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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237922, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Levels of cortisol, melatonin, ghrelin, and leptin are highly correlated with circadian rhythmicity. The levels of these hormones are affected by sleep, feeding, and general behaviors, and fluctuate with light and dark cycles. During the fasting month of Ramadan, a shift to nighttime eating is expected to affect circadian rhythm hormones and, subsequently, the levels of melatonin, cortisol, ghrelin, and leptin. The present study aimed to examine the effect of diurnal intermittent fasting (DIF) during Ramadan on daytime levels of ghrelin, leptin, melatonin, and cortisol hormones in a group of overweight and obese subjects, and to determine how anthropometric, dietary, and lifestyle changes during the month of Ramadan correlate with these hormonal changes. METHODS: Fifty-seven overweight and obese male (40) and female (17) subjects were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, sleep duration, and hormonal levels of serum ghrelin, leptin, melatonin, and salivary cortisol were assessed one week before the start of Ramadan fasting and after 28 days of fasting at fixed times of the day (11:00 am-1:00 pm). RESULTS: At the end of Ramadan, serum levels of ghrelin, melatonin, and leptin significantly (P<0.001) decreased, while salivary cortisol did not change compared to the levels assessed in the pre-fasting state. CONCLUSIONS: DIF during Ramadan significantly altered serum levels of ghrelin, melatonin, and serum leptin. Further, male sex and anthropometric variables were the most impacting factors on the tested four hormones. Further studies are needed to assess DIF's impact on the circadian rhythmicity of overweight and obese fasting people.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Jejum/sangue , Grelina/sangue , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Melatonina/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Sono/fisiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235806, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756565

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Oxytocin is a key hormone in breastfeeding. No recent review on plasma levels of oxytocin in response to breastfeeding is available. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Systematic literature searches on breastfeeding induced oxytocin levels were conducted 2017 and 2019 in PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. Data on oxytocin linked effects and effects of medical interventions were included if available. RESULTS: We found 29 articles that met the inclusion criteria. All studies had an exploratory design and included 601 women. Data were extracted from the articles and summarised in tables. Breastfeeding induced an immediate and short lasting (20 minutes) release of oxytocin. The release was pulsatile early postpartum (5 pulses/10 minutes) and coalesced into a more protracted rise as lactation proceeded. Oxytocin levels were higher in multiparous versus primiparous women. The number of oxytocin pulses during early breastfeeding was associated with greater milk yield and longer duration of lactation and was reduced by stress. Breastfeeding-induced oxytocin release was associated with elevated prolactin levels; lowered ACTH and cortisol (stress hormones) and somatostatin (a gastrointestinal hormone) levels; enhanced sociability; and reduced anxiety, suggesting that oxytocin induces physiological and psychological adaptations in the mother. Mechanical breast pumping, but not bottle-feeding was associated with oxytocin and prolactin release and decreased stress levels. Emergency caesarean section reduced oxytocin and prolactin release in response to breastfeeding and also maternal mental adaptations. Epidural analgesia reduced prolactin and mental adaptation, whereas infusions of synthetic oxytocin increased prolactin and mental adaptation. Oxytocin infusion also restored negative effects induced by caesarean section and epidural analgesia. CONCLUSIONS: Oxytocin is released in response to breastfeeding to cause milk ejection, and to induce physiological changes to promote milk production and psychological adaptations to facilitate motherhood. Stress and medical interventions during birth may influence these effects and thereby adversely affect the initiation of breastfeeding.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Lactação/sangue , Ocitocina/sangue , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Ansiedade/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Lactação/fisiologia , Gravidez , Prolactina/sangue , Estresse Fisiológico
4.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(3): 325-333, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717717

