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1.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 70-98, July-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019277

RESUMO

Abstract Resources are distributed unequally depending on the social status (SS) of people. Researchers have often used experiments to explain the role of SS in economic decisions. However, the diverse ways of inducing SS has produced contradictory results. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of SS on the distribution of monetary resources in students aged 18 to 25 years from Córdoba (Argentina). Three experiments using mixed factorial designs were conducted. Different ways of inducing SS and the effect on decisions in different games were examined. In Experiment 1, the effect of two SS induction techniques on the decisions of the Ultimatum Game (UG) and Dictator Game (DG) was compared. In Experiment 2, the effect of SS on the same games, including Social Value Orientation (SVO) and Subjective Social Status (SSS) as covariates was analyzed. In Experiment 3, the role of SS, SVO and SSS in the DG and the Dictator Game Taking (DGT) was examined. In the three experiments, it was not found that SS had any effect on the decisions of the games. However, more rejection and negative valence was observed (Exp. 1: p < .001, n 2 p =.72; Exp. 2: p < .001, n 2 p = .65) for unfair offers than for fair ones (Exp. 2: p < .001). Also, pro-social individuals made fairer offers in the DG (Exp. 2: p < .05) and participants offered more money in the DGT than in the DG (Exp. 3: p = .01). Those findings showed that the effect of SS on behavioral responses is not robust, which highlights the need to obtain new experimental evidence to investigate its role in those decisions.


Resumo Os recursos são normalmente distribuídos de maneira desigual em função do status social (SS) das pessoas, razão pela qual diversos pesquisadores utilizam experimentos para explicar o papel do SS nas decisões econômicas. No entanto, as diversas formas de induzir o SS geraram resultados contraditórios. No presente trabalho, investigou-se o efeito do SS na distribuição dos recursos monetários em estudantes de 18 a 25 anos da cidade de Córdoba, na Argentina, por meio de três experimentos com desenhos experimentais mistos. Especificamente, foram avaliadas diferentes técnicas para manipular o SS e seu efeito nas decisões econômicas: no Experimento 1 comparou-se o efeito de duas técnicas de manipulação do SS nas decisões do Jogo do Ultimato (JU) e do Ditador (JD); no Experimento 2 analisou-se o efeito do SS nos mesmos jogos, incluindo a orientação de valores sociais (SVO) e o status social subjetivo (SES) como covariáveis e, no Experimento 3, indagou-se o papel do SS, da SVO e do SES no JD e no Ditador de Tomar (do inglês, Dictator Taking Game). Nos três experimentos observou-se que o SS não teve efeito nas decisões dos jogos. Não obstante, evidenciou-se maior rejeição (Exp. 1: p < .001, n 2 p = .72; Exp. 2: p < .001, n 2 p = .65) e valência negativa para as ofertas injustas do que para as justas (Exp. 2: p < .001). Além disso, descobriu-se que quanto maior a pró-socialidade, maior a quantidade ofertada no JD (Exp. 2: p < .05) e que no JDT se oferece mais dinheiro do que no JD (Exp. 3: p = .01). Os resultados observados evidenciam que o efeito do SS nas respostas comportamentais não é robusto, por isso se destaca a importância de continuar investigando seu papel em tais decisões.


Resumen Los recursos son usualmente distribuidos de manera inequitativa en función del estatus social (ES) de las personas, razón por la cual diversos investigadores utilizan experimentos para explicar el rol del ES en las decisiones económicas; sin embargo, las diversas formas de inducir el ES han generado resultados contradictorios. En el presente trabajo se investigó el efecto del ES en la distribución de los recursos monetarios en estudiantes de 18 a 25 años de la ciudad de Córdoba, Argentina, por medio de tres experimentos con diseños experimentales mixtos. Específicamente, se evaluaron distintas técnicas para manipular el ES y su efecto en las decisiones económicas: en el Experimento 1 se comparó el efecto de dos técnicas de manipulación del ES en las decisiones del Juego del Ultimátum (JU) y del Dictador (JD); en el Experimento 2 se analizó el efecto del ES en los mismos juegos, incluyendo la orientación de valores sociales (SVO) y el estatus social subjetivo (SES) como covariables; y en el Experimento 3 se indagó el rol del ES, de la SVO y del ESS en el JD y en el Dictador de Tomar (JDT). En los tres experimentos se observó que el ES no tuvo efecto en las decisiones de los juegos. No obstante, se evidenció mayor rechazo (Exp. 1: p < .001, n 2 p = .72; Exp. 2: p < .001, n 2 p = .65) y valencia negativa para las ofertas injustas que para las justas (Exp. 2: p < .001). Además, se encontró que a mayor prosocialidad, mayor cantidad ofertada en el JD (Exp. 2: p < .05), y que en el JDT se ofrece más dinero que en el JD (Exp. 3: p = .01). Los resultados observados evidencian que el efecto del ES en las respuestas comportamentales no es robusto, por lo que se destaca la importancia de continuar investigando su rol en dichas decisiones.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Constituição e Estatutos , Jogos Recreativos , Hierarquia Social
2.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(12): 2023-2028, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686022

