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1.
Gene ; 739: 144515, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112987

RESUMO

Protein phosphatase methylesterase 1 has been identified as a novel gene in skeletal muscle that is upregulated in response to neurogenic atrophy in mice. Western blot analysis confirms that Ppme1 is expressed during both muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. Additionally, the Ppme1 promoter is active in muscle cells, while mutation of a conserved E-box element prevents full induction of the Ppme1 reporter gene, suggesting that Ppme1 is transcriptionally regulated by myogenic regulatory factors. Interestingly, immunofluorescence analysis indicates that Ppme1 is localized to both the cytoplasm and the nucleus, while cell fractionation shows that Ppme1 is found only in the cytoplasm. Functional studies reveal that inhibition of Ppme1 using ABL127 or AMZ30 attenuates muscle cell differentiation. Interestingly, inhibition of Ppme1 by ABL127 led to a significant increase in AP-1 reporter activity, as well as, increases in ERK1/2, c-Jun, Ppme1, and PP2A protein levels in differentiating muscle cells. In contrast, AMZ30 treated cells showed a significant decrease in AP-1 reporter activity and a decrease in ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation levels. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation studies show that ABL127, but not AMZ30, causes disruption of the endogenous interaction between Ppme1 and PP2A. The data in this study show for the first time that Ppme1 is expressed in skeletal muscle and is upregulated in response to neurogenic atrophy. Furthermore, these findings suggest that Ppme1 may act as a sentinel of the MAP kinase signaling pathway and may indirectly regulate the ERK1/2 and p38 branches via a non-canonical mechanism leading to inhibition of muscle cell differentiation.


Assuntos
Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Animais , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/antagonistas & inibidores , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Linhagem Celular , Genes Reporter , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Camundongos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Mioblastos/fisiologia , Fosforilação , Regulação para Cima
2.
Microbes Environ ; 35(1)2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101840

RESUMO

The genome of Streptomyces scabies, the predominant causal agent of potato common scab, encodes a potential cutinase, the protein Sub1, which was previously shown to be specifically induced in the presence of suberin. The sub1 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein Sub1 was purified and characterized. The enzyme was shown to be versatile because it hydrolyzes a number of natural and synthetic substrates. Sub1 hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl esters, with the hydrolysis of those harboring short carbon chains being the most effective. The Vmax and Km values of Sub1 for p-nitrophenyl butyrate were 2.36 mol g-1 min-1 and 5.7 10-4 M, respectively. Sub1 hydrolyzed the recalcitrant polymers cutin and suberin because the release of fatty acids from these substrates was observed following the incubation of the enzyme with these polymers. Furthermore, the hydrolyzing activity of the esterase Sub1 on the synthetic polymer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was demonstrated by the release of terephthalic acid (TA). Sub1 activity on PET was markedly enhanced by the addition of Triton and was shown to be stable at 37°C for at least 20 d.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Polímeros/metabolismo , Streptomyces/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Streptomyces/genética
3.
Xenobiotica ; 50(1): 92-100, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601149

RESUMO

The carboxylesterase drug hydrolysis pathway has been used extensively to improve the oral availability of drugs under the assumption that the high capacity and low substrate specificity of hydrolytic enzymes would ensure rapid, complete, and consistent conversion of prodrugs to their active metabolite. However, a growing body of literature indicates that drug hydrolysis is usually catalyzed by one primary enzyme, either carboxylesterase-1 or carboxlylesterase-2, and that there is wide variability in enzyme activity affecting the metabolism of prodrugs to their active metabolites.This review identifies carboxylesterase substrates and describes our current understanding of the influence of genetic polymorphisms on substrate disposition and clinical effects. Several polymorphisms are described in the literature and included in the personalized medicine database PharmGKB, but there are no carboxylesterase genotypes referenced in Food and Drug Administration approved drug labeling. The limited validation of metabolic pathways for drugs undergoing hydrolysis, and the small number of studies evaluating genotype-drug interactions confirm that this is an emerging field of drug metabolism research.The dependence of prodrugs, many with low therapeutic indexes, on carboxylesterase-mediated hydrolysis indicate that genetic variation plays an important role in prodrug activation, and that carboxylesterase genotyping will become an important component of personalized medicine.