RESUMO

Objective: To identify radiologic features that correlate with mild autonomous cortisol excess using planar and volumetric analysis. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: In the study, 64 patients with overt Cushing syndrome (CS), 59 patients with mild autonomous cortisol excess (MACE), and 64 patients with nonfunctioning adrenal tumors (NFAT) with evaluable CT scans were included. Patients with NFAT and MACE were BMI-matched with those with overt CS. Planar and volumetric analyses of CT scans were performed in DICOM images using OsiriX software. Results: The mean age was 56.6 ± 1.01 years, and 123 patients (65.1%) were female. In the order of NFAT, MACE, and overt CS, the diameters and volumes of the adenoma increased, while limb widths and volumes of the contralateral adrenal gland decreased. Patients with MACE or overt CS were more likely to have osteoporosis than those with NFAT (P = 0.006), and patients with overt CS were more likely to experience a fragility fracture than those with NFAT or MACE (P = 0.002). Among radiologic features, the limb width of the contralateral adrenal gland correlated with the cortisol level after overnight dexamethasone suppression test (r = -0.583, P < 0.001). Conclusions: The study showed that the contralateral adrenal limb thinning was a distinctive radiologic feature of autonomous cortisol excess in the planar and volumetric analysis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/sangue , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Síndrome de Cushing/sangue , Síndrome de Cushing/patologia , Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236742, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730302

RESUMO

Surgical castration of male piglets without analgesia is a painful procedure. This prospective, randomized and double-blinded study aimed to evaluate the analgesic effects of four different local anesthetics for piglet castration during the first week of life. In total, 54 piglets aged 3 to 7 days were distributed into 6 treatment groups: handling (H); castration without pain relief (sodium chloride, NaCl); and castration with a local anesthetic: 4% procaine (P), 2% lidocaine (L), 0.5% bupivacaine (B) or 20 mg/ml mepivacaine (M). By excluding stress and fear as disruptive factors via a minimum anesthesia model, all piglets received individual minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) isoflurane anesthesia. Twenty minutes before castration, all treatment groups except group H received one injection per testis. Then, 0.5 ml of a local anesthetic or NaCl was injected intratesticularly (i.t.), and 0.5 ml was administered subscrotally. Acute physiological responses to noxious stimuli at injection and castration were evaluated by measuring blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine and chromogranin A (CgA); limb movements were quantified. The results confirm that castration without analgesia is highly painful. Surgical castration without pain relief revealed significant changes in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and HR. Local anesthetic administration significantly reduced changes in BP and HR associated with castration. Piglets receiving a preoperative local anesthetic exhibited the fewest limb movements during castration, while the NaCl group exhibited the most. Injection itself was not associated with significant changes in MAP or HR. However, many piglets exhibited limb movements during injection, indicating that the injection itself causes nociceptive pain. No significant differences were found between groups regarding parameters of plasma cortisol, catecholamines and CgA. In conclusion, all four local anesthetics administered are highly effective at reducing signs of nociception during castration under light isoflurane anesthesia. However, injection of a local anesthetic seems to be painful.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/veterinária , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea , Castração/veterinária , Extremidades/fisiologia , Movimento , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Castração/métodos , Catecolaminas/sangue , Frequência Cardíaca , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Masculino , Suínos
7.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 55(8): 749-755, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558613

RESUMO

This study assessed the hematological, enzymatic and osmoregulatory responses of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to sublethal concentrations (1.125 and 3.750 µg/L) of a commercial thiamethoxam-containing insecticide used on rice crops. Groups of 6 fish per tank (in triplicate, n = 3, total 54 fish) were exposed for up to 96 h to different concentrations of the compound. After this period, fish were placed in clean water for 48 h. Two fish from each tank (6 per treatment) that had been exposed to the insecticide for 24 h were anesthetized with eugenol and blood was collected to evaluate hematological and biochemical parameters. Blood, liver and muscle were collected for determination of metabolic parameters, plasma cortisol, Cl-, Na+ and K+ levels and H+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the gill. H+-ATPase activity was higher in fish exposed to 1.125 µg/L insecticide at 24 h compared to control (0.0 µg/L). Differences in cortisol levels were evidenced throughout the experimental period. These results indicated that exposure to the insecticide changed the hematological, biochemical and metabolic profile of the animals, suggesting concern about environmental safety. Therefore, we discourage the use of this pesticide in areas that come into contact with water bodies inhabited by fish.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Tiametoxam/toxicidade , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Animais , Peixes-Gato/sangue , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
8.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(1): G1-G7, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-256412

