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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4914, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004788

RESUMO

Oxepinamides are derivatives of anthranilyl-containing tripeptides and share an oxepin ring and a fused pyrimidinone moiety. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have been reported on the elucidation of an oxepinamide biosynthetic pathway and conversion of a quinazolinone to a pyrimidinone-fused 1H-oxepin framework by a cytochrome P450 enzyme in fungal natural product biosynthesis. Here we report the isolation of oxepinamide F from Aspergillus ustus and identification of its biosynthetic pathway by gene deletion, heterologous expression, feeding experiments, and enzyme assays. The nonribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS) OpaA assembles the quinazolinone core with D-Phe incorporation. The cytochrome P450 enzyme OpaB catalyzes alone the oxepin ring formation. The flavoenzyme OpaC installs subsequently one hydroxyl group at the oxepin ring, accompanied by double bond migration. The epimerase OpaE changes the D-Phe residue back to L-form, which is essential for the final methylation by OpaF.


Assuntos
Amidas/metabolismo , Aspergillus/enzimologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Oxepinas/metabolismo , Amidas/química , Amidas/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus/genética , Vias Biossintéticas , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Hidroxilação , Isomerismo , Metilação , Oxepinas/química , Oxepinas/isolamento & purificação , Peptídeo Sintases/genética , Peptídeo Sintases/metabolismo , Fenilalanina/química , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Proteína O-Metiltransferase/genética , Proteína O-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Quinazolinonas/metabolismo , Racemases e Epimerases/genética , Racemases e Epimerases/metabolismo
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4371, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873790

RESUMO

Pentacyclic triterpenoids (PTs) constitute one of the biggest families of natural products, many with higher oxidation state at the D/E rings possess a wide spectrum of biological activties but are poorly accessible. Here we report a site-selective C-H hydroxylation at the D/E rings of PTs paving a way toward these important natural products. We find that Schönecker and Baran's Cu-mediated aerobic oxidation can be applied and become site-selective on PT skeletons, as being effected unexpectedly by the chirality of the transient pyridine-imino directing groups. To prove the applicability, starting from the most abundant triterpenoid feedstock oleanane, three representative saponins bearing hydroxyl groups at C16 or C22 are expeditiously synthesized, and barringtogenol C which bears hydroxyl groups at C16, C21, and C22 is synthesized via a sequential hydroxylation as the key steps.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/química , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/química , Química Farmacêutica , Hidroxilação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
3.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461353, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797833

RESUMO

This paper reports the development of an LC-ESI-MS2 method for the sensitive determination of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in human serum samples. Congener-specific separation was achieved by using a polar-embedded stationary phase, previously optimized for the working group, which provided better separation of isobaric compounds than the common octadecylsilane phases. MS fragmentation patterns and energies showed differences among OH-PCB congeners, mainly depending on the position of OH-group and the number of chlorine atoms in the molecule, although the most intense transitions were always those corresponding to the neutral loss of an HCl group from the quasi-molecular ion cluster. The method allowed the determination of OH-PCBs with good linearity (dynamic linear range of four orders of magnitude with R2 higher than 0.995) and precision (relative standard deviations of absolute areas lower than 10%), and with better sensitivity than other similar methods previously described in the literature. Matrix effect has been evaluated and reduced to less than 10% by the addition of isotopically labeled standards and a 10-fold dilution of the final sample extract. The low iLODs provided by the developed method (from 1.2 to 5.4 fg µL-1 for all the OH-PCBs studied, except 4'-OHCB108, whose iLOD was 61 fg µL-1) allows dilution without losses of detected peaks. Finally, the applicability of the method has been demonstrated by analyzing human serum samples belonging to an interlaboratory exercise.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Humanos , Hidroxilação , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 745: 141140, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736114

