolites were identified with significantly lower abundance in the most sensitive compared to the most resistant group of the cohort, including fatty acids, sugar alcohols, and serine/threonine metabolism intermediates. These results, combined with a higher glucose, sorbitol, and lactate abundance, suggest a higher Cori cycle, polyol pathway, and inter-tissue one-carbon metabolism rate and a lower fat mobilization rate at the fasting state in the most sensitive compared to the most resistant group. In fact, this was the first study correlating tissue glucocorticoid sensitivity with serine/threonine metabolism. Overall, the observed metabolic signature in this cohort implies a worse cardiometabolic profile in the most glucocorticoid-sensitive compared to the most glucocorticoid-resistant healthy subjects. These findings offer a metabolic signature that distinguishes most glucocorticoid-sensitive from most glucocorticoid-resistant healthy subjects to be further validated in larger cohorts. Moreover, they support the correlation of tissue glucocorticoid sensitivity with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome-associated pathways, further emphasizing the need for nutritionists and doctors to consider the tissue glucocorticoid sensitivity in dietary and exercise planning, particularly when these subjects are to be treated with glucocorticoids.


Assuntos
Dexametasona/farmacologia , Dieta , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Metaboloma , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Adulto , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Masculino , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Adulto Jovem
4.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 47(4): 1133-1147, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059979

RESUMO

Hypoxia has gradually become common in aquatic ecosystems and imposes a significant challenge for fish farming. The loss of equilibrium (LOE), 50% lethal time (LT50), plasma cortisol, glucose, red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), gill histological alteration, and related parameters (lamellar length [SLL] and width [SLW], interlamellar distance [ID], basal epithelial thickness [BET], lamellar surface area [LA], and gill surface area [GSA]); respiratory rate; the proportion of the secondary lamellae available for gas exchange (PAGE); and hypoxia-inducible factor (hif-1α, hif-2α) mRNA expression were determined during progressive hypoxia and reoxygenation (R-0, R-12, R-24 h) to illustrate the underlying physiological response mechanisms in black rockfish Sebastes schlegelii. Results showed that the DO concentration significantly decreased during progressive hypoxia, while DO at LOE and LT50 were 2.42 ± 0.10 mg L-1 and 1.67 ± 0.38 mg L-1, respectively. Cortisol and glucose were significantly increased at LOE and LT50, with the highest levels observed at LT50, and then gradually recovered to normal within reoxygenation 24 h. RBC number and Hb results were like those of glucose. Hypoxia stress resulted in lamellar clubbing, hypertrophy, and hyperplasia. Respiratory frequency significantly increased at LOE and decreased at LT50. Lamellar perimeters, SLL, ID, LA, GSA, and PAGE, significantly increased at LOE and LT50, with the highest values observed at LT50. However, SLW and BET significantly decreased at LOE, LT50, and R-0. These parameters recovered to nearly normal levels at R-24 h. hif-1α mRNAs in gill and liver were significantly upregulated at LOE and LT50, and recovery to normal after reoxygenation 24 h. hif-2α mRNAs in gill was similar to that of hif-1α, whereas hepatic hif-2α mRNAs remained unchanged during hypoxia-reoxygenation. These results indicated that progressive hypoxia stress elevated RBC number, Hb, cortisol, and glucose levels, induced the alteration of gill morphology, increased LA and GSA, stimulated respiratory frequency and PAGE, and upregulated the transcription of hif-1α and hif-2α in gill and liver. Reoxygenation treatment for 24 h alleviated the stress mentioned above effects. These findings expand current knowledge on hypoxia tolerance in black rockfish Sebastes schlegelii.