RESUMO

Clinical evaluation should guide those needing immediate investigation. Strict adherence to COVID-19 protection measures is necessary. Alternative ways of consultations (telephone, video) should be used. Early discussion with regional/national experts about investigation and management of potential and existing patients is strongly encouraged. Patients with moderate or severe clinical features need urgent investigation and management. Patients with active Cushing's syndrome, especially when severe, are immunocompromised and vigorous adherence to the principles of social isolation is recommended. In patients with mild features or in whom a diagnosis is less likely, clinical re-evaluation should be repeated at 3 and 6 months or deferred until the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 has significantly decreased; however, those individuals should be encouraged to maintain social distancing. Diagnostic pathways may need to be very different from usual recommendations in order to reduce possible exposure to SARS-CoV-2. When extensive differential diagnostic testing and/or surgery is not feasible, it should be deferred and medical treatment should be initiated. Transsphenoidal pituitary surgery should be delayed during high SARS-CoV-2 viral prevalence. Medical management rather than surgery will be the used for most patients, since the short- to mid-term prognosis depends in most cases on hypercortisolism rather than its cause; it should be initiated promptly to minimize the risk of infection in these immunosuppressed patients. The risk/benefit ratio of these recommendations will need re-evaluation every 2-3 months from April 2020 in each country (and possibly local areas) and will depend on the local health care structure and phase of pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Cushing/terapia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Telemedicina , Inibidores de 14-alfa Desmetilase/uso terapêutico , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/complicações , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/diagnóstico , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/terapia , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Síndrome de Cushing/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Cushing/etiologia , Síndrome de Cushing/imunologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Cetoconazol/uso terapêutico , Metirapona/uso terapêutico , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1927): 20192941, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396799

RESUMO

Mimicry, and especially spontaneous facial mimicry, is a rudimentary element of social-emotional experience that is well-conserved across numerous species. Although such mimicry is thought to be a relatively automatic process, research indicates that contextual factors can influence mimicry, especially in humans. Here, we extend this work by investigating the effect of acute psychosocial stress on spontaneous facial mimicry. Participants performed a spontaneous facial mimicry task with facial electromyography (fEMG) at baseline and approximately one month later, following an acute psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test). Results show that the magnitude of the endocrine stress response reduced zygomaticus major reactivity, and specifically spontaneous facial mimicry for positive social stimuli (i.e. smiles). Individuals with higher levels of the stress hormone cortisol showed a more blunted fEMG response to smiles, but not to frowns. Conversely, stress had no effect on corrugator supercilii activation (i.e. frowning to frowns). These findings highlight the importance of the biological stress response system in this basic element of social-emotional experience.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona/sangue , Comportamento Imitativo/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Músculos Faciais , Humanos
10.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(1): G1-G7, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380475

RESUMO

Clinical evaluation should guide those needing immediate investigation. Strict adherence to COVID-19 protection measures is necessary. Alternative ways of consultations (telephone, video) should be used. Early discussion with regional/national experts about investigation and management of potential and existing patients is strongly encouraged. Patients with moderate or severe clinical features need urgent investigation and management. Patients with active Cushing's syndrome, especially when severe, are immunocompromised and vigorous adherence to the principles of social isolation is recommended. In patients with mild features or in whom a diagnosis is less likely, clinical re-evaluation should be repeated at 3 and 6 months or deferred until the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 has significantly decreased; however, those individuals should be encouraged to maintain social distancing. Diagnostic pathways may need to be very different from usual recommendations in order to reduce possible exposure to SARS-CoV-2. When extensive differential diagnostic testing and/or surgery is not feasible, it should be deferred and medical treatment should be initiated. Transsphenoidal pituitary surgery should be delayed during high SARS-CoV-2 viral prevalence. Medical management rather than surgery will be the used for most patients, since the short- to mid-term prognosis depends in most cases on hypercortisolism rather than its cause; it should be initiated promptly to minimize the risk of infection in these immunosuppressed patients. The risk/benefit ratio of these recommendations will need re-evaluation every 2-3 months from April 2020 in each country (and possibly local areas) and will depend on the local health care structure and phase of pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Cushing/terapia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Telemedicina , Inibidores de 14-alfa Desmetilase/uso terapêutico , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/complicações , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/diagnóstico , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/terapia , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Síndrome de Cushing/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Cushing/etiologia , Síndrome de Cushing/imunologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Cetoconazol/uso terapêutico , Metirapona/uso terapêutico , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(2): 161-167, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449698