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been reported to pose a severe risk towards human health, and hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) were potential substances basis for PCBs' toxicity. This study aims to determine the inhibition of OH-PCBs towards human carboxylesterases (CESs), including CES1 and CES2. For phenotypic analysis of CES1 and CES2 activity, we used the hydrolysis metabolism of 2-(2-benzoyl3-methoxyphenyl) benzothiazole (BMBT) and fluorescein diacetate (FD) catalyzed by human liver microsomes (HLMs) as the probe reactions. Preliminary inhibition screening showed that the inhibition potential of OH-PCBs towards CES1 and CES2 increased with the increased numbers of chlorine atoms in OH-PCBs. Both 2'-OH-PCB61 and 2'-OH-PCB65 showed concentration-dependent inhibition towards both CES1 and CES2. Lineweaver-Burk plots showed that 2'-OH-PCB61 and 2'-OH-PCB65 exerted non-competitive inhibition towards CES1 and competitive inhibition towards CES2. The inhibition kinetics parameters (Ki) were 6.8 µM and 7.0 µM for 2'-OH-PCB61 and 2'-OH-PCB65 towards CES1, respectively. The inhibition kinetics parameters (Ki) were 1.4 µM and 1.0 µM for 2'-OH-PCB61 and 2'-OH-PCB65 towards CES2, respectively. In silico docking methods elucidate the contribution of hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts towards the binding of 2'-OH-PCB61 and 2'-OH-PCB65 with CES1 and CES2. All these results will provide a new perspective for elucidation of toxicity mechanism of PCBs and OH-PCBs.


Assuntos
Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Carboxilesterase , Humanos , Hidrólise , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Hidroxilação , Microssomos Hepáticos
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3906, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764563

RESUMO

Enzymatic hydroxylation of unactivated primary carbons is generally associated with the use of molecular oxygen as co-substrate for monooxygenases. However, in anaerobic cholesterol-degrading bacteria such as Sterolibacterium denitrificans the primary carbon of the isoprenoid side chain is oxidised to a carboxylate in the absence of oxygen. Here, we identify an enzymatic reaction sequence comprising two molybdenum-dependent hydroxylases and one ATP-dependent dehydratase that accomplish the hydroxylation of unactivated primary C26 methyl group of cholesterol with water: (i) hydroxylation of C25 to a tertiary alcohol, (ii) ATP-dependent dehydration to an alkene via a phosphorylated intermediate, (iii) hydroxylation of C26 to an allylic alcohol that is subsequently oxidised to the carboxylate. The three-step enzymatic reaction cascade divides the high activation energy barrier of primary C-H bond cleavage into three biologically feasible steps. This finding expands our knowledge of biological C-H activations beyond canonical oxygenase-dependent reactions.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Betaproteobacteria/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Betaproteobacteria/genética , Carbono/química , Colestadienóis/química , Colestadienóis/metabolismo , Colesterol/química , Colesterol/metabolismo , Genes Bacterianos , Hidroliases/genética , Hidroliases/metabolismo , Hidroxilação , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Oxirredução , Filogenia , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
6.
Toxicol Lett ; 332: 7-13, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615244

RESUMO

Root canal sealers are commonly used to endodontically treat teeth with periapical infections. Some root canal sealers based on epoxy resin contain bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE). The presence of these chemicals is of concern due to the close contact to the blood stream at the apex and the long setting times of up to 24 h. These chemicals, or any of their degradation products or metabolites, can then exert their toxic effects before being excreted. This study aimed to identify the phase I in vitro biotransformation products of BADGE and BFDGE using human liver microsomes. During incubation with microsomal fractions, the epoxides were rapidly hydrolysed in a NADPH independent manner resulting in the formation of BADGE.2H2O and BFDGE.2H2O. Further, oxidative reactions, such as hydroxylation and carboxylation, generated other BADGE metabolites, such as BADGE.2H2O-OH and BADGE.H2O.COOH, respectively. For BFDGE, further oxidation of BFDGE.2H2O led to the newly reported carboxylic acid, BFDGE.H2O.COOH. In total, three specific metabolites have been identified which can serve in future human biomonitoring studies of BADGE and BFDGE.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacocinética , Compostos de Epóxi/farmacocinética , Fígado/metabolismo , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular/farmacocinética , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Biotransformação , Ácidos Carboxílicos/metabolismo , Compostos de Epóxi/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxilação , Masculino , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , NADP/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular/toxicidade
7.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 690: 108474, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687799

RESUMO

Kynurenine 3-monoxygenase (KMO) catalyzes the conversion of l-kynurenine (L-Kyn) to 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-OHKyn) in the pathway for tryptophan catabolism. We have investigated the effects of pH and deuterium substitution on the oxidative half-reaction of KMO from P. fluorescens (PfKMO). The three phases observed during the oxidative half reaction are formation of the hydroperoxyflavin, hydroxylation and product release. The measured rate constants for these phases proved largely unchanging with pH, suggesting that the KMO active site is insulated from exchange with solvent during catalysis. A solvent inventory study indicated that a solvent isotope effect of 2-3 is observed for the hydroxylation phase and that two or more protons are in flight during this step. An inverse isotope effect of 0.84 ± 0.01 on the rate constant for the hydroxylation step with ring perdeutero-L-Kyn as a substrate indicates a shift from sp2 to sp3 hybridization in the transition state leading to the formation of a non-aromatic intermediate. The pH dependence of transient state data collected for the substrate analog meta-nitrobenzoylalanine indicate that groups proximal to the hydroperoxyflavin are titrated in the range pH 5-8.5 and can be described by a pKa of 8.8. That higher pH values do not slow the rate of hydroxylation precludes that the pKa measured pertains to the proton of the hydroperoxflavin. Together, these observations indicate that the C4a-hydroperoxyflavin has a pKa ≫ 8.5, that a non-aromatic species is the immediate product of hydroxylation and that at least two solvent derived protons are in-flight during oxygen insertion to the substrate aromatic ring. A unifying mechanistic proposal for these observations is proposed.


Assuntos
Hidrogênio/química , Quinurenina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/química , Quinurenina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Cinurenina/química , Pseudomonas fluorescens/química , Catálise , Domínio Catalítico , Deutério/química , Dinitrocresóis/metabolismo , Flavinas/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidroxilação , Cinética , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Oxigênio/química , Prótons , Solventes/química
8.
Mol Cell ; 79(3): 376-389.e8, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640193