RESUMO

Personality traits can offer considerable insight into the biological basis of individual differences. However, existing approaches toward understanding personality across species rely on subjective criteria and limited sets of behavioral readouts, which result in noisy and often inconsistent outcomes. Here we introduce a mathematical framework for describing individual differences along dimensions with maximum consistency and discriminative power. We validate this framework in mice, using data from a system for high-throughput longitudinal monitoring of group-housed male mice that yields a variety of readouts from across the behavioral repertoire of individual animals. We demonstrate a set of stable traits that capture variability in behavior and gene expression in the brain, allowing for better-informed mechanistic investigations into the biology of individual differences.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Modelos Teóricos , Personalidade , Comportamento Social , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Hierarquia Social , Masculino , Camundongos
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(17)2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480282

RESUMO

Advances in instrumentation and computational analysis in proteomics have opened new doors for honeybee biological research at the molecular and biochemical levels. Proteomics has greatly expanded the understanding of honeybee biology since its introduction in 2005, through which key signaling pathways and proteins that drive honeybee development and behavioral physiology have been identified. This is critical for downstream mechanistic investigation by knocking a gene down/out or overexpressing it and being able to attribute a specific phenotype/biochemical change to that gene. Here, we review how emerging proteome research has contributed to the new understanding of honeybee biology. A systematic and comprehensive analysis of global scientific progress in honeybee proteome research is essential for a better understanding of research topics and trends, and is potentially useful for future research directions.


Assuntos
Abelhas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Pesquisa , Animais , Hierarquia Social , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo
4.
Horm Behav ; 114: 104551, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279703

RESUMO

The neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin and their receptors have established roles in the regulation of mammalian social behavior including parental care, sex, affiliation and pair-bonding, but less is known regarding their relationship to social dominance and subordination within social hierarchies. We have previously demonstrated that male mice can form stable linear dominance hierarchies with individuals occupying one of three classes of social status: alpha, subdominant, subordinate. Alpha males exhibit high levels of aggression and rarely receive aggression. Subdominant males exhibit aggression towards subordinate males but also receive aggression from more dominant individuals. Subordinate males rarely exhibit aggression and receive aggression from more dominant males. Here, we examined whether variation in social status was associated with levels of oxytocin (OTR) and vasopressin 1a (V1aR) receptor binding in socially relevant brain regions. We found that socially dominant males had significantly higher OTR binding in the nucleus accumbens core than subordinate animals. Alpha males also had higher OTR binding in the anterior olfactory nucleus, posterior part of the cortical amygdala and rostral lateral septum compared to more subordinate individuals. Conversely, alpha males had lower V1aR binding in the rostral lateral septum and lateral preoptic area compared to subordinates. These observed relationships have two potential explanations. Preexisting individual differences in the patterns of OTR and V1aR binding may underlie behavioral differences that promote or inhibit the acquisition of social status. More likely, the differential social environments experienced by dominant and subordinate animals may shift receptor expression, potentially facilitating the expression of adaptive social behaviors.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Hierarquia Social , Ocitocina/metabolismo , Receptores de Vasopressinas/metabolismo , Agressão/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Núcleo Accumbens/metabolismo , Ligação do Par , Receptores de Ocitocina/metabolismo , Comportamento Social , Predomínio Social , Meio Social , Vasopressinas/metabolismo
5.
Scand J Psychol ; 60(5): 484-491, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353480

RESUMO

This research examines others' perception of the influence of managers working in successful or unsuccessful companies who possess or lack status (to be respected by others) and power (control of valued resources). Study 1 shows that high-status managers were judged as more influential in the firm than their low-status peers, regardless of the company's situation. Study 2 finds that in a context of economic uncertainty, a manager with high status and power is perceived to be more capable of affecting the firm. The effect of power seems to be secondary since when a manager has low status, having high power does not significantly benefit the influence attributed to him or her. Furthermore, dominance (assertive behavior), not warmth, mediated the relationship between status and the attributed influence. Overall, these findings confirm that status is a very potent source of social influence, status and power are distinct constructs with different effects, and dominance rather than warmth is a key personal dimension linked to successful leadership.


