Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.943
Filtrar
1.
Blood Adv ; 5(1): 207-215, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570644

RESUMO

We aimed to identify predictors of outcomes and survival in patients living in 4 major metropolitan areas who had sickle cell disease (SCD) and COVID-19 to inform best approaches to prevention and care. Data were collected at baseline and during the clinical course in SCD patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in four COVID-19 epicenters. Patients were followed up posthospital discharge for up to 3 months. Of sixty-six SCD patients with COVID-19, fifty patients (75%) required hospitalization, and seven died (10.6%). Patients with preexisting kidney disease (chronic kidney disease) were more likely to be hospitalized. The most common presenting symptom was vaso-occlusive pain. Acute chest syndrome occurred in 30 (60%) of the 50 hospitalized patients and in all who died. Older age and histories of pulmonary hypertension, congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and stroke were more prevalent in patients who died, as were higher creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase, and D-dimer levels. Anticoagulation use while inpatient was twice less common in patients who died. All deaths occurred in individuals not taking hydroxyurea or any other SCD-modifying therapy. Patients with SCD and COVID-19 exhibited a broad range of disease severity. We cannot definitively state that the overall mortality is higher in patients with SCD, although our case fatality rate was ∼10% compared with ∼3% in the general population, despite a median age of 34 years. Individuals with SCD aged >50 years, with preexisting cardiopulmonary, renal disease, and/or stroke not receiving hydroxyurea, who present with high serum creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase, and D-dimer levels, are at higher risk of death, irrespective of genotype or sex.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/complicações , /complicações , Síndrome Torácica Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Torácica Aguda/complicações , Síndrome Torácica Aguda/mortalidade , Síndrome Torácica Aguda/terapia , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Anemia Falciforme/mortalidade , Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Antidrepanocíticos/uso terapêutico , /mortalidade , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , Hidroxiureia/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
2.
Lancet Haematol ; 8(2): e135-e148, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approval of hypomethylating agents in patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia is based on trials done in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. We aimed to investigate whether hypomethylating agents provide a benefit in subgroups of patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia compared with other treatments. METHODS: For this retrospective cohort study, data were retrieved between Nov 30, 2017, and Jan 5, 2019, from 38 centres in the USA and Europe. We included non-selected, consecutive patients diagnosed with chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia, who received chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia-directed therapy. Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia according to 2016 WHO criteria at initial diagnosis (ie, ≥20% blasts in the bone marrow or peripheral blood) or with unavailability of treatment data were excluded. Outcomes assessed included overall survival, time to next treatment, and time to transformation to acute myeloid leukaemia. Analyses were adjusted by age, sex, platelet count, and Chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia-Specific Prognostic Scoring System (CPSS). Patients were grouped by first received treatment with either hydroxyurea, hypomethylating agents, or intensive chemotherapy, and stratified by risk according to blast count, French-American-British subtype, CPSS, WHO 2016 subtype, and the eligibility criteria of the DACOTA trial (NCT02214407). FINDINGS: 949 patients diagnosed with chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia between April 13, 1981, and Oct 26, 2018, were included. Median follow-up was 23·4 months (IQR 11·5-42·3) from diagnosis and 16·2 months (6·6-31·6) from start of first-line treatment. 412 (43%) of 949 patients received hypomethylating agents as first treatment, 391 (41%) hydroxyurea, and 83 (9%) intensive chemotherapy. Adjusted median overall survival for patients treated with hydroxyurea versus hypomethylating agents was 15·6 months (95% CI 13·1-17·3) versus 20·7 months (17·9-23·4); hazard ratio (HR) 1·39 (1·17-1·65; p=0·0002) and 14·0 months (9·8-17·2) versus 20·7 months (17·9-23·4; HR 1·55 [1·16-2·05]; p=0·0027) for those treated with intensive chemotherapy versus hypomethylating agents. In patients with myeloproliferative chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (myeloproliferative CMML), median overall survival was 12·6 months (10·7-15·0) versus 17·6 months (14·8-21·5; HR 1·38 [1·12-1·70]; p=0·0027) for patients treated with hydroxyurea versus hypomethylating agents, and 12·3 months (8·4-16·6) versus 17·6 months (14·8-21·5; HR 1·44 [1·02-2·03]; p=0·040) for intensive chemotherapy versus hypomethylating agents. Hypomethylating agents did not confer an overall survival advantage for patients classified as having lower-risk disease (ie, myelodysplastic chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia with <10% blasts, CMML-0, or lower-risk CPSS). INTERPRETATION: These data suggest hypomethylating agents as the preferred therapy for patients with higher-risk chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia and those with myeloproliferative CMML. Our findings also suggest that CPSS is a valuable tool to identify patients who are most likely to benefit from hypomethylating agents. Further evidence from prospective cohorts would be desirable. FUNDING: The Austrian Group for Medical Tumor Therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Azacitidina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxiureia/uso terapêutico , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e23030, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126392