Assuntos
Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Medicina de Precisão , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Interações Medicamentosas , Genótipo , Humanos , Hidrólise , Inativação Metabólica/genética , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , Polimorfismo Genético , Pró-Fármacos , Especificidade por Substrato
4.
Chem Biol Interact ; 315: 108871, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669218

RESUMO

Clopidogrel, a clinically used antiplatelet agent, can be readily hydrolyzed by human carboxylesterase 1A (CES1A) to release an inactive metabolite clopidogrel carboxylic acid (CCA). In this study, clopidogrel was used as a tool substrate to investigate the interspecies variation of clopidogrel hydrolysis in hepatic microsomes from various mammals including human and six laboratory animals (such as mouse, rat, rabbit, beagle dog, minipig and cynomolgus monkey). The results demonstrated that clopidogrel could be hydrolyzed into CCA by all tested hepatic microsomes from human or other mammals, but the hydrolytic rates greatly varied among species. Inhibition assays demonstrated that BNPP (an inactivator of mammalian CES) strongly inactivated clopidogrel hydrolytic activity in all tested hepatic microsomes, suggested that mammalian CES were major contributor(s) responsible for clopidogrel hydrolysis in hepatic preparations from all above-mentioned species. By contrast, the response of a reversible inhibitor of human CES1A on clopidogrel hydrolysis in these liver preparations varied significantly among different species. Moreover, the enzymatic kinetics and the apparent kinetic parameters of clopidogrel hydrolysis in hepatic microsomes from various animal species were evaluated and compared to each other. These findings provide crucial information for deeply understanding the differences in catalytic behaviors of mammalian CES, which will be very helpful for choosing suitable laboratory animal(s) for whole tests of CES1A substrate-drugs.


Assuntos
Clopidogrel/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Animais , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Cães , Humanos , Hidrólise , Cinética , Macaca fascicularis , Camundongos , Coelhos , Ratos , Suínos , Porco Miniatura
5.
Chem Biol Interact ; 316: 108914, 2020 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837295

RESUMO

Heroin (diamorphine) is a highly addictive opioid drug synthesized from morphine. The use of heroin and incidence of heroin associated overdose death has increased sharply in the US. Heroin is primarily metabolized via deacetylation (hydrolysis) forming the active metabolites 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) and morphine. A diminution in heroin hydrolysis is likely to cause higher drug effects and toxicities. In this study, we sought to determine the contribution of the major hepatic hydrolase carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) to heroin metabolism in the liver as well as the potential influence of one of its known genetic variants, G143E (rs71647871). Furthermore, given the potential therapeutic application of cannabidiol (CBD) for heroin addiction and the frequent co-abuse of cannabis and heroin, we also assessed the effects of CBD on heroin metabolism. In vitro systems containing human liver, wild-type CES1, and G143E CES1 S9 fractions were utilized in the assessment. The contribution of CES1 to the hydrolysis of heroin to 6-MAM was determined as 3.66%, and CES1 was unable to further catalyze 6-MAM under our assay conditions. The G143E variant showed a 3.2-fold lower intrinsic clearance of heroin as compared to the WT. CBD inhibited heroin and 6-MAM hydrolysis in a reversible manner, with IC50s of 14.7 and 12.1 µM, respectively. Our study results suggested only minor involvement of CES1 in heroin hydrolysis in the liver. Therefore, the G143E variant is unlikely to cause significant impact despite a much lower hydrolytic activity. CBD exhibited potent in vitro inhibition toward both heroin and 6-MAM hydrolysis, which may be of potential clinical relevance.


Assuntos
Canabidiol/farmacologia , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Heroína/metabolismo , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/química , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Hepatócitos/citologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Heroína/análise , Humanos , Hidrólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ácido Valproico/farmacologia
6.
Food Chem ; 308: 124832, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648093