Assuntos
Hierarquia Social , Liderança , Administração de Recursos Humanos , Respeito , Percepção Social , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino
6.
Biol Psychol ; 146: 107722, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226446

RESUMO

Third-party punishment refers to the punishment imposed by a party whose benefit is not directly affected by any norm violations. The present study using a modified Dictator Game explored how social statuses of the involved parties modulate punishment decisions of a third-party. Systematic manipulation of the dictators' and recipients' status revealed that: higher recipient status correlated with more severe punishment, but no effect of the dictator's. We further focused on the neural underlying of this effect using ERPs. An interaction of recipient's status × fairness was observed on MFN such that only for a high-status recipient, larger amplitude was triggered by unfair offers comparing to fair offers. On LPC, the largest amplitude was observed when the offer was fair and the recipient had medium-status. These findings suggested: participants consider unfair offers proposed to high-status recipients as more norm-violating and they may evaluate the offers from the perspective of the recipient.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Hierarquia Social , Punição/psicologia , Adulto , Altruísmo , Comportamento/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214111, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039151

RESUMO

This paper aims to investigate the relationship between women's social class and their levels of self- and other-objectification. Two online studies comprising of multiple questionnaires were conducted: Study 1 examined the association between the social class (both objective and subjective) of 198 non-student British women and their self-objectification levels, while Study 2 turned towards the relationship between social class and other-objectification among 82 non-student British women. Our results indicated no apparent relationship between social class and each of the relevant objectification measures. As the first paper on the topic of class and objectification, it appears that there is no relationship observed between the two.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Hierarquia Social , Classe Social , Identificação Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Sexual , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Adulto Jovem
8.
Mamm Genome ; 30(3-4): 54-62, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020388

RESUMO

Spermatogenesis-associated protein 13 (Spata13) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) enriched in discrete brain regions in the adult, with pronounced expression in the extended central amygdala (CeA). Loss of Spata13, also known as the adenomatous polyposis coli exchange factor Asef2, has no identifiable phenotype although it has been shown to reduce the number and size of intestinal tumours in Apc (Min/+) mice. Nevertheless, its brain-related functions have not been investigated. To pursue this, we have generated a Spata13 knockout mouse line using CRISPR-mediated deletion of an exon containing the GTPase domain that is common to multiple isoforms. Homozygous mutants were viable and appeared normal. We subjected both male and female cohorts to a comprehensive battery of behavioural tests designed to investigate particular CeA-related functions. Here, we show that Spata13 modulates social behaviour with homozygous mutants being subordinate to wildtype controls. Furthermore, female homozygotes show increased activity in home cages during the dark phase of the light-dark cycle. In summary, Spata13 modulates social hierarchy in both male and female mice in addition to affecting voluntary activity in females.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos da radiação , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/metabolismo , Comportamento Social , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Hierarquia Social , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Fotoperíodo , Predomínio Social
9.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215692, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017952

RESUMO

Where should we look to understand the origin of inequality? I propose an unusual window of evidence-modern societies. I hypothesize that evidence for the origin of inequality is encoded in the institutional structure of industrial societies. To test this idea, I use a model to project modern trends into the past. This model takes the modern relation between energy, hierarchy, and inequality and creates a hindcast of the origin of inequality. The results are broadly consistent with the available evidence. The model predicts an explosion of inequality with the transition from hunter-gathering to agriculture, followed by a plateau. This finding potentially opens a new window of evidence into the origin of inequality.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Hierarquia Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Hierarquia Social/história , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Renda , Modelos Teóricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos/história
10.
J Psychol ; 153(6): 575-598, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30855218

RESUMO

This study examined workplace romance perceptions among Millennial employees who had participated in a workplace romance and those who had observed one. Two samples (workplace romance partners and coworkers) of 18- to 29-year-old employees completed questionnaires in which they reported their perceptions of workplace romance's positive and negative effects. The relationships between the effects and respondent role (partner/coworker), sex (male/female), and the romance's status dynamic (peer-peer/hierarchical) were also examined. Results indicate Millennial workplace romance partners focused on personal benefits and difficulties, whereas coworkers tended to identify organizational impacts. Women were more likely than men to identify drawbacks of workplace romance, and employees reporting on hierarchical versus peer-peer romances were more likely to identify the partners gaining workplace advantages. Implications for work-life blending and workplace romance policies geared toward Millennial organizational members are discussed.