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Extramedullary invasion of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) usually occurs in the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes, while the pleural infiltration of CMML is rare. The presence of pleural effusion is usually associated with uncontrolled leukocytosis and increased monocytes. PATIENT CONCERNS: Here we reported a rare case of CMML-0 with pleural effusion as the first manifestation in a 44-year-old woman. The pleural effusion was caused by blasts infiltration confirmed by the flow cytometer and the pleural biopsy. DIAGNOSES: CMML with pleural invasion. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was treated with azacitidine 75 mg/m d for 2 cycles, followed by daily oral intake of hydroxyurea (500 mg/d). OUTCOMES: Pleural effusion was resolved and chest pain was relieved. LESSONS: The current case indicated that leukemic infiltration into pleura could occur despite mild leukocytes, while demethylation may be an effective therapy.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Adulto , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Azacitidina/administração & dosagem , Azacitidina/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxiureia/administração & dosagem , Hidroxiureia/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/complicações , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Crônica/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Derrame Pleural/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
6.
F1000Res ; 92020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32765834

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease (SCD) afflicts millions of people worldwide but is referred to as an orphan disease in the United States. Over the past several decades, there has been an increasing understanding of the pathophysiology of SCD and its complications. While most individuals with SCD in resource-rich countries survive into adulthood, the life expectancy of patients with SCD remains substantially shorter than for the general African-American population. SCD can be cured using hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and possibly gene therapy, but these treatment approaches are not available to most patients, the majority of whom reside in low- and middle-income countries. Until relatively recently, only one drug, hydroxyurea, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to ameliorate disease severity. Multiple other drugs (L-glutamine, crizanlizumab, and voxelotor) have recently been approved for the treatment of SCD, with several others at various stages of clinical testing. The availability of multiple agents to treat SCD raises questions related to the choice of appropriate drug therapy, combination of multiple agents, and affordability of recently approved products. The enthusiasm for new drug development provides opportunities to involve patients in low- and middle-income nations in the testing of potentially disease-modifying therapies and has the potential to contribute to capacity building in these environments. Demonstration that these agents, alone or in combination, can prevent or decrease end-organ damage would provide additional evidence for the role of drug therapies in improving outcomes in SCD.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Hidroxiureia/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD003146, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is one of the commonest severe monogenic disorders in the world, due to the inheritance of two abnormal haemoglobin (beta globin) genes. Sickle cell disease can cause severe pain, significant end-organ damage, pulmonary complications, and premature death. Stroke affects around 10% of children with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS). Chronic blood transfusions may reduce the risk of vaso-occlusion and stroke by diluting the proportion of sickled cells in the circulation. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2002, and last updated in 2017. OBJECTIVES: To assess risks and benefits of chronic blood transfusion regimens in people with sickle cell disease for primary and secondary stroke prevention (excluding silent cerebral infarcts). SEARCH METHODS: We searched for relevant trials in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1980), and ongoing trial databases; all searches current to 8 October 2019. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 19 September 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials comparing red blood cell transfusions as prophylaxis for stroke in people with sickle cell disease to alternative or standard treatment. There were no restrictions by outcomes examined, language or publication status. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and the risk of bias and extracted data. MAIN RESULTS: We included five trials (660 participants) published between 1998 and 2016. Four of these trials were terminated early. The vast majority of participants had the haemoglobin (Hb)SS form of sickle cell disease. Three trials compared regular red cell transfusions to standard care in primary prevention of stroke: two in children with no previous long-term transfusions; and one in children and adolescents on long-term transfusion. Two trials compared the drug hydroxyurea (hydroxycarbamide) and phlebotomy to long-term transfusions and iron chelation therapy: one in primary prevention (children); and one in secondary prevention (children and adolescents). The quality of the evidence was very low to moderate across different outcomes according to GRADE methodology. This was due to the trials being at a high risk of bias due to lack of blinding, indirectness and imprecise outcome estimates. Red cell transfusions versus standard care Children with no previous long-term transfusions Long-term transfusions probably reduce the incidence of clinical stroke in children with a higher risk of stroke (abnormal transcranial doppler velocities or previous history of silent cerebral infarct), risk ratio 0.12 (95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.49) (two trials, 326 participants), moderate quality evidence. Long-term transfusions may: reduce the incidence of other sickle cell disease-related complications (acute chest syndrome, risk ratio 0.24 (95% confidence interval 0.12 to 0.48)) (two trials, 326 participants); increase quality of life (difference estimate -0.54, 95% confidence interval -0.92 to -0.17) (one trial, 166 participants); but make little or no difference to IQ scores (least square mean: 1.7, standard error 95% confidence interval -1.1 to 4.4) (one trial, 166 participants), low quality evidence. We are very uncertain whether long-term transfusions: reduce the risk of transient ischaemic attacks, Peto odds ratio 0.13 (95% confidence interval 0.01 to 2.11) (two trials, 323 participants); have any effect on all-cause mortality, no deaths reported (two trials, 326 participants); or increase the risk of alloimmunisation, risk ratio 3.16 (95% confidence interval 0.18 to 57.17) (one trial, 121 participants), very low quality evidence. Children and adolescents with previous long-term transfusions (one trial, 79 participants) We are very uncertain whether continuing long-term transfusions reduces the incidence of: stroke, risk ratio 0.22 (95% confidence interval 0.01 to 4.35); or all-cause mortality, Peto odds ratio 8.00 (95% confidence interval 0.16 to 404.12), very low quality evidence. Several review outcomes were only reported in one trial arm (sickle cell disease-related complications, alloimmunisation, transient ischaemic attacks). The trial did not report neurological impairment, or quality of life. Hydroxyurea and phlebotomy versus red cell transfusions and chelation Neither trial reported on neurological impairment, alloimmunisation, or quality of life. Primary prevention, children (one trial, 121 participants) Switching to hydroxyurea and phlebotomy may have little or no effect on liver iron concentrations, mean difference -1.80 mg Fe/g dry-weight liver (95% confidence interval -5.16 to 1.56), low quality evidence. We are very uncertain whether switching to hydroxyurea and phlebotomy has any effect on: risk of stroke (no strokes); all-cause mortality (no deaths); transient ischaemic attacks, risk ratio 1.02 (95% confidence interval 0.21 to 4.84); or other sickle cell disease-related complications (acute chest syndrome, risk ratio 2.03 (95% confidence interval 0.39 to 10.69)), very low quality evidence. Secondary prevention, children and adolescents (one trial, 133 participants) Switching to hydroxyurea and phlebotomy may: increase the risk of sickle cell disease-related serious adverse events, risk ratio 3.10 (95% confidence interval 1.42 to 6.75); but have little or no effect on median liver iron concentrations (hydroxyurea, 17.3 mg Fe/g dry-weight liver (interquartile range 10.0 to 30.6)); transfusion 17.3 mg Fe/g dry-weight liver (interquartile range 8.8 to 30.7), low quality evidence. We are very uncertain whether switching to hydroxyurea and phlebotomy: increases the risk of stroke, risk ratio 14.78 (95% confidence interval 0.86 to 253.66); or has any effect on all-cause mortality, Peto odds ratio 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.06 to 15.92); or transient ischaemic attacks, risk ratio 0.66 (95% confidence interval 0.25 to 1.74), very low quality evidence. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence for managing adults, or children who do not have HbSS sickle cell disease. In children who are at higher risk of stroke and have not had previous long-term transfusions, there is moderate quality evidence that long-term red cell transfusions reduce the risk of stroke, and low quality evidence they also reduce the risk of other sickle cell disease-related complications. In primary and secondary prevention of stroke there is low quality evidence that switching to hydroxyurea with phlebotomy has little or no effect on the liver iron concentration. In secondary prevention of stroke there is low-quality evidence that switching to hydroxyurea with phlebotomy increases the risk of sickle cell disease-related events. All other evidence in this review is of very low quality.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Prevenção Primária , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Antidrepanocíticos/efeitos adversos , Antidrepanocíticos/uso terapêutico , Transfusão de Sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Término Precoce de Ensaios Clínicos , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobina Falciforme , Humanos , Hidroxiureia/efeitos adversos , Hidroxiureia/uso terapêutico , Quelantes de Ferro/uso terapêutico , Flebotomia/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Internist (Berl) ; 61(7): 754-758, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548653