RESUMO

Potatoes usually suffer from greatly decrease of hardness after boiling, which limits their processing potential in food industry. Moreover, methods for enhancing the hardness of potatoes after boiling are underexplored. In this study, the hardness of potato slices after boiling were increased from 288 g to 2342 g by the combined treatment of lactic acid (LA) and calcium chloride (CC). Through the analysis of the microstructure of the potato cells, the molecular weight distribution and natural sugar ratio of different soluble pectin fractions, and the enzymatic activities (polygalacturonase, PG and pectin methylesterase, PME), the possible mechanism behind the hardness enhancement by LA and CC pretreatment, namely the direct link between pectin and potato structure was revealed. The obtained results confirmed the target spot for enhancing the hardness of potatoes after boiling lay in PG activity and gelation of the pectin, which also could be used to help other plants resist the heat process if pectin existed in their cell wall.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Cálcio/farmacologia , Ácido Láctico/farmacologia , Solanum tuberosum/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Dureza , Temperatura Alta , Pectinas/química , Poligalacturonase/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/química , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo
7.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 133: 109467, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874689

RESUMO

The specific activity and enantioselectivity of immobilized cutinases from Aspergillus oryzae (AoC) and Humicola insolens (HiC) were compared with those of lipases from Thermomyces lanuginosus (TLL), Rhizomucor miehei (RML) and Lipase B from Candida antarctica (CALB) for menthol and its analogs that include isopulegol, trans-2-tert-butylcyclohexanol (2TBC), and dihydrocarveol (DHC). Common features of these alcohols are two bulky substituents: a cyclohexyl ring and an alkyl substituent. Dissimilarities are that the alkyl group reside at different positions or have dissimilar structures. The aim was to develop an understanding at a molecular level of similarities and differences in the catalytic behavior of the selected cutinases and lipases as a function of substrate structural elements. The experimental results reflect the (-)-enantioselectivity for AoC, HiC, TLL, and RML, while CALB is only active on DHC with (+)-enantioselectivity. In most cases, AoC has the highest activity while HiC is significantly more active than other enzymes on 2TBC. The E values of AoC, HiC, TLL, and RML for menthol are 27.8, 16.5, 155, and 125, respectively. HiC has a higher activity (>10-fold) on (-)-2TBC than AoC while they exhibit similar activities on menthol. Docking results reveal that the bulky group adjacent to the hydroxyl group determines the enantioselectivity of AoC, HiC, TLL, and RML. Amino acid residues that dominate the enantioselectivity of these enzymes are AoC's Phe195 aromatic ring; HiC's hydrophobic Leu 174 and Ile 169 groups; TLL's ring structures of Trp89, His258 and Tyr21; and Trp88 for RML. Results of this study highlight that cutinases can provide important advantages relative to lipases for enantioselective transformation, most notably with bulky and sterically hindered substrates.


Assuntos
Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Lipase/metabolismo , Mentol/análogos & derivados , Catálise , Fungos/enzimologia , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
8.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 261-264, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790606

RESUMO

Although paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity has been demonstrated to be a reliable biomarker of various diseases, clinical studies have been based only on relative comparison of specific enzyme activities, which capture differences mainly due to (usually unknown) PON1 concentration. Hence, the aim of this report is to present for the first time the simple evaluation method for determining autonomous kinetic parameter of PON1 that could be also associated with polymorphic forms and diseases; i.e. the Michaelis constant which is enzyme concentration independent quantity. This alternative approach significantly reduces the number of experiments needed, and it yields the results with great accuracy.


Assuntos
Arildialquilfosfatase/metabolismo , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Arildialquilfosfatase/antagonistas & inibidores , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Hidroxiquinolinas/química , Hidroxiquinolinas/farmacologia , Cinética , Estrutura Molecular
9.
Food Chem ; 305: 125433, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499293

RESUMO

Native high methoxy citrus pectin (NP) was de-esterified by pectin methyl esterase to produce modified pectins [MP (42, 37, and 33)] having different degrees of esterification. Complex coacervation between a pea protein isolate (PPI) and each pectin was investigated as a function of pH (8.0-1.5) and mixing ratio (1:1-30:1, PPI-pectin). Complex formation was found to be optimal for biopolymer-mixing ratios of 8:1, 8:1, 25:1 and 25:1 for PPI complexed with NP, MP42, MP37 and MP33, respectively, at pHs 3.6, 3.5, 3.9 and 3.9. And, the critical pHs associated with complex formation (accessed by turbidity) was found to shift significantly to higher pHs as the degree of esterification of the pectin decreased, whereas the shift in the pH corresponding to their initial interactions was minimal with degree of esterification. Complexation of PPI with NP and MP42 greatly improved the protein solubility.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ervilha/química , Pectinas/química , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Citrus/enzimologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Pectinas/metabolismo , Solubilidade
10.
Plant Sci ; 290: 110314, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779896