Assuntos
Brânquias/patologia , Oxigênio , Perciformes/fisiologia , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Glicemia/análise , Contagem de Eritrócitos , Expressão Gênica , Brânquias/metabolismo , Hemoglobinas , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Oxigênio/análise , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Perciformes/sangue , Perciformes/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
5.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 781, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168276

RESUMO

Investigational in vitro models that reflect the complexity of the interaction between the immune system and tumours are limited and difficult to establish. Herein, we present a platform to study the tumour-immune interaction using a co-culture between cancer spheroids and activated immune cells. An algorithm was developed for analysis of confocal images of the co-culture to evaluate the following quantitatively; immune cell infiltration, spheroid roundness and spheroid growth. As a proof of concept, the effect of the glucocorticoid stress hormone, cortisol was tested on 66CL4 co-culture model. Results were comparable to 66CL4 syngeneic in vivo mouse model undergoing psychological stress. Furthermore, administration of glucocorticoid receptor antagonists demonstrated the use of this model to determine the effect of treatments on the immune-tumour interplay. In conclusion, we provide a method of quantifying the interaction between the immune system and cancer, which can become a screening tool in immunotherapy design.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cocultura , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/antagonistas & inibidores , Esferoides Celulares , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/terapia
7.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(2): 343-353, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085953

RESUMO

Objective: Hypoglycemia is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease including cardiac arrhythmias. We investigated the effect of hypoglycemia in the setting of acute glycemic fluctuations on cardiac rhythm and cardiac repolarization in insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes compared with matched controls without diabetes. Design: A non-randomized, mechanistic intervention study. Methods: Insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 21, age (mean ± s.d.): 62.8 ± 6.5 years, BMI: 29.0 ± 4.2 kg/m2, HbA1c: 6.8 ± 0.5% (51.0 ± 5.4 mmol/mol)) and matched controls (n = 21, age: 62.2 ± 8.3 years, BMI 29.2 ± 3.5 kg/m2, HbA1c: 5.3 ± 0.3% (34.3 ± 3.3 mmol/mol)) underwent a sequential hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic clamp with three steady-states of plasma glucose: (i) fasting plasma glucose, (ii) hyperglycemia (fasting plasma glucose +10 mmol/L) and (iii) hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (plasma glucose < 3.0 mmol/L). Participants underwent continuous ECG monitoring and blood samples for counterregulatory hormones and plasma potassium were obtained. Results: Both groups experienced progressively increasing heart rate corrected QT (Fridericia's formula) interval prolongations during hypoglycemia ((∆mean (95% CI): 31 ms (16, 45) and 39 ms (24, 53) in the group of patients with type 2 diabetes and controls, respectively) with similar increases from baseline at the end of the hypoglycemic phase (P = 0.43). The incidence of ventricular premature beats increased significantly in both groups during hypoglycemia (P = 0.033 and P < 0.0001, respectively). One patient with type 2 diabetes developed atrial fibrillation during recovery from hypoglycemia. Conclusions: In insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes and controls without diabetes, hypoglycemia causes clinically significant and similar increases in cardiac repolarization that might increase vulnerability for serious cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Hipoglicemia/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Arritmias Cardíacas/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Glucagon/sangue , Hormônio do Crescimento/sangue , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Hipoglicemia/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Norepinefrina/sangue , Potássio/sangue
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 194, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salivary cortisol collected at home is a useful test to diagnose and monitor Cushing's syndrome in humans. The main problem in dogs is to retrieve a sufficient amount of saliva. The aim of this study was to evaluate different salivary collection methods and compare their effects on volume, pH and cortisol concentration of saliva. Sixteen healthy Beagles were used in a 4 × 4 randomized crossover study with a washout period of 1 week between each of the following collection methods: 1. Salimetrics® cotton swab dipped in ginger powder (ginger group); 2. beef-flavored Salimetrics® (bouillon group); 3. Salivette® cotton swab with an enclosed treat (treat group); 4. plain Salimetrics® (control group). First, baseline saliva (plain cotton swab, S0) and, 2 min later, experimental saliva (according to group allocation above, SExp) were collected. Saliva was gathered by holding the swabs in the animal's mouth for 2 min. After the cross-over study, another saliva sample was collected from all dogs by the ginger method, using a 30 s sampling time (30s-ginger method). Cortisol concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: All three stimulation methods increased saliva production significantly (S0 compared to SExp: ginger p = 0.0005; bouillon p = 0.009; treat p = 0.007). Only ginger stimulation, however, generated a significantly higher amount of saliva (SExp) compared to the control group (p = 0.00001; median (range) amount of saliva for SExp: ginger 1200 ul (600-1700), bouillon 650 ul (200-1900), treat 700 ul (300-1000), control 400 ul (0-1100)). The amount of saliva retrieved by the 30s-ginger method was still higher than that from the control group (p = 0.0004). Bouillon and treat stimulation led to decreased pH values (bouillon, p = 0.0028; treat, 0.0018). Excitement was higher in the ginger group (p = 0.01). Chewing was intensified in the ginger and treat group (ginger, p = 0.003; treat, 0.0009). The cortisol concentration SExp was higher compared to that of S0 in the ginger and treat group (p = 0.02, 0.003). The experimental cortisol concentrations (SExp) were not different between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The 30s-ginger method could prove useful in evaluating or monitoring dogs with Cushing's syndrome, as sampling at home for 30 s by the owner seems feasible.