RESUMO

The term "sickle cell disease" covers a group of genetic blood disorders caused by sickle hemoglobin (HbS) alone or in combination with other variants of the ß­globin locus. Sickle cell disease occurs frequently in sub-Saharan Africa, but is also common in Turkey, Greece, Sicily, the Middle East, India, and the Americas. Polymerization of deoxygenated sickle hemoglobin leads to decreased deformability of red blood cells. These altered erythrocytes can obstruct small blood vessels and cause acute episodes of pain, hemolytic anemia, and organ damage. Complications can vary between the different genotypes and it is important to be aware of the special features of the disease. Hydroxycarbamide has been shown to reduce the morbidity and mortality of patients with sickle cell disease. New drugs and novel treatment approaches such as gene therapy are currently being tested.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Eritrócitos/patologia , Hidroxiureia/uso terapêutico , Eritrócitos Anormais , Humanos , Dor , Turquia
9.
Brasília; s.n; 30 jun. 2020.
Não convencional em Português | LILACS, BRISA/RedTESA, Inca, PIE | ID: biblio-1117603

RESUMO

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referente ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 14 artigos e 31 protocolos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Vacina BCG/uso terapêutico , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Hidroxiureia/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico
10.
Acta Cir Bras ; 35(3): e202000301, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401830

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the serum levels of nitric oxide and correlate them with the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in liver, brain and spinal cord of animals using L-NAME and treated with hydroxyurea. METHODS: Eighteen male albino Wistar rats were divided into three groups. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) was intraperitoneally administered to induce oxidative stress. TBARS and plasma nitric oxide levels were analyzed in all groups. Histopathology of the liver and vascular tissue was performed. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were seen in liver, brain and spinal cord TBARS levels. CONCLUSIONS: Following the use of L-NAME, hepatic tissue increased the number of Kupffer cells as oxidative stress and inflammatory response increased. The use of L-NAME caused an increase in lipid peroxidation products and, consequently, in oxidative stress in animals. Hydroxyurea doses of 35 mg / kg / day reduced TBARS values in liver, brain and spinal cord.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Hidroxiureia/uso terapêutico , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Anemia Falciforme/metabolismo , Anemia Falciforme/fisiopatologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD012389, 2020 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the commonest severe monogenic disorders in the world, due to the inheritance of two abnormal haemoglobin (beta globin) genes. SCD can cause severe pain, significant end-organ damage, pulmonary complications, and premature death. Silent cerebral infarcts are the commonest neurological complication in children and probably adults with SCD. Silent cerebral infarcts also affect academic performance, increase cognitive deficits and may lower intelligence quotient. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of interventions to reduce or prevent silent cerebral infarcts in people with SCD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched for relevant trials in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1980), and ongoing trial databases; all searches current to 14 November 2019. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register: 07 October 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials comparing interventions to prevent silent cerebral infarcts in people with SCD. There were no restrictions by outcomes examined, language or publication status. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures. MAIN RESULTS: We included five trials (660 children or adolescents) published between 1998 and 2016. Four of the five trials were terminated early. The vast majority of participants had the haemoglobin (Hb)SS form of SCD. One trial focused on preventing silent cerebral infarcts or stroke; three trials were for primary stroke prevention and one trial dealt with secondary stroke prevention. Three trials compared the use of regular long-term red blood cell transfusions to standard care. Two of these trials included children with no previous long-term transfusions: one in children with normal transcranial doppler (TCD) velocities; and one in children with abnormal TCD velocities. The third trial included children and adolescents on long-term transfusion. Two trials compared the drug hydroxyurea and phlebotomy to long-term transfusions and iron chelation therapy: one in primary prevention (children), and one in secondary prevention (children and adolescents). The quality of the evidence was moderate to very low across different outcomes according to GRADE methodology. This was due to trials being at high risk of bias because they were unblinded; indirectness (available evidence was only for children with HbSS); and imprecise outcome estimates. Long-term red blood cell transfusions versus standard care Children with no previous long-term transfusions and higher risk of stroke (abnormal TCD velocities or previous history of silent cerebral infarcts) Long-term red blood cell transfusions may reduce the incidence of silent cerebral infarcts in children with abnormal TCD velocities, risk ratio (RR) 0.11 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02 to 0.86) (one trial, 124 participants, low-quality evidence); but make little or no difference to the incidence of silent cerebral infarcts in children with previous silent cerebral infarcts on magnetic resonance imaging and normal or conditional TCDs, RR 0.70 (95% CI 0.23 to 2.13) (one trial, 196 participants, low-quality evidence). No deaths were reported in either trial. Long-term red blood cell transfusions may reduce the incidence of: acute chest syndrome, RR 0.24 (95% CI 0.12 to 0.49) (two trials, 326 participants, low-quality evidence); and painful crisis, RR 0.63 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.95) (two trials, 326 participants, low-quality evidence); and probably reduces the incidence of clinical stroke, RR 0.12 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.49) (two trials, 326 participants, moderate-quality evidence). Long-term red blood cell transfusions may improve quality of life in children with previous silent cerebral infarcts (difference estimate -0.54; 95% confidence interval -0.92 to -0.17; one trial; 166 participants), but may have no effect on cognitive function (least squares means: 1.7, 95% CI -1.1 to 4.4) (one trial, 166 participants, low-quality evidence). Transfusions continued versus transfusions halted: children and adolescents with normalised TCD velocities (79 participants; one trial) Continuing red blood cell transfusions may reduce the incidence of silent cerebral infarcts, RR 0.29 (95% CI 0.09 to 0.97 (low-quality evidence). We are very uncertain whether continuing red blood cell transfusions has any effect on all-cause mortality, Peto odds ratio (OR) 8.00 (95% CI 0.16 to 404.12); or clinical stroke, RR 0.22 (95% CI 0.01 to 4.35) (very low-quality evidence). The trial did not report: comparative numbers for SCD-related adverse events; quality of life; or cognitive function. Hydroxyurea and phlebotomy versus transfusions and chelation Primary prevention, children (121 participants; one trial) We are very uncertain whether switching to hydroxyurea and phlebotomy has any effect on: silent cerebral infarcts (no infarcts); all-cause mortality (no deaths); risk of stroke (no strokes); or SCD-related complications, RR 1.52 (95% CI 0.58 to 4.02) (very low-quality evidence). Secondary prevention, children and adolescents with a history of stroke (133 participants; one trial) We are very uncertain whether switching to hydroxyurea and phlebotomy has any effect on: silent cerebral infarcts, Peto OR 7.28 (95% CI 0.14 to 366.91); all-cause mortality, Peto OR 1.02 (95%CI 0.06 to 16.41); or clinical stroke, RR 14.78 (95% CI 0.86 to 253.66) (very low-quality evidence). Switching to hydroxyurea and phlebotomy may increase the risk of SCD-related complications, RR 3.10 (95% CI 1.42 to 6.75) (low-quality evidence). Neither trial reported on quality of life or cognitive function. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We identified no trials for preventing silent cerebral infarcts in adults, or in children who do not have HbSS SCD. Long-term red blood cell transfusions may reduce the incidence of silent cerebral infarcts in children with abnormal TCD velocities, but may have little or no effect on children with normal TCD velocities. In children who are at higher risk of stroke and have not had previous long-term transfusions, long-term red blood cell transfusions probably reduce the risk of stroke, and other SCD-related complications (acute chest syndrome and painful crises). In children and adolescents at high risk of stroke whose TCD velocities have normalised, continuing red blood cell transfusions may reduce the risk of silent cerebral infarcts. No treatment duration threshold has been established for stopping transfusions. Switching to hydroxyurea with phlebotomy may increase the risk of silent cerebral infarcts and SCD-related serious adverse events in secondary stroke prevention. All other evidence in this review is of very low-quality.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Antidrepanocíticos/uso terapêutico , Infarto Encefálico/prevenção & controle , Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Hidroxiureia/uso terapêutico , Flebotomia , Adolescente , Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Antidrepanocíticos/efeitos adversos , Infarto Encefálico/etiologia , Causas de Morte , Criança , Cognição/fisiologia , Humanos , Hidroxiureia/efeitos adversos , Flebotomia/efeitos adversos , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
14.