RESUMO

Chlorophyllase (CLH), which catalyzes the release of the phytol chain from chlorophyll (Chl), has been long considered to catalyze the first step of Chl degradation. Arabidopsis contains two isoforms of CLH (CLH1 and CLH2), and CLH1 was previously demonstrated to be localized in tonoplast and endoplasmic reticulum, and not be involved in Chl degradation. In contrast, CLH2 possesses a predicted signal-peptide for chloroplast localization, and phylogenetic analysis of CLHs in Arabidopsis and other species also indicate that CLH2 forms a different clade than CLH1. Therefore, the possibility remains that CLH2 is involved in the breakdown of Chl. In the current study, clh mutants lacking CLH2 or both CLH isoforms were analyzed after the induction of senescence. Results indicated that the clh knockout lines were still able to degrade Chl at the same rate as wild-type plants. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants were generated that constitutively expressed either CLH2 or CLH2 fused to a yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Observations made using confocal microscopy indicated that CLH2-YFP was located external to chloroplasts. Additionally, in overexpression plants, CLH2 was enriched in tonoplast and endoplasmic reticulum fractions following membrane fractionation. Based on the collective data, we conclude that CLH2 is not involved in Chl breakdown during senescence in Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Clorofila/metabolismo , Envelhecimento , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo
11.
Cancer Invest ; 38(1): 37-51, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868021

RESUMO

Regucalcin plays a pivotal role as a suppressor of human carcinogenesis, and downregulation of regucalcin expression may contribute to the promotion of human osteosarcoma. Overexpression of regucalcin suppressed the proliferation of Saos-2 human osteosarcoma cells in vitro and decreased the protein levels of multiple signaling components, transcription factors, and tumor suppressors. Interestingly, extracellular regucalcin repressed colony formation and proliferation of Saos-2 cells, and reduced the protein levels of multiple signaling components, cell cycle inhibitor, and various transcription factors. Thus, regucalcin suppressed the growth of human osteosarcoma cells, providing a novel strategy with the gene therapy for treatment of osteosarcoma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/terapia , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Terapia Genética/métodos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Osteossarcoma/terapia , Animais , Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/isolamento & purificação , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/isolamento & purificação , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Fígado , Osteossarcoma/genética , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Prognóstico , Ratos , Transfecção
12.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226039, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846465

RESUMO

The fat body, a multifunctional organ analogous to the liver and fat tissue of vertebrates, plays an important role in insect life cycles. The fat body is involved in protein storage, energy metabolism, elimination of xenobiotics, and production of immunity regulator-like proteins. However, the molecular mechanism of the fat body's physiological functions in the tephritid stem gall-forming fly, Procecidochares utilis, are still unknown. In this study, we performed transcriptome analysis of the fat body of P. utilis using Illumina sequencing technology. In total, 3.71 G of clean reads were obtained and assembled into 30,559 unigenes, with an average length of 539 bp. Among those unigenes, 21,439 (70.16%) were annotated based on sequence similarity to proteins in NCBI's non-redundant protein sequence database (Nr). Sequences were also compared to NCBI's non-redundant nucleotide sequence database (Nt), a manually curated and reviewed protein sequence database (SwissProt), and KEGG and gene ontology annotations were applied to better understand the functions of these unigenes. A comparative analysis was performed to identify unigenes related to detoxification, immunity and energy metabolism. Many unigenes involved in detoxification were identified, including 50 unigenes of putative cytochrome P450s (P450s), 18 of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), 35 of carboxylesterases (CarEs) and 26 of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Many unigenes related to immunity were identified, including 17 putative serpin genes, five peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) and four lysozyme genes. In addition, unigenes potentially involved in energy metabolism, including 18 lipase genes, five fatty acid synthase (FAS) genes and six elongases of very long chain fatty acid (ELOVL) genes, were identified. This transcriptome improves our genetic understanding of P. utilis and the identification of a numerous transcripts in the fat body of P. utilis offer a series of valuable molecular resources for future studies on the functions of these genes.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/genética , Corpo Adiposo/metabolismo , Imunidade/genética , Inativação Metabólica/genética , Tephritidae/genética , Transcriptoma , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/classificação , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/classificação , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/classificação , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Ontologia Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(20)2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600879