Assuntos
Hierarquia Social , Amor , Grupo Associado , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 350, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Like other women in India, female sex workers (FSWs) frequently experience violence from their intimate partners (IPs)-a reality that increases their risk of acquiring HIV or other sexually transmitted infections. Less is known about the nature of these intimate relationships or what aspect of the relationship increases the risk of IP violence (IPV). We measured the prevalence and determinants of IPV on FSWs in the context of north Karnataka, India, characterized by high HIV-prevalence and extreme poverty. METHODS: Overall 620 FSWs with an IP participated in a baseline survey conducted for an on-going cluster-randomised controlled trial aiming to evaluate the impact of a multi-level intervention on IPV reduction. We characterize the nature of intimate relationships and explored determinants of severe physical and/or sexual IP violence using univariable and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: The median age of participants was 35 years with 10 years of duration in an intimate relationship. Though most relationships originated from a sex work encounter, 84% stated that IPs did not know they were currently practicing sex work. In past 6 months, the experience of emotional violence was 49% (95%CI:45.2-53.2), physical 33% (95%CI:29.5-37.1) and sexual violence 7% (95%CI:4.8-8.9), while 24% (95%CI:21.0-27.9) FSWs experienced recent severe physical and/or sexual violence from IPs. Factors associated with recent IPV included experience of physical and/or sexual violence from their clients in last 6 months (AOR 2.20; 95%CI: 1.29-3.75), sexual intercourse in the past 1 month when their IP was under the influence of alcohol (AOR 2.30; 95%CI: 1.47-3.59) and providing financial support to their IP (AOR 2.07; 95%CI: 1.28-3.34). CONCLUSIONS: The association between increased risk of violence and provision of financial support to an IP is indicative of gendered power dynamics as men remain dominant irrespective of their financial dependency on FSWs. Interventions are needed that address inequitable gender norms which makes FSWs tolerate violence even though she is not financially dependent on IP. Higher likelihood of violence in presence of alcohol use and FSWs' previous experience of workplace violence linked to IPV call for strengthening the crisis management systems within community-based organisations that can address all forms of violence and associated risk factors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials NCT02807259.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Profissionais do Sexo , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Apoio Financeiro , Identidade de Gênero , Hierarquia Social , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213618, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917163

RESUMO

Strongly polyphenic social insects provide excellent models to examine the neurobiological basis of division of labor. Turtle ants, Cephalotes varians, have distinct minor worker, soldier, and reproductive (gyne/queen) morphologies associated with their behavioral profiles: small-bodied task-generalist minors lack the phragmotic shield-shaped heads of soldiers, which are specialized to block and guard the nest entrance. Gynes found new colonies and during early stages of colony growth overlap behaviorally with soldiers. Here we describe patterns of brain structure and synaptic organization associated with division of labor in C. varians minor workers, soldiers, and gynes. We quantified brain volumes, determined scaling relationships among brain regions, and quantified the density and size of microglomeruli, synaptic complexes in the mushroom body calyxes important to higher-order processing abilities that may underpin behavioral performance. We found that brain volume was significantly larger in gynes; minor workers and soldiers had similar brain sizes. Consistent with their larger behavioral repertoire, minors had disproportionately larger mushroom bodies than soldiers and gynes. Soldiers and gynes had larger optic lobes, which may be important for flight and navigation in gynes, but serve different functions in soldiers. Microglomeruli were larger and less dense in minor workers; soldiers and gynes did not differ. Correspondence in brain structure despite differences in soldiers and gyne behavior may reflect developmental integration, suggesting that neurobiological metrics not only advance our understanding of brain evolution in social insects, but may also help resolve questions of the origin of novel castes.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Formigas/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Corpos Pedunculados/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Tamanho Corporal , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Hierarquia Social , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Corpos Pedunculados/anatomia & histologia , Lobo Óptico de Animais não Mamíferos/anatomia & histologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Reprodução , Comportamento Social
13.
Theriogenology ; 129: 99-102, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831341

RESUMO

Sexual performance of rams does not improve after observing hetero-sexual behavior of other rams, as happens in bucks and bulls. This lack of effect might be masked by the positive and negative effects that sexual stimulation could have on dominant or subordinate rams, given that important differences have been found within both categories. Thus, the objective of the present experiment was to determine if rams' sexual behavior is modified differently in dominant (DOM) and subordinated (SUB) rams after observing the sexual behavior of each other. The dominance relationship of nine dyads of Corriedale rams was determined using a food competition test. Next, each ram was tested in two different situations; a control test (CT), and a test in which the other ram was joined with two estrous ewes in the contiguous pen (visual sexual stimulation test; VSST). Estrous ewes were placed in one pen, and each ram was located first 20 min in the contiguous pen. Then, the ram was moved into the pen with the estrous ewes, staying there for other 20 min. During the CT the ewes remained alone the first 20 min. During the VSST the other ram of the dyad was in the pen with the ewes, but it was taken out before introducing the tested ram. There were no differences in the frequency of any behavior during the 20 first min between DOM or SUB rams. The DOM rams did not modify any behavior according to the type of test. On the other hand, SUB rams increased the number of ejaculations and the ejaculation efficiency (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively) when tested after viewing the DOM rams, and tended (P = 0.058) to achieve their 1st ejaculation earlier in VSST test. It was concluded that while visual pre-stimulation of a SUB ram courting and mating estrous ewes had no effect on DOM rams' sexual behavior, the observation of a DOM ram, enhanced mating behavior of SUB rams. This expands the concept that DOM and SUB rams respond with different strategies to visual stimulation.


Assuntos
Hierarquia Social , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Ovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa
14.
Nat Protoc ; 14(3): 819-831, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770887

RESUMO

Investigation of the neural mechanisms underlying social hierarchy requires a reliable and effective behavioral test. The tube test is a simple and robust behavioral assay that we recently validated as a reliable measure of social hierarchy in mice. The test was demonstrated to produce results largely consistent with the results seen when using other dominance measures, including the warm spot test, territory urine marking or the courtship ultrasound vocalization test. Here, we describe a step-by-step procedure to use the tube test to measure dominance within a cage of four male C57/BL6 mice as an example application. The procedure comprises three stages: habituation, training to pass through the tube, and the tube test itself. The social rank of each mouse is determined by the number of wins it gains when competing against the other three cagemates. A stable rank is derived when all mice maintain the same ranking for 4 consecutive days. The time required to acquire a stable rank usually varies from 4 to 14 d. An additional 5 d is required for habituation and training.


Assuntos
Hierarquia Social , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Optogenética
15.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(2): 603-608, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726391

RESUMO

This paper shows some reflections based on the authors' participation in the AWID (Association for Women's Rights in Development) Forum, which took place in Brazil, in September 2016. These reflections provide key issues about principles and controversies in the work of research and activism on/with men and feminisms, based on the long path of work on masculinities and gender equality of these authors. From the field studies and political interventions on men and masculinities that take feminism as a theoretical and ethical-political framework, we discuss the production of masculinities in the feminist social transformation in contexts that are increasingly conservative and marked by male chauvinism and patriarchy. We also discussed how gender hierarchy emerges vigorously in the contemporary Brazilian political context, from the impeachment process of former president Dilma Rousseff to the formulation ofcurrent education and health policies.


Assuntos
Feminismo , Masculinidade , Política , Direitos da Mulher , Brasil , Características da Família , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Hierarquia Social , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 275: 1-5, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682343

RESUMO

The social environment can be stressful for at least some group members, resulting in elevated levels of glucocorticoid stress hormones (GC). Patterns of the relationships between social rank and GC levels vary between species. In carnivores, primates and birds that live in permanent cooperative groups, helpers do not usually display physiological indicators of stress. Very little is known about status-related GC differences within cooperative groups of rodents. In this laboratory study, we compared GC concentrations in dominant (fathers) and subordinate (natal sons) males of a cooperative subterranean vole, Ellobius tancrei. The assessment of adrenocortical activity by measuring urine glucocorticoid metabolites (UGM) was previously validated for this species through an ACTH challenge test. We observed clear peaks of UGM in the second or third urine samples taken after the administration of ACTH (lag time equal to 2.5-3 h). Thus, UGM is suitable to estimate physiological stress in Ellobius. Postpubertal sons living in natal groups had significantly higher UGM concentrations than their fathers. The average UGM levels of sons were positively associated with their ages and paternal body masses, and negatively associated with paternal ages. Hence, son-father interactions rather than just younger ages of sons appear to contribute to GC differences. The revealed pattern was not consistent with that reported for most cooperative species from other taxa, highlighting the importance of comparative studies.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae/fisiologia , Pai/psicologia , Exposição Paterna , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Animais , Arvicolinae/urina , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/urina , Hierarquia Social , Masculino , Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia , Exposição Paterna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/urina , Comportamento Social , Urinálise/veterinária
18.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0208688, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30625155