Assuntos
Cães/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Gengibre , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Carne Vermelha , Estimulação Química
10.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 31(9): 1722-1744, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022085

RESUMO

To determine the acute effect of a single high-intensity interval training (HIIT) session on testosterone and cortisol levels in healthy individuals, a systematic search of studies was conducted in MEDLINE and Web of Science databases from inception to February 2020. Meta-analyses were performed to establish the acute effect of HIIT on testosterone and cortisol levels immediately after a single HIIT session; after 30 min and 60 min (primary outcomes); and after 120 min, 180 min, and 24 h (secondary outcomes, only for pre-post intervention groups). Potential effect-size modifiers were assessed by meta-regression analyses and analyses of variance. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane's risk of bias tool and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. The meta-analyses of 10 controlled studies (213 participants) and 50 pre-post intervention groups (677 participants) revealed a significant increase in testosterone immediately after a single HIIT session (d = 0.92 and 0.52, respectively), which disappeared after 30 min (d = 0.18 and -0.04), and returned to baseline values after 60 min (d = -0.37 and -0.16). Significant increases of cortisol were found immediately after (d = 2.17 and 0.64), after 30 min (d = 1.62 and 0.67) and 60 min (d = 1.32 and 0.27). Testosterone and cortisol levels decreased significantly after 120 min (d = -0.48 and -0.95, respectively) and 180 min (d = -0.29 and -1.08), and returned to baseline values after 24 h (d = 0.14 and -0.02). HIIT components and participant's characteristics seem to moderate the effect sizes. In conclusion, testosterone and cortisol increase immediately after a single HIIT session, then drop below baseline levels, and finally return to baseline values after 24 h. This meta-analysis provides a better understanding of the acute endocrine response to a single HIIT session, which would certainly be valuable for both clinicians and coaches in the prescription of exercise programs to improve health and performance. Testosterone and cortisol may be used as sensitive biomarkers to monitor the anabolic and catabolic response to HIIT.


Assuntos
Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Testosterona/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Viés , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(8): 2208-2220, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008009

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The COVID-19 pandemic continues to exert an immense burden on global health services. Moreover, up to 63% of patients experience persistent symptoms, including fatigue, after acute illness. Endocrine systems are vulnerable to the effects of COVID-19 as many glands express the ACE2 receptor, used by the SARS-CoV-2 virion for cellular access. However, the effects of COVID-19 on adrenal and thyroid gland function after acute COVID-19 remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: Our objectives were to evaluate adrenal and thyroid gland function in COVID-19 survivors. METHODS: A prospective, observational study was undertaken at the Clinical Research Facility, Imperial College NHS Healthcare Trust, including 70 patients ≥18 years of age, at least 3 months after diagnosis of COVID-19. Participants attended a research study visit (8:00-9:30 am), during which a short Synacthen test (250 µg IV bolus) and thyroid function assessments were performed. RESULTS: All patients had a peak cortisol ≥450 nmol/L after Synacthen, consistent with adequate adrenal reserve. Basal and peak serum cortisol did not differ according to disease severity or history of dexamethasone treatment during COVID-19. There was no difference in baseline or peak cortisol after Synacthen or in thyroid function tests, or thyroid status, in patients with fatigue (n = 44) compared to those without (n = 26). CONCLUSION: Adrenal and thyroid function ≥3 months after presentation with COVID-19 was preserved. While a significant proportion of patients experienced persistent fatigue, their symptoms were not accounted for by alterations in adrenal or thyroid function. These findings have important implications for the clinical care of patients after COVID-19.


Assuntos
Glândulas Suprarrenais/fisiologia , COVID-19/reabilitação , Glândula Tireoide/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Testes de Função Adreno-Hipofisária , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Tireotropina/sangue , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
12.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(1): 155-165, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960957

RESUMO

Introduction: Although 18F-FDG PET was originally developed to evaluate benign and malignant tumors, the frequency of detection of benign adrenocortical adenomas showing FDG-PET accumulation has increased. However, the details of FDG-PET-accumulated benign adrenocortical adenomas have not been elucidated. Methods: To elucidate the pathophysiology of FDG-PET-positive cortisol-producing adrenal tumors, we performed clinicopathological and genetic analyses of adrenocortical adenomas examing FDG-PET in 30 operated patients with unilateral cortisol-producing adrenal tumors (26 adrenal adenomas and 4 adrenal cancers). Results: All adrenocortical carcinomas and 17/26 (65%) benign adrenocortical adenomas showed high FDG accumulation (SUVmax ≥ 3). In adrenocortical adenomas with high FDG accumulation (SUVmax ≥ 3), SUVmax showed a positive correlation with the CT Hounsfield units. A higher SUVmax showed a clear black adenoma appearance with predominantly compact cells, which exhibited high T1 and T2 signals, a lack of signal drop on out-of-phase imaging on MRI, and less accumulation on 131-I adsterol scintigraphy. Furthermore, RNA-sequencing analysis revealed significant increases in the lysosomal and autophagy pathways and metabolic pathways, including glycolysis through glucose transporter (GLUT) 1 and 3, in black adenomas with high-level FDG accumulation. Discussion: A black adenoma is blackish due to lipofuscin, which accumulates as a result of damaged mitochondria or proteins that escape lysosomal degradation or autophagy. Since FDG in PET is taken up via GLUTs, alteration of the intracellular metabolic dynamics associated with mitochondrial damage in black adenomas may increase PET accumulation. Conclusion: Black adrenal adenomas should be considered with adrenal tumors showing PET accumulation and low lipid contents.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal , Adenoma Adrenocortical , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/farmacocinética , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Adolescente , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/genética , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/patologia , Adenoma Adrenocortical/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenoma Adrenocortical/genética , Adenoma Adrenocortical/metabolismo , Adenoma Adrenocortical/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/análise , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Hidrocortisona/urina , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA-Seq , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Transcriptoma , Carga Tumoral , Adulto Jovem
13.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 39, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis dysfunction has been associated with a variety of mental health and cardio-metabolic disorders. While causal models of HPA-axis dysregulation have been largely focused on either pre-existing health conditions or psychosocial stress factors, recent evidence suggests a possible role for central nervous system activation via air pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM). Therefore, in an observational study of Latino youth, we investigated if monthly ambient NO2, O3, and PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 (PM2.5) exposure were associated with morning serum cortisol levels. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, morning serum cortisol level was assessed after a supervised overnight fast in 203 overweight and obese Latino children and adolescents (female/male: 88/115; mean age: 11.1 ± 1.7 years; pre-pubertal/pubertal/post-pubertal: 85/101/17; BMI z-score: 2.1 ± 0.4). Cumulative concentrations of NO2, O3 and PM2.5 were spatially interpolated at the residential addresses based on measurements from community monitors up to 12 months prior to testing. Single and multi-pollutant linear effects models were used to test the cumulative monthly lag effects of NO2, O3, and PM2.5 on morning serum cortisol levels after adjusting for age, sex, seasonality, social position, pubertal status, and body fat percent by DEXA. RESULTS: Single and multi-pollutant models showed that higher O3 exposure (derived from maximum 8-h exposure windows) in the prior 1-7 months was associated with higher serum morning cortisol (p < 0.05) and longer term PM2.5 exposure (4-10 months) was associated with lower serum morning cortisol levels (p < 0.05). Stratification by pubertal status showed associations in pre-pubertal children compared to pubertal and post-pubertal children. Single, but not multi-pollutant, models showed that higher NO2 over the 4-10 month exposure period associated with lower morning serum cortisol (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Chronic ambient NO2, O3 and PM2.5 differentially associate with HPA-axis dysfunction, a mechanism that may serve as an explanatory pathway in the relationship between ambient air pollution and metabolic health of youth living in polluted urban environments. Further research that uncovers how ambient air pollutants may differentially contribute to HPA-axis dysfunction are warranted.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Los Angeles , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 321(1): E24-E46, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900849

RESUMO

Prematurity is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Premature infants often require extended hospital stays, with increased risk of developing infection compared with term infants. A picture is emerging of wide-ranging deleterious consequences resulting from innate immune system activation in the newborn infant. Those who survive infection have been exposed to a stimulus that can impose long-lasting alterations into later life. In this review, we discuss sepsis-driven alterations in integrated neuroendocrine and metabolic pathways and highlight current knowledge gaps in respect of neonatal sepsis. We review established biomarkers for sepsis and extend the discussion to examine emerging findings from human and animal models of neonatal sepsis that propose novel biomarkers for early identification of sepsis. Future research in this area is required to establish a greater understanding of the distinct neonatal signature of early and late-stage infection, to improve diagnosis, curtail inappropriate antibiotic use, and promote precision medicine through a biomarker-guided empirical and adjunctive treatment approach for neonatal sepsis. There is an unmet clinical need to decrease sepsis-induced morbidity in neonates, to limit and prevent adverse consequences in later life and decrease mortality.


Assuntos
Sistema Endócrino , Imunidade Inata/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Sepse Neonatal , Animais , Biomarcadores , Gônadas , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Recém-Nascido , Sistemas Neurossecretores , Sepse , Glândula Tireoide
15.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916654

RESUMO

A novel botanical dietary supplement, formulated as a chewable tablet containing a defined mixture of Souroubea spp. vine and Platanus spp. Bark, was tested as a canine anxiolytic for thunderstorm noise-induced stress (noise aversion). The tablet contained five highly stable triterpenes and delivered 10 mg of the active ingredient betulinic acid (BA) for an intended 1 mg/kg dose in a 10 kg dog. BA in tablets was stable for 30 months in storage at 23 °C. Efficacy of the tablets in reducing anxiety in dogs was assessed in a blinded, placebo-controlled study by recording changes in blood cortisol levels and measures of behavioral activity in response to recorded intermittent thunder. Sixty beagles were assigned into groups receiving: placebo, 0.5×, 1×, 2×, and 4× dose, or the positive control (diazepam), for five days. Reduction in anxiety measures was partially dose-dependent and the 1× dose was effective in reducing inactivity time (p = 0.0111) or increased activity time (p = 0.0299) compared with placebo, indicating a decrease in anxiety response. Cortisol measures also showed a dose-dependent reduction in cortisol in dogs treated with the test tablet.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/terapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ericales/química , Medo/efeitos dos fármacos , Magnoliopsida/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Ansiedade/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Comprimidos , Triterpenos/química
16.
Genet Sel Evol ; 53(1): 32, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Susceptibility of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) to viral nervous necrosis (VNN) is well-known. Interest towards selective breeding as a tool to enhance genetic resistance in this species has increased sharply due to the major threat represented by VNN for farmed sea bass and limitations concerning specific therapeutical measures. A sea bass experimental population (N = 650) was challenged with nervous necrosis virus (NNV) to investigate genetic variation in VNN mortality. In addition, relationships of this trait with serum cortisol concentration after stress exposure, antibody titer against NNV antigens, and body weight at a fixed age were studied to identify potential indicator traits of VNN resistance. RESULTS: The estimate of heritability for VNN mortality was moderate and ranged from 0.15 (HPD95%, 95% highest posterior density interval: 0.02, 0.31) to 0.23 (HPD95%: 0.06, 0.47). Heritability estimates for cortisol concentration, antibody titer, and body weight were 0.19 (HPD95%: 0.07, 0.34), 0.36 (HPD95%: 0.16, 0.59) and 0.57 (HPD95%: 0.33, 0.84), respectively. Phenotypic relationships between traits were trivial and not statistically significant, except for the estimated correlation between antibody titer and body weight (0.24). Genetic correlations of mortality with body weight or antibody titer (- 0.39) exhibited a 0.89 probability of being negative. A negligible genetic correlation between mortality and cortisol concentration was detected. Antibody titer was estimated to be positively correlated with body weight (0.49). CONCLUSIONS: Antibody titer against NNV offers the opportunity to use indirect selection to enhance resistance, while the use of cortisol concentration as an indicator trait in breeding programs for VNN resistance is questionable. The estimate of heritability for VNN mortality indicates the feasibility of selective breeding to enhance resistance to NNV and raises attention to the development of genomic prediction tools to simplify testing procedures for selection candidates.


Assuntos
Bass/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Bass/virologia , Peso Corporal , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/veterinária
17.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 210: 105856, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647522

RESUMO

To evaluate the diagnostic value of serum levels of adrenal steroids for diagnosing and subtyping Cushing's syndrome. Patients diagnosed with endogenous Cushing's syndrome (34 and 19 patients with adrenal and pituitary Cushing's syndrome, respectively) and healthy controls (n = 34) were consecutively enrolled at Seoul National University from 2016 to 2020. Morning serum samples were collected before and 3 months after treatment. Serum steroids were profiled using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The diagnostic value of each and the combination of steroids were assessed using the area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) and decision tree analysis. Tetrahydrocortisone and 6ß-hydroxycortisol showed the highest AUROC (0.893 and 0.890, respectively) for the diagnosis of endogenous Cushing's syndrome. The decision tree composed of tetrahydrocortisone and 6ß-hydroxycortisol correctly classified 79/87 (90.8 %) subjects. For subtyping into adrenal or pituitary Cushing's syndrome, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) showed the highest AUROC (0.988), which was similar to that of plasma ACTH (0.994, P = 0.458). The decision tree composed of only DHEA-S correctly classified 51/53 (96.2 %) of the Cushing's syndrome subtype. DHEA-S showed a significant linear correlation with the plasma ACTH level, but not with the 24 -h urine free cortisol or dexamethasone suppression test results. All steroids, except allo-tetrahydrocortisol and tetrahydrocortisone, decreased significantly at 3 months post-treatment with similar patterns in both adrenal and pituitary Cushing's syndrome. Serum steroid profiling using a single morning serum sample provides valuable information for diagnosing and subtyping Cushing's syndrome.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Cushing/sangue , Síndrome de Cushing/diagnóstico , Esteroides/sangue , Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Síndrome de Cushing/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Cushing/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análogos & derivados , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Hidrocortisona/urina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hipófise/metabolismo , Curva ROC , Tetra-Hidrocortisona/sangue
18.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 47(4): 895-905, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786673

RESUMO

Stress is an energy-demanding process, as well as the responses of the innate immune system, that impose a metabolic overload on cellular energy production, which can affect the cellular redox balance, causing oxidative damage. We evaluated the role of stress in the modulation of innate immune and oxidative/antioxidant mechanisms in juvenile pacu exposed to acute and chronic stressors. The experimental period lasted 30 days, and fish (113.7 ± 35.1 g) were fed commercial feed. During this period, half of the fish were not manipulated (Condition A), and the other half were chased with a dip net for 5 min twice a day (Condition C). After the 30-day period, fish from both groups were sampled (baseline sampling), and the remainders (not sampled) were air exposed for 3 min (acute stressor), returned to the tanks, and were sampled again 30 min, 3 h, 6 h, and 24 h after air exposure. We evaluated biomarkers of stress (circulating cortisol and glucose), the innate immune system (respiratory burst activity/RBA, hemolytic activity of the complement system (HA-AP) and serum concentration of lysozyme), oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation/LPO), and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; and glutathione peroxidase, GSH-Px). Our results showed that stress, acutely or chronically, caused a transient reduction of RAL and activated the HA-AP. Acutely, stress increased the lysozyme concentration. Furthermore, both conditions caused oxidative stress in the liver, and differently they modulated the antioxidant system, enhancing SOD activity and impairing CAT and GSH-Px activity.


Assuntos
Caraciformes , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Catalase/metabolismo , Caraciformes/sangue , Caraciformes/imunologia , Caraciformes/metabolismo , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Hemólise , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Imunidade Inata , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Explosão Respiratória , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
19.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 32(5): 656-665, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781686

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report outcomes of patients undergoing adrenal vein sampling (AVS) for primary aldosteronism with results indicating apparent bilateral adrenal suppression (ABAS), in which the adrenal aldosterone-to-cortisol ratios are decreased bilaterally ("double-down") compared to the non-adrenal sample, and evaluate repeat AVS results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2003 and 2020, 762 patients underwent AVS. Twenty patients (2.6%; male, 12; female, 8; age 50.3 ± 9.7 years) with ABAS on initial AVS were identified. Ten underwent repeat AVS. Super-selective AVS (SS-AVS) was employed in 6 of 10 repeat AVS (60%). Outcomes after AVS were analyzed. A lateralization index (LI) >4 was considered an indication for adrenalectomy. RESULTS: Repeat AVS was diagnostic in 70% of patients (n = 7), with 6 of 7 lateralizing with LI >4 (median LI = 32.3; range 4.6-54.8) and 1 of 7 nearly lateralizing (LI = 3.5). All 7 patients underwent adrenalectomy. ABAS was redemonstrated in 3 patients (30%): 2 with unilateral adenomas on cross-sectional imaging underwent adrenalectomy despite ABAS results and 1 was lost to follow-up. Four of 6 patients (66%) who underwent SS-AVS were diagnosed with unilateral disease (median LI = 43.3; range 23.9-54.8), with one patient's diagnosis reliant upon a single super-selective sample. In total, 9 patients underwent adrenalectomy after repeat AVS, all of whom had improved blood pressure control postoperatively. Ten patients did not undergo repeat AVS: 6 were lost to follow-up, 3 underwent medical management, and 1 underwent adrenalectomy. CONCLUSIONS: AVS should be repeated when "double-down" ABAS results are encountered. Super-selective sampling may provide worthwhile diagnostic data when employed during repeat AVS.


Assuntos
Testes de Função do Córtex Suprarrenal , Glândulas Suprarrenais/irrigação sanguínea , Aldosterona/sangue , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Hiperaldosteronismo/diagnóstico , Veias , Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Glândulas Suprarrenais/cirurgia , Adrenalectomia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/sangue , Hiperaldosteronismo/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 215: 112144, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743405

RESUMO

Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5) has been linked to adverse health outcomes in welding workers. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of chronic exposure to metal fume PM2.5 in shipyard workers with health outcomes. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the effects of metal fume PM2.5 on FeNO, urinary metals, urinary oxidative stress, inflammation, and stress hormones in workers. There were 20 office workers and 49 welding workers enrolled in this study who were followed-up for a second year. We observed that Fe, Zn, and Mn were abundant in PM2.5 to which welding workers were personally exposed, whereas PM2.5 to which office workers were personally exposed was dominated by Pb, Cu, and Zn. We observed in the first and/or second visits that urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2-α (PGF2α) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy guanosine (8-OHdG) were significantly increased by exposure. An increase in urinary interleukin (IL)-6 and decreases in urinary serotonin and cortisol were observed in the first and/or second visits after exposure. PM2.5 was associated with decreases in urinary 8-OHdG and cortisol among workers. Next, we observed that urinary Ni, Co, and Fe had significantly increased among workers after a year of exposure. Urinary metals were associated with decreases in urinary 8-iso-PGF2α and cortisol among workers. Urinary Ni, Cu, and Fe levels were associated with an increase in urinary IL-6 and a decrease in urinary cortisol among workers. In conclusion, chronic exposure to metal fume PM2.5 was associated with inflammation and a cortisol deficiency in shipyard workers, which could associate with adrenal glands dysfunction.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona/sangue , Metais , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina , Adulto , Gases , Humanos , Inflamação , Interleucina-6 , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Estresse Oxidativo , Soldagem
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