RESUMO

The whitefly (Bemisia tabaci), an important invasive pest that causes severe damage to crops worldwide, has developed resistance to a variety of insecticides. Carboxylesterases (COEs) are important multifunctional enzymes involved in the growth, development, and xenobiotic metabolism of insects. However, systematic studies on the COEs of B. tabaci are scarce. Here, 42 putative COEs in different functional categories were identified in the Mediterranean species of B. tabaci (B. tabaci MED) based on a genome database and neighbor-joining phylogeny. The expression patterns of the COEs were affected by the development of B. tabaci. The expression levels of six COEs were positively correlated with the concentration of imidacloprid to which B. tabaci adults were exposed. The mortality of B. tabaci MED adults fed dsBTbe5 (67.5%) and dsBTjhe2 (58.4%) was significantly higher than the adults fed dsEGFP (41.1%) when treated with imidacloprid. Our results provide a basis for functional research on COEs in B. tabaci and provide new insight into the imidacloprid resistance of B. tabaci.


Assuntos
Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hemípteros/enzimologia , Hemípteros/genética , Animais , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genoma de Inseto , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Neonicotinoides/farmacologia , Nitrocompostos/farmacologia , Filogenia , Transcriptoma
14.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 131: 109380, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615673

RESUMO

We previously described the fungus Penicillium chrysogenum 31B, which has high performance to produce the ferulic acid esterase (FAE) for de-esterifying ferulic acids (FAs) from sugar beet pulp. However, the characteristics of this fungus have not yet been determined. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the molecular characteristics and natural substrate specificity of the Pcfae1 gene from Penicillium chrysogenum and examined its synergistic effects on sugar beet pectin. The Pcfae1 gene was cloned and overexpressed in Pichia pastoris KM71H, and the recombinant enzyme, named PcFAE1, was characterized. The 505 amino acids of PcFAE1 possessed a GCSTG motif (Gly164 to Gly168), characteristic of the serine esterase family. By comparing the amino acid sequence of PcFAE1 with that of the FAE (AoFaeB) of Aspergillus oryzae, Ser166, Asp379, and His419 were identified as the catalytic triad. PcFAE1 was purified through two steps using anion-exchange column chromatography. Its molecular mass without the signal peptide was 75 kDa. Maximum PcFAE1 activity was achieved at pH 6.0-7.0 and 50 °C. The enzyme was stable up to 37 °C and at a pH range of 3-8. PcFAE1 activity was only inhibited by Hg2+, and the enzyme had activity toward methyl FA, methyl caffeic acid, and methyl p-coumaric acid, with specific activities of 6.97, 4.65, and 9.32 U/mg, respectively, but not on methyl sinapinic acid. These results indicated that PcFAE1 acted similar to FaeB type according the Crepin classification. PcFAE1 de-esterified O-[6-O-feruloyl-ß-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)]-d-galactopyranose, O-[2-O-feruloyl-α-l-arabinofuranosyl-(1→5)]-l-arabinofuranose, and O-[5-O-feruloyl-α-l-arabinofuranosyl-(1→3)]-O-ß-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→4)-d-xylopyranose, indicating that the enzyme could de-esterify FAs decorated with both ß-d-galactopyranosidic and α-l-arabinofuranosidic residues in pectin and xylan. PcFAE1 acted in synergy with endo-α-1,5-arabinanase and α-l-arabinofuranosidase, which releases FA linked to arabinan, to digest the sugar beet pectin. Moreover, when PcFAE1 was allowed to act on sugar beet pectin together with Driselase, approximately 90% of total FA in the substrate was released. Therefore, PcFAE1 may be an interesting candidate for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials and could have applications as a tool for production of FA from natural substrates.