RESUMO

Introduction: Intravenous etomidate infusion is effective to rapidly lower cortisol levels in severe Cushing's syndrome (CS) in the intensive care unit (ICU). Recently, etomidate treatment has also been proposed at lower doses in non-ICU wards, but it is not yet clear how this approach compares to ICU treatment. Methods: We compared data from patients with severe CS treated with high starting doses of etomidate (median: 0.30 mg/kg BW/day) in ICU or with lower starting doses (median: 0.025 mg/kg BW/day) in non-ICU medical wards. Results: Fourteen patients were included, among which ten were treated with low starting doses (LD) and four with high starting doses etomidate (HD). All patients had severe and complicated CS related to adrenal carcinoma (n = 8) or ectopic ACTH secretion (n = 6). Etomidate was effective in reducing cortisol levels below 500 nmol/L in a median of 1 day in the HD group compared to 3 days in the LD group (P = 0.013). However, all patients of the HD group had etomidate-induced cortisol insufficiency and needed frequent monitoring, while no patient from the LD group required hydrocortisone supplementation. No patient in either group died from complications of CS or etomidate treatment, but final outcome was poor as six patients in the LD group and all four patients in the HD group died from their cancer during follow-up. Conclusion: Our study suggests that, for patients with severe CS who do not require intensive organ-supporting therapy, the use of very low doses of etomidate in medical wards should be considered.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Cushing/tratamento farmacológico , Etomidato/administração & dosagem , Etomidato/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de ACTH Ectópico/complicações , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Síndrome de Cushing/sangue , Síndrome de Cushing/complicações , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Unidades Hospitalares , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 17(1): 28, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Muscular damage sustained while playing rugby may hinder performance across a season. ß-Hydroxy ß-Methylbutyrate (HMB) may help attenuate muscle damage and maintain lean mass and performance. This study sought to determine the effect of combining HMB with creatine monohydrate supplementation on measures of stress and muscle damage, body composition, strength and sprinting kinetics throughout a rugby season. METHODS: This double-blind, cross-over investigation recruited 16 male collegiate rugby players to provide resting blood samples and complete assessments of body composition, strength and sprinting performance prior to their fall season (PREFALL). After testing, the athletes were matched for fat-free mass and assigned to consume one of two supplementation regimens for 6 weeks: 5 g HMB + 5 g creatine per day (HMB-Cr: 20.9 ± 1.1 years; 177 ± 2 cm; 88.4 ± 4.9 kg) or 5 g creatine + 5 g placebo per day (Cr: 21.4 ± 2.1 years; 179 ± 2 cm; 88.3 ± 4.9 kg). After 6 weeks (POSTFALL), PREFALL testing was repeated in 13 of the original 16 athletes before a 10-wk wash-out period. Athletes who returned for the spring season (n = 8) repeated all fall-season procedures and testing prior to (PRESPRING) and following (POSTSPRING) their 6-wk spring season, except they were assigned to the opposite supplementation regimen. RESULTS: Linear mixed models with repeated measures revealed group x time interactions (p <  0.05) for observed for several measures but did not consistently and positively favor one group. During the fall season, knee extensor peak torque was reduced by 40.7 ± 28.1 Nm (p = 0.035) for HMB-Cr but remained consistent for Cr, and no group differences or changes were noted in the spring. In the spring, greater knee flexor rate of torque development (~ 149 Nm·sec- 1, p = 0.003) and impulse (~ 4.5 Nm·sec, p = 0.022) were observed in Cr at PRESPRING but not at POSTSPRING. Although significant interactions were found for cortisol concentrations, vastus lateralis pennation angle, and sprinting force, post-hoc analysis only revealed differences between fall and spring seasons. No other differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of HMB and creatine monohydrate supplementation does not provide a greater ergogenic benefit compared to creatine monohydrate supplementation alone. Body composition, strength, and sprinting ability did not change across the season with creatine monohydrate supplementation.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Composição Corporal , Creatina/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Futebol Americano , Valeratos/administração & dosagem , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(10): 646-651, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32455452