RESUMO

Activation of dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinases 1A and 1B (DYRK1A and DYRK1B) requires prolyl hydroxylation by PHD1 prolyl hydroxylase. Prolyl hydroxylation of DYRK1 initiates a cascade of events leading to the release of molecular constraints on von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) ubiquitin ligase tumor suppressor function. However, the proline residue of DYRK1 targeted by hydroxylation and the role of prolyl hydroxylation in tyrosine autophosphorylation of DYRK1 are unknown. We found that a highly conserved proline in the CMGC insert of the DYRK1 kinase domain is hydroxylated by PHD1, and this event precedes tyrosine autophosphorylation. Mutation of the hydroxylation acceptor proline precludes tyrosine autophosphorylation and folding of DYRK1, resulting in a kinase unable to preserve VHL function and lacking glioma suppression activity. The consensus proline sequence is shared by most CMGC kinases, and prolyl hydroxylation is essential for catalytic activation. Thus, formation of prolyl-hydroxylated intermediates is a novel mechanism of kinase maturation and likely a general mechanism of regulation of CMGC kinases in eukaryotes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Glioma/genética , Isoenzimas/genética , Prolina/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor Von Hippel-Lindau/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cristalografia por Raios X , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioma/metabolismo , Glioma/patologia , Células HEK293 , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Hidroxilação , Prolina Dioxigenases do Fator Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Prolina Dioxigenases do Fator Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Isoenzimas/química , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/química , Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Neuroglia/patologia , Fosforilação , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/química , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor Von Hippel-Lindau/metabolismo
9.
Prostate ; 80(13): 1071-1086, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The emergence of reactive stroma is a hallmark of prostate cancer (PCa) progression and a potential source for prognostic and diagnostic markers of PCa. Collagen is a main component of reactive stroma and changes systematically and quantitatively to reflect the course of PCa, yet has remained undefined due to a lack of tools that can define collagen protein structure. Here we use a novel collagen-targeting proteomics approach to investigate zonal regulation of collagen-type proteins in PCa prostatectomies. METHODS: Prostatectomies from nine patients were divided into zones containing 0%, 5%, 20%, 70% to 80% glandular tissue and 0%, 5%, 25%, 70% by mass of PCa tumor following the McNeal model. Tissue sections from zones were graded by a pathologist for Gleason score, percent tumor present, percent prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and/or inflammation (INF). High-resolution accurate mass collagen targeting proteomics was done on a select subset of tissue sections from patient-matched tumor or nontumor zones. Imaging mass spectrometry was used to investigate collagen-type regulation corresponding to pathologist-defined regions. RESULTS: Complex collagen proteomes were detected from all zones. COL17A and COL27A increased in zones of INF compared with zones with tumor present. COL3A1, COL4A5, and COL8A2 consistently increased in zones with tumor content, independent of tumor size. Collagen hydroxylation of proline (HYP) was altered in tumor zones compared with zones with INF and no tumor. COL3A1 and COL5A1 showed significant changes in HYP peptide ratios within tumor compared with zones of INF (2.59 ± 0.29, P value: .015; 3.75 ± 0.96 P value .036, respectively). By imaging mass spectrometry COL3A1 showed defined localization and regulation to tumor pathology. COL1A1 and COL1A2 showed gradient regulation corresponding to PCa pathology across zones. Pathologist-defined tumor regions showed significant increases in COL1A1 HYP modifications compared with COL1A2 HYP modifications. Certain COL1A1 and COL1A2 peptides could discriminate between pathologist-defined tumor and inflammatory regions. CONCLUSIONS: Site-specific posttranslational regulation of collagen structure by proline hydroxylation may be involved in reactive stroma associated with PCa progression. Translational and posttranslational regulation of collagen protein structure has potential for new markers to understand PCa progression and outcomes.


Assuntos
Colágeno/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Idoso , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Autoantígenos , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo III/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo IV/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo VIII/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Colágenos Fibrilares/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidroxilação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Colágenos não Fibrilares , Prolina/metabolismo , Próstata/metabolismo , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Proteômica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2991, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532989

RESUMO

Biocatalysts that perform C-H hydroxylation exhibit exceptional substrate specificity and site-selectivity, often through the use of high valent oxidants to activate these inert bonds. Rieske oxygenases are examples of enzymes with the ability to perform precise mono- or dioxygenation reactions on a variety of substrates. Understanding the structural features of Rieske oxygenases responsible for control over selectivity is essential to enable the development of this class of enzymes for biocatalytic applications. Decades of research has illuminated the critical features common to Rieske oxygenases, however, structural information for enzymes that functionalize diverse scaffolds is limited. Here, we report the structures of two Rieske monooxygenases involved in the biosynthesis of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), SxtT and GxtA, adding to the short list of structurally characterized Rieske oxygenases. Based on these structures, substrate-bound structures, and mutagenesis experiments, we implicate specific residues in substrate positioning and the divergent reaction selectivity observed in these two enzymes.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Proteínas com Ferro-Enxofre/genética , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Oxigenases/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Biocatálise , Domínio Catalítico , Cianobactérias/enzimologia , Cianobactérias/genética , Hidroxilação , Proteínas com Ferro-Enxofre/química , Proteínas com Ferro-Enxofre/metabolismo , Cinética , Oxigenases de Função Mista/química , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Oxigenases/química , Oxigenases/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Multimerização Proteica , Especificidade por Substrato
11.
Nature ; 582(7813): 566-570, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555455

RESUMO

The gut microbiota synthesize hundreds of molecules, many of which influence host physiology. Among the most abundant metabolites are the secondary bile acids deoxycholic acid (DCA) and lithocholic acid (LCA), which accumulate at concentrations of around 500 µM and are known to block the growth of Clostridium difficile1, promote hepatocellular carcinoma2 and modulate host metabolism via the G-protein-coupled receptor TGR5 (ref. 3). More broadly, DCA, LCA and their derivatives are major components of the recirculating pool of bile acids4; the size and composition of this pool are a target of therapies for primary biliary cholangitis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Nonetheless, despite the clear impact of DCA and LCA on host physiology, an incomplete knowledge of their biosynthetic genes and a lack of genetic tools to enable modification of their native microbial producers limit our ability to modulate secondary bile acid levels in the host. Here we complete the pathway to DCA and LCA by assigning and characterizing enzymes for each of the steps in its reductive arm, revealing a strategy in which the A-B rings of the steroid core are transiently converted into an electron acceptor for two reductive steps carried out by Fe-S flavoenzymes. Using anaerobic in vitro reconstitution, we establish that a set of six enzymes is necessary and sufficient for the eight-step conversion of cholic acid to DCA. We then engineer the pathway into Clostridium sporogenes, conferring production of DCA and LCA on a nonproducing commensal and demonstrating that a microbiome-derived pathway can be expressed and controlled heterologously. These data establish a complete pathway to two central components of the bile acid pool.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/química , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Hidroxilação/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Animais , Clostridium/enzimologia , Clostridium/genética , Clostridium/metabolismo , Ácido Desoxicólico/química , Ácido Desoxicólico/metabolismo , Ácido Litocólico/química , Ácido Litocólico/metabolismo , Masculino , Engenharia Metabólica , Camundongos , Óperon/genética , Simbiose
12.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(6): e1007967, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569263

RESUMO

Post-translational modification (PTM) sites have become popular for predictor development. However, with the exception of phosphorylation and a handful of other examples, PTMs suffer from a limited number of available training examples and sparsity in protein sequences. Here, proline hydroxylation is taken as an example to compare different methods and evaluate their performance on new experimentally determined sites. As a guide for effective experimental design, predictors require both high specificity and sensitivity. However, the self-reported performance may often not be indicative of prediction quality and detection of new sites is not guaranteed. We have benchmarked seven published hydroxylation site predictors on two newly constructed independent datasets. The self-reported performance is found to widely overestimate the real accuracy measured on independent datasets. No predictor performs better than random on new examples, indicating the refined models do not sufficiently generalize to detect new sites. The number of false positives is high and precision low, in particular for non-collagen proteins whose motifs are not conserved. As hydroxylation site predictors do not generalize for new data, caution is advised when using PTM predictors in the absence of independent evaluations, in particular for highly specific sites involved in signalling.


Assuntos
Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteínas/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Hidroxilação , Transdução de Sinais
13.
Toxicology ; 440: 152478, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437779

RESUMO

Thiazoles are biologically active aromatic heterocyclic rings occurring frequently in natural products and drugs. These molecules undergo typically harmless elimination; however, a hepatotoxic response can occur due to multistep bioactivation of the thiazole to generate a reactive thioamide. A basis for those differences in outcomes remains unknown. A textbook example is the high hepatotoxicity observed for sudoxicam in contrast to the relative safe use and marketability of meloxicam, which differs in structure from sudoxicam by the addition of a single methyl group. Both drugs undergo bioactivation, but meloxicam exhibits an additional detoxification pathway due to hydroxylation of the methyl group. We hypothesized that thiazole bioactivation efficiency is similar between sudoxicam and meloxicam due to the methyl group being a weak electron donator, and thus, the relevance of bioactivation depends on the competing detoxification pathway. For a rapid analysis, we modeled epoxidation of sudoxicam derivatives to investigate the impact of substituents on thiazole bioactivation. As expected, electron donating groups increased the likelihood for epoxidation with a minimal effect for the methyl group, but model predictions did not extrapolate well among all types of substituents. Through analytical methods, we measured steady-state kinetics for metabolic bioactivation of sudoxicam and meloxicam by human liver microsomes. Sudoxicam bioactivation was 6-fold more efficient than that for meloxicam, yet meloxicam showed a 6-fold higher efficiency of detoxification than bioactivation. Overall, sudoxicam bioactivation was 15-fold more likely than meloxicam considering all metabolic clearance pathways. Kinetic differences likely arise from different enzymes catalyzing respective metabolic pathways based on phenotyping studies. Rather than simply providing an alternative detoxification pathway, the meloxicam methyl group suppressed the bioactivation reaction. These findings indicate the impact of thiazole substituents on bioactivation is more complex than previously thought and likely contributes to the unpredictability of their toxic potential.


Assuntos
Meloxicam/metabolismo , Tiazinas/metabolismo , Ativação Metabólica , Biotransformação , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Elétrons , Compostos de Epóxi/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidroxilação , Técnicas In Vitro , Cinética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Tiazóis/metabolismo
14.
Environ Int ; 139: 105695, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272295

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their biotransformation products, hydroxylated (OH-PCBs) and methoxylated derivatives (MeO-PCBs), have been detected in the environment and biota, especially crops. However, to date, little information is available on the phytotoxicity and metabolic responses induced by these chemicals in crops. In this study, we exposed rice (Oryza sative L.) seedlings to 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl (CB-61) and its hydroxylated (4'-OH-CB-61) and methoxylated derivatives (4'-MeO-CB-61) at 0, 10, 50, 100 and 500 µg/L, respectively. After exposure for 14 days, significantly growth inhibition and oxidative damage were observed, among which the toxicities of 4'-OH-CB-61 and 4'-MeO-CB-61 were greater than that of the parent PCBs. Metabolomics analysis indicated that exposure to the three chemicals induced different metabolic responses. 4'-MeO-CB-61 mainly affected the saccharide catabolism, including pyruvate metabolism, the TCA cycle, the transfer of acetyl groups into mitochondria and the Warburg effect, resulting in a greater energy consumption. Moreover, both CB-61 and 4'-OH-CB-61 promoted several amino acid metabolism and fatty acid biosynthesis, thereby alleviating the potential ROS damage. This study for the first time evaluates and reveals the phytotoxicity of OH-PCBs and MeO-PCBs at the metabolic level, which attempts to provide important information for accurately evaluating the environmental risks of PCBs from the perspective of metabolism.


Assuntos
Oryza , Bifenilos Policlorados , Biotransformação , Hidroxilação , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade
15.
J Med Chem ; 63(12): 6513-6522, 2020 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223238

RESUMO

Orteronel (TAK-700) is a substituted imidazole that was developed for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer but was dropped in phase III clinical trials. Both enantiomers of this inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (P450) 17A1 show some selectivity in differentially blocking the 17α-hydroxylation and lyase activities of the enzyme. Although both enantiomers of this compound have sub-micromolar IC50 values and bind to the enzyme with a type II spectral change (indicative of nitrogen-iron bonding) and reported Kd values of 56 and 40 nM (R and S, respectively), the rates of binding to P450 17A1 were relatively slow. We considered the possibility that the drug is a slow, tight-binding inhibitor. Analysis of the kinetics of binding revealed rapid formation of an initial complex, presumably in the substrate binding site, followed by a slower change to the spectrum of a final iron complex. Similar kinetics were observed in the interaction of another inhibitor, the triazole (S)-seviteronel (VT-464), with P450 17A1. Kinetic tests and modeling indicate that the further change to the iron-complexed form of the orteronel- or seviteronel-P450 complex is not a prerequisite for enzyme inhibition. Accordingly, the inclusion of heme-binding heterocyclic nitrogen moieties in P450 17A1 inhibitors may not be necessary to achieve inhibition but may nevertheless augment the process.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Naftalenos/farmacologia , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/antagonistas & inibidores , Triazóis/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/farmacologia , Sítios de Ligação , Humanos , Hidroxilação , Cinética , Oxirredução , Conformação Proteica , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/metabolismo
16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(16): 8699-8712, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270839

RESUMO

The selectivity of halogenation versus hydroxylation in α-KG de-pendent halogenases is vital to their function and has been widely studied, particularly using the halogenase SyrB2 as a model. WelO5, a new member of α-KG dependent halogenases, catalyzes the chlorination of 12-epi-fischerindole U in the welwitindolinone biosynthetic pathway. Herein, we give a detailed insight into the selectivity of WelO5 through combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations for the whole catalytic cycle. O2 activation leads to a Fe(iv)[double bond, length as m-dash]O moiety which adopts an equatorial conformation (in the plane consisting of His164, chloride and Fe atom), in contrast to axial conformation (perpendicular to the plane). Key to the conformational selectivity is a serine residue (Ser189) in the equatorial plane, that brings the precursor of the Fe(iv)[double bond, length as m-dash]O intermediate (a Fe(ii)-peracid complex) to the equatorial conformation through hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen abstraction of the substrate by the equatorial Fe(iv)[double bond, length as m-dash]O leads to a five-coordinated HO-Fe(iii)-Cl complex, where the hydroxyl ligand is still equatorial and thus relatively far from the substrate radical in the axial direction compared to the chloride ligand. This smoothly explains the extremely high selectivity of chlorination in WelO5 and provides a microscopic explanation for the experimental finding that S189A WelO5 ceases to display any chlorination selectivity versus hydroxylation. Notably, although Ser189 is vital for the selectivity of the enzyme, it is not part of the substrate binding pocket. Therefore, WelO5 serves as an excellent example how chemoselectivity can be achieved in directed evolution without the tedious redesign of the substrate binding pocket.


Assuntos
Enzimas/metabolismo , Ferroproteínas não Heme/metabolismo , Halogenação , Hidroxilação , Ferroproteínas não Heme/química , Especificidade por Substrato
17.
Xenobiotica ; 50(10): 1158-1169, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312164

RESUMO

2'-, 3'-, and 4'-Methoxyflavones (MeFs) were incubated with nine forms of recombinant human cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) enzymes in the presence of an NADPH-generating system and the products formed were analyzed with LC-MS/MS methods.CYP1B1.1 and 1B1.3 were highly active in demethylating 4'MeF to form 4'-hydroxyflavone (rate of 5.0 nmol/min/nmol P450) and further to 3',4'-dihydroxyflavone (rates of 2.1 and 0.66 nmol/min/nmol P450, respectively). 3'MeF was found to be oxidized by P450s to m/z 239 (M-14) products (presumably 3'-hydroxyflavone) and then to 3',4'-dihydroxyflavone. P450s also catalyzed oxidation of 2'MeF to m/z 239 (M-14) and m/z 255 (M-14, M-14 + 16) products, presumably mono- and di-hydroxylated products, respectively.At least two types of ring oxidation products having m/z 269 fragments were formed, although at slower rates than the formation of mono- and di-hydroxylated products, on incubation of these MeFs with P450s; one type was products oxidized at the C-ring, having m/z 121 fragments, and the other one was the products oxidized at the A-ring (having m/z 137 fragments).Molecular docking analysis indicated the preference of interaction of O-methoxy moiety of methoxyflavones in the active site of CYP1A2.These results suggest that 2'-, 3'-, and 4'-methoxyflavones are principally demethylated by human P450s to form mono- and di-hydroxyflavones and that direct oxidation occurs in these MeFs to form mono-hydroxylated products, oxidized at the A- or B-ring of MeF.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A2 , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1 , Desmetilação , Hidroxilação , Cinética , Microssomos Hepáticos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(11): 6335-6350, 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134073

RESUMO

The major applications of carbon dots (CDs) (e.g. bio-imaging and targeted drug delivery) necessitate the latter to permeate across the lipid bilayer membrane. Unfortunately, the mechanism of permeation is poorly understood. Between the two possible routes for permeation of a nanoparticle like CDs-an endocytic pathway and direct passive permeation-the endocytic path is known to be more common, despite the fact that the passive permeation is preferred over the endocytosis for targeted drug delivery. Here, we have focused on the direct permeation of a hydroxyl functionalized CD across the POPC lipid bilayer membrane using all-atom MD simulations. We have estimated the free energy profile for the translocation of the CD across the lipid bilayer, with a barrier height of ∼170 kJ mol-1 situated at the lipid bilayer center (z = 0 nm). Using the free energy profile, we have calculated a negligible permeability coefficient value, which strongly suggests that it is almost impossible for a CD to penetrate directly across the lipid bilayer. The possible impact on the lipid bilayer structure by the CD is also investigated. Although the CD does not affect the bilayer structure up to a certain degree of penetration, the impact increases substantially when entered into the bilayer interior.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Carbono/metabolismo , Bicamadas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Hidroxilação
19.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 74(3): 108-114, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197667

RESUMO

Enzymatic oxygenations initiate biodegradation processes of many organic soil and water contaminants. Even though many biochemical aspects of oxygenation reactions are well-known, quantifying rates of oxidative contaminant removal as well as the extent of oxygenation remains a major challenge. Because enzymes use different strategies to activate O2, reactions leading to substrate oxygenation are not necessarily limiting the rate of contaminant removal. Moreover, oxygenases react along unproductive pathways without substrate metabolism leading to O2 uncoupling. Here, we identify the critical features of the catalytic cycles of selected oxygenases that determine rates and extents of biodegradation. We focus most specifically on Rieske dioxygenases, a subfamily of mononuclear non-heme ferrous iron oxygenases, because of their ability to hydroxylate unactivated aromatic structures and thus initiate the transformation of the most persistent organic contaminants. We illustrate that the rate-determining steps in their catalytic cycles range from O2 activation to substrate hydroxylation, depending on the extent of O-O cleavage that is required for generating the reactive Fe-oxygen species. The extent of O2 uncoupling, on the other hand, is highly substrate-specific and potentially modulated by adaptive responses to oxidative stress. Understanding the kinetic mechanisms of oxygenases will be key to assess organic contaminant biotransformation quantitatively.


Assuntos
Oxigênio/metabolismo , Dioxigenases , Hidroxilação , Cinética , Oxirredução , Oxigenases
20.
Xenobiotica ; 50(9): 1076-1089, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174209

RESUMO

Coumarins have aroused high interests due to their diverse bioactivities. Understanding of its metabolism contributes to determine the druggability of coumarin in vivo.A sensitive and efficient strategy based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS) analysis combined with various data-processing techniques including metabolomics and multiple mass defect filter (MMDF) was established for the comprehensive screening and elucidation of potential coumarin metabolites.Total 20 metabolites of scoparone were identified in this study, including 14 undescribed metabolites. The metabolism of two other similar coumarins scopoletin and esculetin also could be determined using this strategy.By the established strategy, this study gives the insights about the major metabolic pathways of scoparone in vivo and in vitro metabolism, including demethylation, hydroxylation, hydration, cysteine conjugation, glucuronide conjugation and sulfate conjugation. Additionally, the metabolic pathways of scopoletin and esculetin were determined as hydroxylation, glucuronidation and sulfation. These results contribute to the understanding of metabolic characterization of coumarins, and demonstrate that the combination of UPLC-MS-based metabolomics and MMDF is a powerful approach to determine the metabolic pathways of coumarin compounds.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Hidroxilação , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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