Assuntos
Arabinose/análogos & derivados , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Ácidos Cumáricos/metabolismo , Galactose/metabolismo , Pectinas/metabolismo , Penicillium chrysogenum/enzimologia , Arabinose/metabolismo , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/química , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/isolamento & purificação , Clonagem Molecular , Estabilidade Enzimática , Expressão Gênica , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Pichia/genética , Pichia/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato , Temperatura
15.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(10)2019 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561536

RESUMO

Cell walls are basically complex with dynamic structures that are being involved in several growth and developmental processes, as well as responses to environmental stresses and the defense mechanism. Pectin is secreted into the cell wall in a highly methylesterified form. It is able to perform function after the de-methylesterification by pectin methylesterase (PME). Whereas, the pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI) plays a key role in plant cell wall modification through inhibiting the PME activity. It provides pectin with different levels of degree of methylesterification to affect the cell wall structures and properties. The PME activity was analyzed in six tissues of Sorghum bicolor, and found a high level in the leaf and leaf sheath. PMEI families have been identified in many plant species. Here, a total of 55 pectin methylesterase inhibitor genes (PMEIs) were identified from S. bicolor whole genome, a more detailed annotation of this crop plant as compared to the previous study. Chromosomal localization, gene structures and sequence characterization of the PMEI family were analyzed. Moreover, cis-acting elements analysis revealed that each PMEI gene was regulated by both internal and environmental factors. The expression patterns of each PMEI gene were also clustered according to expression pattern analyzed in 47 tissues under different developmental stages. Furthermore, some SbPMEIs were induced when treated with hormonal and abiotic stress. Taken together, these results laid a strong foundation for further study of the functions of SbPMEIs and pectin modification during plant growth and stress responses of cereal.


Assuntos
Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sorghum/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10624-10636, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483633

RESUMO

The freshness and color quality of postharvest tea leaves can be markedly prolonged and retained by proper preservation measures. Here, we investigated the dynamic changes of chlorophyll and its derivatives in postharvest tea leaves under different low-temperature treatments using natural withering as a control. Chlorophyll decomposition was found closely related with chlorophyllide, pheophorbide, and pheophytin. Low-temperature withering could slow chlorophyll degradation in postharvest tea leaves via significant inhibition on the enzyme activity and gene expression of Mg-dechelatase, chlorophyllase, and pheophorbide a oxygenase. At the initial stage of withering, a significant increase was observed in the chlorophyll content, expression of chlorophyll-synthesis-related enzymes (such as glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, etc.), and chlorophyll synthase activity in newly picked tea leaves. Moreover, an obvious decrease was found in the content of l-glutamate as the foremost precursor substance of chlorophyll synthesis. Hence, our findings revealed that the chlorophyll synthesis reaction was induced by the light-dehydration-stress in the initial withering of tea leaves. This study provides a theoretical basis for exploring preservation technology in actual green tea production.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/genética , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Camellia sinensis/química , Camellia sinensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Clorofila/química , Cor , Enzimas/genética , Enzimas/metabolismo , Oxigenases/genética , Oxigenases/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Temperatura
17.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(20): 8449-8457, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511934

RESUMO

Feruloyl esterases (FAEs) are a key group of enzymes that hydrolyze ferulic acids ester-linked to plant polysaccharides. The cow's rumen is a highly evolved ecosystem of complex microbial microflora capable of converting fibrous substances to energy. From direct cloning of the rumen microbial metagenome, we identified seven active phagemids conferring feruloyl esterase activity. The genomic inserts ranged from 1633 to 4143 bp, and the ORFs from 681 to 1359 bp. BLAST search reveals sequence homology to feruloyl esterases and esterases/lipases identified in anaerobes. The seven genes were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the proteins were purified to homogeneity. The FAEs were found to cover types B, C, and D in the feruloyl esterase classification system using model hydroxycinnamic acid esters. The release of ferulic acid (FA) catalyzed by these enzymes was established using natural substrates corn fiber (CF) and wheat insoluble arabinoxylan (WIA). Three of the enzymes were demonstrated to cleave diferulates and hence the capability to break down Araf-FA-FA-Araf cross-links. The wide variation in the sequence, activity, and substrate specificity observed in the FAEs discovered in this study is a confirming evidence that combined actions of a full range of FAE enzymes contribute to the high-efficiency fiber digestion in the rumen microbial ecosystem.