RESUMO

The effects of social hierarchies (dominant/subordinate individuals), such as aggressiveness, feeding order, and territoriality, are some of the characteristics used for describing fish behaviour. Social hierarchy patterns are still poorly understood in European-reared sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). In this work, we examine the social interactions among captive fish integrating behavioural and physiological profiles. Groups of three fish with EMG (electromyogram) radio transmitters were monitored for two weeks via video recording. Plasma levels of cortisol, glucose, lactate and lysozyme as well as haematological parameters such as haemoglobin, haematocrit and RBCC (red blood cell count) were measured at the beginning and end of the experiments. Behaviour and muscle activity were monitored daily. The results highlighted that the social hierarchic order was established after one to two days, and it was maintained throughout the experimental period. Dominant and subordinate fish (ß and γ) showed significant differences in muscle activity, hormonal profile (cortisol), aspecific immunity (lysozyme), carbohydrate metabolism (lactate) and behavioural patterns (food order and aggressiveness). This holistic approach helps to provide insights into the physiological status of the subordinate (ß and γ) and dominant individuals. These data have wide implications for aquaculture practice.


Assuntos
Bass/fisiologia , Animais , Aquicultura/métodos , Bass/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Eletromiografia , Hierarquia Social , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Muramidase/sangue
19.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 18(4): 606-621, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617159

RESUMO

Royal jelly (RJ) is a secretion of the hypopharyngeal glands (HGs) of honeybee workers. High royal jelly producing bees (RJBs), a stock of honeybees selected from Italian bees (ITBs), have developed a stronger ability to produce RJ than ITBs. However, the mechanism underpinning the high RJ-producing performance in RJBs is still poorly understood. We have comprehensively characterized and compared the proteome across the life span of worker bees between the ITBs and RJBs. Our data uncover distinct molecular landscapes that regulate the gland ontogeny and activity corresponding with age-specific tasks. Nurse bees (NBs) have a well-developed acini morphology and cytoskeleton of secretory cells in HGs to prime the gland activities of RJ secretion. In RJB NBs, pathways involved in protein synthesis and energy metabolism are functionally induced to cement the enhanced RJ secretion compared with ITBs. In behavior-manipulated RJB NBs, the strongly expressed proteins implicated in protein synthesis and energy metabolism further demonstrate their critical roles in the regulation of RJ secretion. Our findings provide a novel understanding of the mechanism consolidating the high RJ-output in RJBs.


Assuntos
Abelhas/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Hierarquia Social , Hipofaringe/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Proteômica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
J Gambl Stud ; 35(4): 1283-1302, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632011

RESUMO

Through a series of three experiments, this study explored the possible influence of social class on the decision-making tendency of prestige-seeking in a Prestige-Money Game, and further explored the internal sources of such influence. In Experiment 1, the participants' social class was manipulated to examine whether there were class effects in prestige-seeking when individuals of different social classes were paired together in a Prestige-Money Game. In Experiment 2, social rank, which only contained ranking differences, was adopted as a more abstract proxy variable for social class to investigate whether class effects still existed in prestige-seeking in a Prestige-Money Game. Based on the results of Experiment 1 and 2, Experiment 3 further explored the sources of motivation for prestige-seeking among subjects of different social class. The results showed that upper-class individuals showed greater money-seeking tendencies when facing an upper-class opponent, and showed greater prestige-seeking tendencies when facing a lower-class opponent. Such tendencies were derived from social rank; instrumental value played a substantial role. The game strategy of lower-class individuals were mainly oriented toward their personal needs. Specifically, they showed greater prestige-seeking when facing an upper-class opponent, and showed greater money-seeking when facing a lower-class opponent. Such tendencies were derived from the activation of their social class identity; the role of instrumental value was limited. These findings suggest that the essential differences in the game tendencies of individuals from different social classes in a Prestige-Money Game may originate from the fact that different social classes have different demands for the instrumental value and social value of prestige.


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Hierarquia Social , Percepção Social , Valores Sociais , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Classe Social , Predomínio Social , Identificação Social
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