RESUMO

We aimed to determine whether basal concentrations of testosterone, cortisol or the ratio testosterone/cortisol were related to sweat Na+ loss, sweat Na+ concentration ([Na+]) and sweat rate during exercise. Twenty-two female elite soccer players participated in the study. Testosterone and cortisol were measured in blood samples before exercise. Sweat samples were collected during a training session (~20°C, ~30% RH, and ~0.55 m/s of wind speed) to measure sweat [Na+]. Sweat rate was determined by considering the difference between post-and pre-body weight, along with the amount of liquid consumed. During exercise, sweat Na+ loss (0.33[0.19] g/h) and sweat rate (0.49[0.20] L/h) were related to basal testosterone concentration (1.4[0.4] pg/mL) (r=0.54; r=0.55, respectively; p<0.05), but not with basal cortisol concentration (119.2[24.2] ng/mL) nor testosterone/cortisol ratio (0.012[0.003]) (p>0.05). However, when Na+ loss was adjusted to sweat rate, no association was found between Na+ loss and testosterone (p>0.05). In addition, no differences were found between players with high vs. low Na+ loss adjusted to sweat loss in menstrual phase or intensity during exercise (p>0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that in these specific environmental conditions, basal levels of testosterone might increase sweat rate and therefore, the amount of Na+ lost during exercise in elite women soccer players.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Basal , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Futebol/fisiologia , Sódio/metabolismo , Sudorese/fisiologia , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374403

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate whether acute pain associated with castration and tail docking of male piglets may modulate the expression of salivary microRNAs (miRNAs) and to explore their potential use as biomarkers. Thirty-six healthy 4-d-old piglets (Hermitage × Duroc) were randomly assigned to three groups: the first group (12 piglets) has been pretreated with anesthetic and anti-inflammatory drugs (ANA) and then castrated and tail docked; the second one (12 piglets) has been castrated and tail docked without any drugs (CONV); the third one (12 piglets) has been only handled (SHAM). Saliva was collected 10 min before (control group) and 30 to 45 min after the procedures. Salivary cortisol has been quantified. The expression concentrations of seven miRNAs, namely miR-19b, miR-27b-3p, miR-215, miR-22-3p, miR-155-5p, hsa-miR-365-5p, and hsa-miR-204, were measured and assessed as potential biomarkers of pain by quantitative Polimerase Chain Reaction using TaqMan probes. The area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of miRNAs. The concentration of salivary cortisol increased after treatment in CONV and ANA, while no significant variation was observed in the SHAM group. The comparative analysis demonstrated that the concentrations of salivary miR-19b (P = 0.001), miR-27b (P = 0.042), and miR-365 (P < 0.0001) were significantly greater in CONV as compared with pretreatment. The AUC of pretreatment vs. CONV and CONV vs. ANA were excellent for miR-19b and miR-365 and fair for miR-27b. Combining two miRNAs, namely miR-19b and miR-365, in a panel increased the efficiency of distinguishing between pre- and post-treatment groups. No differences have been identified between SHAM and ANA groups. mRNA potential targets of differentially expressed-miRNA were investigated, and genes related to pain and inflammation were identified: miR-19b potentially modulates TGF-beta and focal adhesion pathways, miR-365 regulates cytokines expression (i.e., IL-1, Tumor Necross Factor-alpha, and IL-8 cytokine), and miR-27b regulates macrophage inflammatory protein pathways (i.e., MIP1-beta). In conclusion, we demonstrated that the abundance of miR-19b, miR-27b, and miR-365 increases in the saliva of piglets castrated and tail docked without the administration of pain-relieving drugs. Further studies are needed to assess their potential during routine husbandry procedures and to extend their assessment in other stressful events, such as weaning or chronic pain.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona/sangue , MicroRNAs/sangue , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Suínos/sangue , Cauda/cirurgia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Citocinas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Inflamação , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Orquiectomia/efeitos adversos , RNA Mensageiro , Suínos/metabolismo
15.
Endocrine ; 68(2): 251-252, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-133478
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(6): 5501-5508, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307170

RESUMO

Breeding stress-resilient livestock is a potential strategy to help mitigate the negative effect of environmental and pathogenic stressors. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and immune system are activated during stress events and release mediators into the circulation that help restore physiological homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to assess a comprehensive set of circulatory mediators released in response to an acute immune stress challenge to identify candidate biomarkers that can be used for the selection of stress-resilient animals. Fifteen female lambs were stress challenged with an intravenous bolus of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 400 ng/kg), and blood was collected from the jugular vein at 0, 2, 4, and 6 h after LPS challenge to identify and monitor candidate stress biomarkers; temperature was also recorded over time. Biomarker responses were evaluated with a repeated-measures model to compare time points with baseline values. As expected, all sheep had a monophasic febrile response to LPS challenge, and cortisol increased and returned to baseline by 6 h. The cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, IFN-γ (proinflammatory), and IL-10 (anti-inflammatory) increased, but only tumor necrosis factor-α returned to baseline during the monitoring period. The cytokines IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL-17α (proinflammatory), and IL-4 (anti-inflammatory) did not respond to LPS challenge. All chemokines (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CXCL10, and IL-8) responded to LPS challenge; however, only CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, and CXCL10 increased over time, and only CCL3, CCL4, and CXCL10 returned to baseline during the monitoring period. MicroRNA (miR-145, miR-233, and miR-1246) also increased and remained elevated during the study. In summary, the LPS challenge induced a strong stress response in Rideau-Dorset sheep that could be monitored with a distinct profile of circulatory biomarkers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Endotoxemia/sangue , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Ovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Cruzamento , Citocinas/genética , Endotoxemia/imunologia , Feminino , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , MicroRNAs/genética , Ovinos/sangue , Ovinos/genética , Ovinos/imunologia , Estresse Fisiológico
17.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(3): 363-368, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238057

RESUMO

The addition of ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) to serum can affect the measurement of cortisol by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CEIA); addition of magnesium chloride (MgCl2) may reverse the effects. However, similar characteristics for thyroxine (T4) measurement are unknown. We measured cortisol and T4 in paired EDTA-anticoagulated plasma and serum samples from 50 dogs. Additionally, both hormones were measured in 15 samples of each type after the addition of MgCl2. Samples were collected under routine clinical conditions; therefore, specific EDTA concentrations in plasma samples were unknown. Cortisol and T4 values were significantly different comparing plasma and serum samples in the absence of MgCl2. For cortisol and T4, EDTA-plasma concentrations were 51.2% and 43.7% higher than serum, respectively (p < 0.001 for both). The addition of MgCl2 to plasma significantly decreased the measured cortisol concentrations (p < 0.001) but not T4 (p = 0.44). After addition of MgCl2, cortisol concentrations in EDTA-plasma were no longer significantly different from serum, whereas T4 concentrations in EDTA-plasma remained significantly different from serum. In the clinical setting in which tubes may be underfilled, use of EDTA-plasma significantly increases the measured concentration of cortisol and T4 obtained by CEIA. Addition of MgCl2 to EDTA-plasma can overcome the effects of EDTA when measuring cortisol, but not T4. Thus, T4 should not be measured in EDTA-plasma.


Assuntos
Ácido Edético/análise , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Medições Luminescentes/veterinária , Tiroxina/sangue , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Masculino
18.
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6612-6626, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307158

RESUMO

Adrenal responsiveness was tested in nonpregnant, lactating Holstein dairy cows fed diets supplemented with OmniGen-AF (OG; Phibro Animal Health Corp., Teaneck, NJ), an immune modulator, and in nonsupplemented control (CON) cows following bolus infusions of a combination of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH; 0.3 µg/kg of BW) and arginine vasopressin (VP; 1.0 µg/kg of BW) or ACTH (0.1 IU/kg of BW) in 2 environments: thermoneutral [TN; temperature-humidity index (THI) <60] for 24 h/d and heat stress (HS; THI >68 for 17 h/d). Cows (506) were initially fed OG (n = 254) or CON (n = 252) diets for 44 d before selection of a subgroup of cows (n = 12; 6 OG, 6 CON) for the study. The 2 subgroups were balanced for parity, milk yield, and days in milk. All cows were transported to and housed in 2 environmentally controlled rooms at the University of Arizona Agricultural Research Complex (Tucson). Cows were given 3 d to acclimate to the rooms and then underwent 12 d of TN conditions and then 8 d of HS conditions for a total of 24 d on experiment. Cows were infused with CRH-VP on d 9 of TN and on d 1 of HS and with ACTH on d 10 of TN and on d 2 of HS. Hormone infusions took place at 1000 h (0 h) on each infusion day. Blood samples, taken in 30-min intervals, were first collected at 0800 h (-2 h) and were drawn until 1800 h (8 h). Before infusion, serum progesterone was elevated in OG cows compared with CON cows. Infusion of releasing factors (CRH-VP or ACTH) caused increases in serum cortisol and progesterone, but cortisol release was greater in CON cows than in OG cows during HS, whereas progesterone did not differ between the 2 treatments. Serum ACTH increased following infusion of releasing factors, but this increase was greater following CRH-VP infusion than ACTH infusion. Serum bovine corticosteroid-binding globulin also increased following infusion of releasing factors in both treatment groups, but this increase was greater during HS in cows fed OG. The free cortisol index (FCI) increased following CRH-VP and ACTH and was higher in HS than in TN for both OG and CON cows. However, the FCI response was blunted in OG cows compared with CON cows during HS. Heat stress enhanced the adrenal response to releasing factors. Additionally, the adrenal cortisol and FCI response to releasing factors was reduced during acute heat stress in cows fed OG. Collectively, these data suggest that OG supplementation reduced the adrenal responsiveness to factors regulating cortisol secretion during acute HS.


Assuntos
Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/farmacologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Leite/metabolismo , Vasopressinas/farmacologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Umidade , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Lactação , Paridade , Gravidez , Progesterona/sangue
20.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 64(1): 82-88, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187262

RESUMO

Objective The insulin tolerance test (ITT) has been accepted as the gold standard test for assessing the integrity of the growth hormone (GH) - insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The goal of the test is to achieve clinical and biochemical hypoglycemia at a blood glucose level ≤ 40 mg/dL to effectively and correctly assess the HPA and GH-IGF-1 axes. In this study, the GH and cortisol responses of patients who achieved and failed to achieve biochemical hypoglycemia during an ITT were compared. Subjects and methods One hundred thirty-five patients with pituitary disorders were included in the study. Samples for blood glucose levels were obtained after clear symptoms of clinical hypoglycemia developed. The patients were enrolled in the hypoglycemic and nonhypoglycemic groups according to whether their plasma glucose level ≤ 40 mg/dL or > 40 mg/dL during an ITT, and the groups were compared in terms of their GH and cortisol responses. Results The mean age, body mass index and waist circumference of the two patient groups were found to be similar. The mean blood glucose level was significantly lower in the hypoglycemic group than in the nonhypoglycemic group (19.3 and 52.0 mg/dL, respectively). When the two groups were compared in terms of peak cortisol and GH responses, no statistically significant differences were found. Conclusion The data presented suggest that clinically symptomatic hypoglycemia is as effective as biochemically confirmed hypoglycemia during an ITT. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(1):82-8.


Assuntos
Teste de Tolerância a Glucose/métodos , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/sangue , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Hipoglicemia/sangue , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/diagnóstico , Hipoglicemia/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos
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