Ann Hematol ; 99(5): 925-935, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157419

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal recessive blood disorder which occurs due to point mutation in the ß-globin chain of hemoglobin. Since the past decades, various therapies have been put forth, which are based on obstructing pathophysiological mechanisms of SCD including inhibition of Gardos channel and cation fluxes which in turn prevents sickle erythrocyte destruction and dehydration. The pharmacological approaches are based on the mechanism of reactivating γ-globin expression by utilizing fetal hemoglobin (HbF)-inducing drugs such as hydroxyurea. In SCD, gene therapy could be considered as a promising tool which involves modifying mutation at the gene-specific target by either promoting insertion or deletion of globins. Although there are various therapies emerged so far in the treatment of SCD, many of them have faced a major setback in most of developing countries in terms of cost, unavailability of expertise, and suitable donor. Therefore, in addition to pathophysiological aspects, this review will discuss new advancements and approaches made in the therapeutic domain of SCD including a viewpoint of modulating hemoglobin in SCD by the intervention of probiotics.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Eritrócitos Anormais , Hemoglobina Fetal , Hidroxiureia/uso terapêutico , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Intermediária , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Anemia Falciforme/metabolismo , Anemia Falciforme/fisiopatologia , Eritrócitos Anormais/metabolismo , Eritrócitos Anormais/patologia , Hemoglobina Fetal/genética , Hemoglobina Fetal/metabolismo , Humanos , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Intermediária/genética , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Intermediária/metabolismo
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD006282, 2020 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by a homozygous deletion of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene on chromosome 5, or a heterozygous deletion in combination with a (point) mutation in the second SMN1 allele. This results in degeneration of anterior horn cells, which leads to progressive muscle weakness. Children with SMA type II do not develop the ability to walk without support and have a shortened life expectancy, whereas children with SMA type III develop the ability to walk and have a normal life expectancy. This is an update of a review first published in 2009 and previously updated in 2011. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate if drug treatment is able to slow or arrest the disease progression of SMA types II and III, and to assess if such therapy can be given safely. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and ISI Web of Science conference proceedings in October 2018. In October 2018, we also searched two trials registries to identify unpublished trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We sought all randomised or quasi-randomised trials that examined the efficacy of drug treatment for SMA types II and III. Participants had to fulfil the clinical criteria and have a homozygous deletion or hemizygous deletion in combination with a point mutation in the second allele of the SMN1 gene (5q11.2-13.2) confirmed by genetic analysis. The primary outcome measure was change in disability score within one year after the onset of treatment. Secondary outcome measures within one year after the onset of treatment were change in muscle strength, ability to stand or walk, change in quality of life, time from the start of treatment until death or full-time ventilation and adverse events attributable to treatment during the trial period. Treatment strategies involving SMN1-replacement with viral vectors are out of the scope of this review, but a summary is given in Appendix 1. Drug treatment for SMA type I is the topic of a separate Cochrane Review. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed standard Cochrane methodology. MAIN RESULTS: The review authors found 10 randomised, placebo-controlled trials of treatments for SMA types II and III for inclusion in this review, with 717 participants. We added four of the trials at this update. The trials investigated creatine (55 participants), gabapentin (84 participants), hydroxyurea (57 participants), nusinersen (126 participants), olesoxime (165 participants), phenylbutyrate (107 participants), somatotropin (20 participants), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) (nine participants), valproic acid (33 participants), and combination therapy with valproic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) (61 participants). Treatment duration was from three to 24 months. None of the studies investigated the same treatment and none was completely free of bias. All studies had adequate blinding, sequence generation and reporting of primary outcomes. Based on moderate-certainty evidence, intrathecal nusinersen improved motor function (disability) in children with SMA type II, with a 3.7-point improvement in the nusinersen group on the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale Expanded (HFMSE; range of possible scores 0 to 