Assuntos
Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Ácidos Cumáricos/metabolismo , Metagenoma , Rúmen/microbiologia , Animais , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos , Clonagem Molecular , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Triticum/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
18.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(11): 1749-1759, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474100

RESUMO

Aspergillus ochraceus biofilm, developed on an inert support, can produce tannase in Khanna medium containing 1.5% (w/v) tannic acid as the carbon source, at an initial pH of 5.0, for 72 h at 28 °C. Addition of 0.1% yeast extract increased enzyme production. The enzyme in the crude filtrate exhibited the highest activity at 30 °C and pH 6.0. At 50 °C, the half-life was 60 min and 260 min at pH 6.0. In general, addition of detergents and surfactants did not affect tannase activity significantly. Tannase has potential applications in various biotechnological processes such as the production of propyl gallate and in the treatment of tannin-rich effluents. The content of tannins and total phenolic compounds in effluents from leather treatment was reduced by 56-83% and 47-64%, respectively, after 2 h of enzyme treatment. The content of tannins and total phenolic compounds in the sorghum flour treated for 120 h with tannase were reduced by 61% and 17%, respectively. Interestingly, the same A. ochraceus biofilm was able to produce tannase for three sequential fermentative process. In conclusion, fungal biofilm is an interesting alternative to produce high levels of tannase with biotechnological potential to be applied in different industrial sectors.


Assuntos
Aspergillus ochraceus/enzimologia , Biofilmes , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Aspergillus ochraceus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meios de Cultura/química , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fenóis/metabolismo , Galato de Propila/metabolismo , Sorghum/química , Tensoativos/metabolismo , Taninos/metabolismo , Temperatura , Poluentes da Água/metabolismo
19.
J Biotechnol ; 304: 10-15, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400343

RESUMO

Huimcola insolens cutinase (HiC) was heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris. To avoid a carbon starvation step, fermentation was conducted using combinations of sorbitol with glycerol and methanol in the cell growth and induction phases, respectively. The cutinase productivity (27.71 U mL-1 h-1) was 9.93 U mL-1 h-1 greater than that achieved using traditional two-phase methods, and a cutinase activity of 2660 U mL-1, using p-nitrophenyl butyrate as substrate, was achieved after only 96 h in a 3-L bioreactor. Subsequently, the combination of HiC with Thermobifida fusca cutinase (TfC) in cotton fabric bioscouring was evaluated by monitoring the wettability and dyeability of the fabric. Treatment with 20 U mL-1 of HiC at 80 °C for 5 min followed by 30 U mL-1 of TfC at 50 °C for 1 h gave the best results. The total treatment time was shorter and performance was better than those seen with the alkali method.


Assuntos
Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Pichia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomycetales/enzimologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Carbono/metabolismo , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Fibra de Algodão , Fermentação , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Engenharia Genética , Pichia/genética , Pichia/metabolismo , Saccharomycetales/genética , Têxteis
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 183: 109586, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450034

RESUMO

Vermicompost is a known biofertilizer of potential use in soil bioremediation. This study was undertaken to explore the capacity of grape marc-derived vermicompost to inactivate methyl carbamate (MC) and organophosphorus (OP) pesticides via exploring the carboxylesterase (CE) activity level and its response to pesticide exposure. We first optimized the method for enzyme activity assay comparing the CE activity in two contrasting homogenization procedures (30-min mixing and mortar grinding). Thereafter, we assessed the sensitivity of the enzyme by both in vitro and vermicompost incubation trials with selected pesticides. The main findings can be summarized as follows: i) grinding the vermicompost in water (2% w/v) yielded maximum enzyme activity; ii) at concentrations around 10-4 M, highly toxic oxygen-analog metabolites of OPs strongly inhibited the CE activity (76-93% inhibition), but MC did not inhibit the enzyme activity; iii) liquid vermicompost was able to degrade chlorpyrifos and inactivate its highly toxic metabolite chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results suggest that liquid vermicompost is the most appropriate preparation to increase the enzymatic potential of vermicompost in pesticide-contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Compostagem/métodos , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Clorpirifos/análogos & derivados , Clorpirifos/metabolismo , Inativação Metabólica
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