66), compared to a 1.9-point decline on the HFMSE in the sham procedure group (P < 0.01; n = 126). On all motor function scales used, higher scores indicate better function. Based on moderate-certainty evidence from two studies, the following interventions had no clinically important effect on motor function scores in SMA types II or III (or both) in comparison to placebo: creatine (median change 1 higher, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1 to 2; on the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), scale 0 to 264; n = 40); and combination therapy with valproic acid and carnitine (mean difference (MD) 0.64, 95% CI -1.1 to 2.38; on the Modified Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale (MHFMS), scale 0 to 40; n = 61). Based on low-certainty evidence from other single studies, the following interventions had no clinically important effect on motor function scores in SMA types II or III (or both) in comparison to placebo: gabapentin (median change 0 in the gabapentin group and -2 in the placebo group on the SMA Functional Rating Scale (SMAFRS), scale 0 to 50; n = 66); hydroxyurea (MD -1.88, 95% CI -3.89 to 0.13 on the GMFM, scale 0 to 264; n = 57), phenylbutyrate (MD -0.13, 95% CI -0.84 to 0.58 on the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale (HFMS) scale 0 to 40; n = 90) and monotherapy of valproic acid (MD 0.06, 95% CI -1.32 to 1.44 on SMAFRS, scale 0 to 50; n = 31). Very low-certainty evidence suggested that the following interventions had little or no effect on motor function: olesoxime (MD 2, 95% -0.25 to 4.25 on the Motor Function Measure (MFM) D1 + D2, scale 0 to 75; n = 160) and somatotropin (median change at 3 months 0.25 higher, 95% CI -1 to 2.5 on the HFMSE, scale 0 to 66; n = 19). One small TRH trial did not report effects on motor function and the certainty of evidence for other outcomes from this trial were low or very low. Results of nine completed trials investigating 4-aminopyridine, acetyl-L-carnitine, CK-2127107, hydroxyurea, pyridostigmine, riluzole, RO6885247/RG7800, salbutamol and valproic acid were awaited and not available for analysis at the time of writing. Various trials and studies investigating treatment strategies other than nusinersen (e.g. SMN2-augmentation by small molecules), are currently ongoing. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Nusinersen improves motor function in SMA type II, based on moderate-certainty evidence. Creatine, gabapentin, hydroxyurea, phenylbutyrate, valproic acid and the combination of valproic acid and ALC probably have no clinically important effect on motor function in SMA types II or III (or both) based on low-certainty evidence, and olesoxime and somatropin may also have little to no clinically important effect but evidence was of very low-certainty. One trial of TRH did not measure motor function.


Assuntos
Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Aminas/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Creatina/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Cicloexanocarboxílicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxiureia/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Hormônio Liberador de Tireotropina/uso terapêutico , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/uso terapêutico
18.
Saudi Med J ; 41(1): 46-52, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915794

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To measure the incidence of vaso-occlusive crises (VOC) and the role of hydroxyurea (HU) in reducing VOC in sickle cell anemia  patients being treated at a large tertiary care setting in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The secondary objective of this study is to observe the gradual improvement in laboratory data (white blood cell [WBC], platelets, mean corpuscular volume [MCV], hemoglobin [Hgb], HgbF) following regular use of HU. Methods: Clinical effectiveness of HU was evaluated in a large pediatric population using a retrospective cohort, non-interventional, pre-post treatment study designed to control disease severity selection bias. The cohort included children with SCA (sickle cell (SS), sickle-beta thalassemia) at King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, KSA, who initiated HU between January 2012 and June 2017. For each patient healthcare utilization, laboratory values, and clinical outcomes were observed for an equal duration of time pre and post hydroxyurea. Results: Out of 416 SCD patients, 128 children with SCD who initiated HU, of them 82 met the eligibility criteria. After initiation of HU, there was significant reduction in both VOC (80%) and length of stay (LOS) (73%). Significant increase in Hgb (13%), MCV (10%), and HgbF (28%) and significant decrease in WBC (28%) was observed. Only the mean platelet count decreased by 3% with a p greater than 0.05. Conclusion: Hydroxyurea treatment significantly decreased episodes of VOC and LOS, it also led to reductions in hospitalizations and significant improvement in complete blood count indices.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Hidroxiureia/uso terapêutico , Anemia Falciforme/fisiopatologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita , Vasoconstrição
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA