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1.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 21, 2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current study was performed; to validate the Arabic version of WHO child oral health assessment tool (A-OHAT), to assess the oral health status of Arab school children and finally to identify the important risk factors associated with the poor teeth and gum conditions of school children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with two-staged simple random sampling technique was implemented. A-OHAT, a self-assessment tool was subjected to psychometric analyses with the respondents being high school children. The Cronbach's alpha and the Intra class correlation values were computed. Paired t-test was performed to identify the differences between the readings after repeated administration, followed by the analysis for convergent validity. This tested Arabic-WHO Child-OHAT was administered to collect the data. Univariate, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to report on the potential risk factors associated with poor teeth and poor gum conditions of school children. RESULTS: Psychometric analyses revealed that the Arabic Child Oral Health Assessment Tool (A-OHAT) was reliable and valid. A total of 478 (N) high school children were subjected to the tested tool, of which 66.5% were male and 33.5% were female with a mean age of 16.28 + 1.04 years. 80.3% of school children had poor teeth condition and 36.2% of school children had often experienced toothache. Children had 1.5 times higher odds of having poor teeth condition if they had increased frequency of sweet and candy consumption. It was also seen that increased frequency of sweets and candy consumption by school children had put them at nearly 20% higher risk of having poor gum condition. Finally, children with the habit of using toothbrush had nearly 50% lower chance of having poor gum condition in contrast to the school children who do not use toothbrush. CONCLUSION: To conclude, the study provides a reliable and valid tool to assess the oral health status of Arab adolescents. Improper oral hygiene habits and diet were identified as the plausible risk factors for poor teeth and gum condition.


Assuntos
Árabes , Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal/normas , Saúde Bucal , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças da Boca/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Arábia Saudita , Autorrelato , Odontopatias/diagnóstico , Traduções
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 272, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692856

RESUMO

Introduction: Prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity (DH) may be on the increase as a result of changing lifestyles. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of DH and relative importance of associated factors in 18-35 year old Nigerians and compare to findings from a similar European study. Methods: Following ethical approval, 1349 subjects from the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria participated in this cross sectional study. DH was clinically evaluated by cold air tooth stimulation, patient pain rating (yes/no) and investigator rated pain using the Schiff ordinal scale (0-3). Erosive tooth wear using the BEWE index was assessed. A questionnaire regarding the nature of the DH, erosive dietary intakes, tooth brushing habits and other factors was completed by patients. Bivariate analysis was conducted. Results: 32.8% of patients reported pain on tooth stimulation and 32.9% scored ≥1 on Schiff scale for at least one tooth. Questionnaire reported sensitivity was 41.2%. There were statistically significant associations between Schiff score and clinically elicited DH (p < 0.001); and BEWE erosive tooth wear score and clinically elicited DH (p < 0.001). There were significant associations between DH and some oral hygiene practices such as brushing frequency, brush movement and brushing after breakfast. Fresh fruit and fruit/vegetable juice intake also showed significant association. Conclusion: The most important risk factors of DH for this population in Nigeria appear to be the frequency and characteristics of tooth brushing. This should be considered in its prevention and management.


Assuntos
Sensibilidade da Dentina/epidemiologia , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Desgaste dos Dentes/epidemiologia , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 258, 2019 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined as childhood neurobehavioural disorder. Due to short attention span, oral hygiene and dental treatment of such individuals can be challenging. Aim of this study was to evaluate the oral health of children and adolescents with and without ADHD living in residential care in rural Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. METHODS: Included in the study were 79 participants (male/female:58/21, age 9-15 years) living in residential care: 34 participants with ADHD and 45 participants without ADHD (control). Oral examination included the following parameters decayed, missing, filled teeth in the primary dentition (dmft), decayed, missing, filled surfaces/teeth in the secondary dentition (DMFS/DMFT), approximal plaque index (API), bruxism and orthodontic treatment. Additionally, oral hygiene, last dental visit and treatment performed, and dietary habits were assessed by questionnaire. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in dmft, API, bruxism and oral hygiene habits between groups. However, participants with ADHD tended to have higher DMFS/DMFT values than the control group. Ongoing orthodontic treatment was found more often in the control group. The ADHD group tended to consume acidic/sugary beverages and sweet snacks more often than the controls. Different treatments (control visit/prophylaxis, dental therapy, orthodontic treatment) were performed at the last dental visit in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of this study, oral health was similar in children and adolescents with or without ADHD from the same residential care setting. Parents/guardians need instructions for better supervision of oral hygiene and dietary habits to improve the poor oral health of children with or without ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Cárie Dentária/complicações , Saúde Bucal , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Índice de Placa Dentária , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Residenciais , População Rural , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591317

RESUMO

Background: Poor oral health is a common condition in patients suffering from dementia. Several aspects of this systemic pathology contribute to causing oral problems: cognitive impairment, behavior disorders, communication and, motor skills deterioration, low levels of cooperation and medical-nursing staff incompetency in the dental field. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence and the characteristics of oral pathology in a demented elderly population, as well as to check the association between the different degree of dementia and the oral health condition of each patient. Materials and Methods: In this observational study (with cross-sectional design) two groups of elderly patients suffering from dementia, living in two different residential care institutions were recruited. The diagnosis of dementia of each included patient was performed using the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale. In order to evaluate the oral health condition of the included subjects, each patient underwent a physical examination of the oral cavity, during which different clinical parameters were analyzed (number of remaining teeth, oral mucosa, periodontal tissues, bone crests). To each parameter, a score was assigned. Spearman's Rho test was used. Results: Regarding the prevalence of oral pathology in elderly suffering from dementia, it emerged that 20.58% of the included patients had mucosal lesions and/or new mucosal formations (in most cases undiagnosed and therefore untreated). The prevalence of periodontal disease was equal to 82.35% and a marked clinically detectable reabsorption of bone crests was found in almost all patients (88.23%). 24.13% of patients, who underwent the oral examination, had totally edentulous maxillae and/or with retained roots, without prosthetic rehabilitations. The correlation index r showed the presence of a linear correlation (inverse relationship) between the degree of dementia and the state of health of the oral cavity of each patient. Conclusions: Several factors contribute to poor oral health in the elderly suffering from dementia: cognitive functions deterioration, behavioral disorders and inadequate medical-staff nursing training on oral hygiene. This study also demonstrated that the lower the dementia degree is, the lower tends to be the oral health status. In order to guarantee a complete assistance to these patients, residential care institutions should include in their healthcare program specific dental protocols.


Assuntos
Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Demência/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Higiene Bucal/normas , Prevalência
5.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 57(217): 184-188, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477960

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Poor dental hygiene has been associated with various perinatal complications in studies done worldwide but few studies in Nepal have explored the knowledge of pregnant ladies regarding dental hygiene. The aim of the study was to know the knowledge and practices of pregnant women regarding oral health in a tertiary care center in Nepal. METHODS: A qualitative study was carried out in Nobel Medical College and Teaching Hospital from January 15, 2018 to June 15, 2018 after approval from the Institutional Review Committee of Nobel Medical College. Convenience sampling was done. Fifty pregnant women admitted in antenatal ward were interviewed regarding their knowledge of dental care in pregnancy, the common dental problems they faced and the treatment taken. A predesigned proforma was used and results were analyzed using SPSS version 17. RESULTS: Twenty two (44%) patients reported dental problems during pregnancy. Bleeding gums was seen in 7 (14%) and toothache in 7 (14%) were commonly reported dental problems. Forty seven (94%) patients acknowledged that routine dental care was needed for health, only 6 (12%) were aware that poor dental health could affect baby weight. Oral health not seen as priority in 24 (48%) was the main barrier to seeking dental care in pregnancy followed by costs of treatment in 18 (36%) and safety concerns in pregnancy in 8 (16%) cases. CONCLUSIONS: Though dental problems were a common occurrence in pregnancy, utilization of services was low for the same. The participants reported significant barriers to obtaining dental care including lack of knowledge about the importance of maternal oral health and the treatment costs.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Saúde Bucal/normas , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Doenças Estomatognáticas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Assistência Odontológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Nepal , Higiene Bucal/normas , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Doenças Estomatognáticas/prevenção & controle , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
6.
Clin Interv Aging ; 14: 1297-1302, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409979

RESUMO

Objectives: To answer to the following questions: is there any relationship between oral hygiene and the growth of yeast in patients without mucosal inflammation; and is there a need for mycological examination patients without mucosal inflammation? Background: Patients with candidiasis may report varied symptoms, but such infections are most often asymptomatic. In addition to its high incidence in denture users (60%-100%), there is a concern that Candida species from the oral cavity may colonize the upper gastrointestinal tract and lead to septicemia, which has a 40%-79% mortality rate and can require a prolonged hospital stay. It is thus important for all physicians to be aware of the risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of oral candidiasis in older patients. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out on a group of patients who had undergone mycological examination and assessment of the intensity of yeast growth, and oral hygiene. Results: Ninety-one denture wearers who lacked signs of clinical inflammation were included in the study. The growth of Candida albicans was as follows: 14 patients had up to 20 colonies; 19 patients had over 20 colonies. Ten percent of patients with good oral hygiene proved to have more than 20 yeast colonies. 5% of patients with bad oral hygiene had more than 20 colonies. Conclusions: There was no relationship found between hygiene and the growth rate of fungal microorganisms. In patients without clinical symptoms of stomatitis, mycological examination should be considered.


Assuntos
Candidíase Bucal/epidemiologia , Dentaduras/microbiologia , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Candidíase Bucal/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
7.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 69(8): 1074-1078, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431755

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the association of oral squamous cell carcinoma with demographic variables and oral health indicators. . METHODS: The observational case-control study was conducted at the Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Peshawar, Pakistan, from November, 2015, to August, 2016.Pathologically confirmed patients with oral cancer represented the cases, while The controls were ethnically and linguistically-matched subjects without any oral pathology. Demographical, clinical and pathological data was taken down to assess variables, risk factors, and oral health indicators. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression modelling were employed for data analysis. RESULTS: Of the 551 subjects, 341(62%) were males, and 210(38%) were females. Of the total, 276(50.1%) were cases and 275(49.9%) were controls. The mean age of the cases was 55.0}13.4 years and that of the controls was 52.8}14.9 years (p=0.073). Poor oral hygiene, periodontal diseases, material of toothbrush, and no use of mouthwash were significant predictors of oral cancer (p<0.05 each). Smoking and using smokeless tobacco were also significant variables. CONCLUSIONS: Oral health indicators in combination with smoking conferred an increased risk of oral cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Laríngeas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Faríngeas/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Tabaco sem Fumaça , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação
8.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 37(1): 54-59, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424011

RESUMO

Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major periodontal pathogen. Saliva is the most easy, non-invasive microbiological sample for detection of periodontal pathogens. Aim and Objectives: A prospective study on 37 diabetic patients was grouped into well-controlled diabetes with/without periodontitis and uncontrolled diabetic with periodontitis. PCR and sequencing of P. gingivalis was performed in saliva samples. Materials and Methods: DNA was extracted from saliva using Triton X-100 and 16s rRNA gene (404 bp) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. DNA sequencing was performed for two samples. Results: P. gingivalis was detected in 27.03% (n = 10), of which 30% (n = 9) were diabetic with periodontal disease and 14.3% (n = 1) were diabetic without periodontal disease. The percentage of poor oral hygiene was 50% and 20% in uncontrolled and controlled glycaemic patients, respectively. DNA sequencing of two samples showed 100% identity with the sequences in the GenBank database (Gen Bank accession no: KX640913-KX640914). Conclusion: Type 2 diabetes mellitus and periodontitis are interlinked. Early detection of P. gingivalis and appropriate treatment with doxycycline will also assist in controlling the glycaemic status.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/microbiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genética , Saliva/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/transmissão , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Índice Glicêmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Periodontite/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral health strongly affects overall health and is related to many factors. The aim of our study was to analyse oral health related behaviours (OHRBs) and gum bleeding among Slovak adolescents and assess the effect of socioeconomic factors on the outcomes. METHODS: Data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (HBSC) were used (N = 8896, age range = 10-16 years, M = 13.4; SD = 1.4; 50.9% boys). Sociodemographic and socioeconomic indicators and frequency of OHRBs (dental hygiene, toothbrush changing, preventive check-up) and gum bleeding were collected. Effects of sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables on outcome variables were analysed by binary logistic regression. RESULTS: We found that prevalence of OHRBs slightly decreases with age, and worse outcomes were reported by boys compared to girls (OHRB odds ratio range 0.45-0.75, (95% C.I. range 0.40-0.91), gum bleeding 1.38 (95% C.I. 1.19-1.61), p < 0.05). OHRBs were in most cases significantly associated with socioeconomic variables, lower affluence predicts worse outcomes (odds ratio range 0.76-0.88 (95% C.I. range 0.68-0.96), p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our study provides representative findings on ORHBs in Slovakia and shows important associations of socioeconomic factors related to adolescents' oral health issues.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Saúde Bucal , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Escovação Dentária , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Eslováquia/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 60(2): E109-E118, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312740

RESUMO

Introduction: There is a lack of information about knowledge, attitude and behavior regarding oral hygiene and dietary habits of adult patients attending dental clinical settings. Hypertension, diabetes, obesity and caries are increasing among different populations, resulting in the deterioration of the quality of life related to oral and general health. Objectives: To involve second year dental students in assessing oral health knowledge, attitude, behavior, dietary habits and general health of dental patients, and screening for blood pressure, blood glucose level and obesity. Participants and methods: A convenient sample of 652 adult subjects participated in the study. They were screened, and involved in an interviewer - led questionnaire, led by the students over the period of two successive academic years (2013-2014 and 2014-2015). Results: Subjects with high blood pressure and /or blood glucose levels were more likely to disagree regarding the presence of a relation between general health and dental health [(correlation coefficient (r) = - 0.159, probability value P < 0.001) (correlation coefficient (r) = - 0.257, probability value P < 0.001) respectively]. Subjects with high BMI were less aware of the importance of using the tooth brush in prevention of gingival inflammation. The overall students' satisfaction score was 71.5%. The practical part of the research had the highest satisfaction score (83.7%). Conclusions: There is scarcity of data regarding dental healthcare knowledge and attitudes in dental clinical settings. Additional clinical training for dental students would increase their willingness to play a preventive and educational role in the oral care of patients.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Odontologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Higiene Bucal/psicologia , Estudantes de Odontologia/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e022, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269111

RESUMO

Oral hygiene, which is measured by the status of plaque-free tooth surfaces, is essential for the promotion of oral health. This study aimed to determine the social predictors of good oral hygiene for children in a suburban population in Nigeria. This was a secondary analysis of data. The study participants were 8- to 16-year-old children who were residents in Ile-Ife, which is a suburban population in Nigeria. Information on the age, gender, socioeconomic status, family structure, number of siblings and birth rank of each study participant was retrieved from the an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Oral hygiene status was determined through a simplified-oral hygiene index (OHI-S) and categorized as good, fair and poor. The association between oral hygiene status and sociodemographic variables was determined. The predictors of good oral hygiene were determined using a binomial regression analysis. Data on 2,107 individuals were retrieved, of which 44.8% had good oral hygiene and 17.1% had poor oral hygiene. The odds of having good oral hygiene were reduced for children who were 13 to 16 years old (p = 0.02) or male (P=0.002) and children with low socioeconomic status (p ≤ 0.001). The odds of having good oral hygiene increased for children who were last-born compared with those who were first-born (p = 0.02). Age, gender, socioeconomic status and birth-rank were significant social predictive factors of oral hygiene status among the study population. Based on these findings, targeted interventions can be conducted to improve the oral hygiene status of children and adolescents with these social profiles.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Saúde Bucal , Índice de Higiene Oral , Fatores Sexuais , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 120, 2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess the prevalence and severity of caries in 12- and 15-year-old schoolchildren, and to analyse the related risk factors. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study on a random sample of 1843 schoolchildren aged 12 and 15 from Galicia (northwest of Spain). Self-administered questionnaire and dental clinical examination were performed to obtain information about oral health habits, dental caries and oral hygiene. A logistic regression model including dental-caries-related variables was generated for each age group. RESULTS: The respective findings for 12- and 15-years-old were as follows: decayed, missing, filled teeth index both for permanent and temporary dentition (DMFT/dmft) of 0.89 (95% CI, 0.87-0.91) and 1.38 (95% CI, 1.33-1.43), respectively; caries prevalence 39.6% (95% CI, 36.3-42.9) and 51.7% (95% CI, 48.0-55.4), respectively. In the 12-year-old group, individuals who occasionally, never or hardly ever brushed their teeth had higher values of caries (OR = 1.83, 95% CI 1.07-3.15, and OR = 9.14, 95% CI1.63-51.17, respectively). Also, the presence of plaque on more than 1/3 gingival was statistically associated with an increase of caries (OR = 2.03; 95% CI, 1.11-3.70), and living in a rural environment was a risk factor (OR = 1.3; 95% CI,1.02-1.80). In the 15-year-old group, higher caries risk was found when brushing was performed once a day (OR = 1.61; 95% CI,1.03-2.50), and among individuals who visited private clinics (OR = 1.77; 95% CI, 1.17-2.66), while electric toothbrush was associated with a lower caries risk (OR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.29-0.86). CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that risk factors of dental caries showed differences in schoolchildren of 12- and 15-year-old. Strongest evidence related to caries in 12-year-old group were found in frequency of toothbrushing and dental plaque. In 15-year old group, electric toothbrush, time since the last visit to the dentist and type of dental care (public/private) had a stronger association with dental caries. Caries prevalence and mean DMFT/dmft increased from 12- to 15-year-old, in spite of improvement in oral hygiene at the age of 15.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Higiene Bucal , Escovação Dentária , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Índice CPO , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Odontalgia/epidemiologia
13.
Acta Otolaryngol ; 139(9): 798-802, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240981

RESUMO

Aim: The purpose of this prospective study was to determine if there is a difference in number and distribution of salivary bacteria between patients with tonsillar infection and healthy volunteers. Background: The etiology of peritonsillar abscess (PTA) is unclear. Smoking, periodontal disease, and infection of minor salivary glands have been suggested as predisposing factors for PTA. Material and methods: Patients with acute tonsillitis (AT) (n = 54), peritonsillitis (PT) (n = 36), PTA (n = 58), and healthy volunteers (n = 52) were prospectively recruited and evaluated. Saliva bacteria were analyzed with flow cytometry. Patients and their treating physicians completed a questionnaire about patients' current disease, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, and oral health. Results: There were no differences in the total number of saliva bacteria between patients with acute throat infection and healthy volunteers (p = .104) or between AT, PT, and PTA patients (p = .273). Smoking habits, alcohol consumption, oral hygiene, or prior antibiotics had no effect on total amount of salivary bacteria in patients with acute throat infection. Conclusions: The effects of smoking on salivary bacteria do not seem to be the mechanism that promotes development of PTA in smokers.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Boca/microbiologia , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Abscesso Peritonsilar/tratamento farmacológico , Abscesso Peritonsilar/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Abscesso Peritonsilar/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência , Medição de Risco , Saliva/microbiologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 47(4): 316-323, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033019

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate risk indicators for untreated dental decay among Indigenous Australian children using a national representative sample. METHODS: Data were from the National Child Oral Health Study 2012-2014, which included a nationally representative sample of Indigenous Australian children aged 5-14 years. Outcomes were the prevalence (% ds/DS >0) and severity (mean ds/DS) of untreated dental decay at the tooth surface level. Caries of the primary dentition was estimated among 5- to 10-year-olds, while that of the permanent dentition was among 8- to 14-year-olds. Independent variables included residential location, household income, frequency and age commencement of toothbrushing, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) consumption, dental visiting and residential fluoridation status. Multivariable log-Poisson regression models with robust standard error estimation were used to identify risk indicators for untreated decay. The complex sampling design was taken into account in all analyses. RESULTS: There were 720 5- to 10-year-old and 736 8- to 14-year-old Indigenous children. Indigenous children experienced significant amount of untreated dental caries. Among 5- to 10-year-olds, % ds >0 was 43.1 (95% CI: 36.8-49.6) and mean ds was 3.4 (95% CI: 2.4-4.4). Among 8- to 14-year-olds, % DS >0 was 27.3 (22.3-32.9), while mean DS was 0.8 (0.6-1.0). In multivariable modelling, risk indicators for % ds >0 among 5- to 10-year-olds were low household income, commencing toothbrushing after 30 months of age, consuming 2+ cups of SSB per day and not residing in fluoridated areas. Risk indicators for mean ds among 5- to 10-year-olds included infrequent toothbrushing and consuming 2+ cups of SSB per day. Risk indicators for % DS >0 among 8- to 14-year-olds were low household income, while risk indicators for mean DS among 8- to 14-year-olds were residing in non-capital city, low household income, consuming 2+ cups of SSB per day and not residing in fluoridated areas. CONCLUSION: Indigenous Australian children experienced significant amount of untreated dental caries. Risk indicators for untreated decay included demographic factors, socioeconomic factors, oral hygiene behaviours, dietary behaviours and environmental factors.


Assuntos
Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Fluoretação/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Austrália/epidemiologia , Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 221, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971309

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the methodological aspects of a Prospective Cohort Study of adult oral health in Piracicaba, Brazil. RESULTS: This Prospective Cohort Study evaluated adults (20-64 years old) between the years of 2011 and 2015, in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. The main objective was to evaluate the risk factors for tooth loss in adults. Data were collected at households and selected via probabilistic sampling, through clinical examination of caries, considering as variables the decayed, missing and filled permanent teeth index, need for caries treatment, periodontal disease (Community Periodontal Index and Periodontal Attachment Loss), use and need for dental prosthesis, and presence of visible biofilm. A questionnaire about demographic, socioeconomic and health habits, use of dental services, self-perceived quality of life (Oral Health Impact Profile-14) and health literacy (14-item Health Literacy Scale) was also employed. In 2011, 248 adults participated, and in 2015, 143 (follow-up rate = 57.7%). Despite the follow-up sample loss, most sociodemographic characteristics remained in the participant sample: for example, women (72.0%) (p = 0.534), family income between R$545,00 and R$1090,00 (63.9%) (p = 0.920), above 11 years of education (53.1%) (p = 0.200) and belonging to middle class (67.1%) (p = 0.909).


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Perda de Dente/epidemiologia , Adulto , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/economia , Cárie Dentária/fisiopatologia , Cárie Dentária/psicologia , Prótese Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolaridade , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Higiene Bucal/psicologia , Periodontite/economia , Periodontite/fisiopatologia , Periodontite/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Perda de Dente/economia , Perda de Dente/fisiopatologia , Perda de Dente/psicologia
16.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 17(2): 139-146, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968069

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess caries prevalence and periodontal condition in adolescents in Poland and investigate the factors related to oral health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A national survey was carried out among 615 15-year-olds of both sexes living in urban and rural areas. Subjects were selected via cluster sampling. The mean DMFT and its components, the tooth distribution pattern of caries and percentage of subjects with gingival bleeding and gingival pockets were analysed. The information regarding sociodemographic, oral hygiene and nutritional variables was collected via questionnaire to evaluate their relationships with caries and periodontal parameters. The t-test, bivariate and multivariate logistic analyses were conducted to evaluate the differences and dependent variables of caries prevalence and gingivitis. RESULTS: Caries prevalence was 94.0%, and DMFT was 5.75 ± 3.74. Higher DMFT, DT and MT values were found in rural areas. 50% of the subjects carried about 75% of the total caries burden. Severe caries (DMFT ≥7) was associated with toothbrushing less than twice a day, not using a fluoridated dentifrice, frequent consumption of snacks and absence of pit-and-fissure sealants. The prevalence of gingival bleeding was 37.4% and shallow pockets 2.8%, which were higher in males and rural areas. Gingival bleeding was associated with toothbrushing less than a twice a day, not using dental floss and consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables less than once a week. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of oral diseases in Poland is very high. Additional strategies must be implemented to promote oral health early on to improve oral hygiene practices and nutritional habits.


Assuntos
Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Bolsa Gengival/epidemiologia , Índice Periodontal , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Dieta , Feminino , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Bucal , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , População Rural , Distribuição por Sexo , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico , Verduras
17.
Indian J Public Health ; 63(1): 15-20, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880732

RESUMO

Background: Oral health is recognized as an integral component of general health, and poor oral health is reflected in general health and quality of life (QoL). India has seen a profound shift in the elderly population and is currently home to 103.9 million elders. General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) is a self-reported oral health assessment index used in elderly population and has been tested in multiple countries. Objective: The study aimed to assess the oral health-related QoL (OHRQoL) using GOHAI and various factors affecting it, among elderly patients visiting special Sunday geriatric clinics at Delhi public hospitals. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among four purposively selected special geriatric public clinics in Delhi, India, and a convenience sample of 145 elderly patients was obtained. OHRQoL was measured using a prevalidated instrument (GOHAI) along with other variables (sociodemographic factors, self-perceived oral health, utilization of medical/dental services, dental problems in the past 12 months, and prosthetic status/need). Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 21, and descriptive results were obtained. Results: The sample consisted of 66 males (45.5%) and 79 females (55.5%), and around 58% (n = 84) of the participants were illiterate. Around 39% (n = 57) of the elderly had never visited a dentist and 48% (n = 69) were financially dependent (no income) on others. The mean GOHAI score for the population was 26.69 + 4.44 (median = 25, interquartile range = 23-27). GOHAI score was compared for age, oral hygiene practices, dental problems in the past 12 months, self-reported oral health, and prosthetic need, and a statistically significant difference was observed. Conclusions: The current study assessed GOHAI score and highlighted important determinants of OHRQoL in elderly population visiting the special clinics in Delhi. Thus, OHRQoL should be considered as a surrogate measure to clinical oral examination.


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Nível de Saúde , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(6): 1101-1108, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834447

RESUMO

This study used data from the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, Brazil, to estimate the controlled direct effect of early-life socioeconomic position (SEP) on periodontitis at age 31 years, controlling for adulthood income and education, smoking, and dental hygiene. Sex was included as a covariate. Early-life SEP was measured at participant birth based on income, health services payment mode, maternal education, height, and skin color (lower versus middle/higher SEP). Periodontitis was assessed through clinical examination at age 31 years (healthy, mild periodontitis, or moderate-to-severe disease). Adulthood behaviors (smoking, dental hygiene) were the mediators, and adulthood SEP (education and income) represented the exposure-induced mediator-outcome confounders. A regression-based approach was used to assess the controlled direct effect of early-life SEP on periodontitis. Multinomial regression models were used to estimate risk ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. The prevalences of mild and moderate-to-severe periodontitis were 23.0% and 14.3%, respectively (n = 539). Individuals from the lowest early-life SEP had a higher risk of moderate-to-severe periodontitis controlled for mediators and exposure-induced mediator-outcome confounders: risk ratio = 1.85 (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 3.24), E value 3.1. We found that early-life SEP was associated with the development of periodontitis in adulthood that was not mediated by adulthood SEP and behaviors.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Regressão , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 78(1): 1586274, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857502

RESUMO

American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) children have a prevalence rate of early childhood caries 5 times that of the overall US population. Oral hygiene and oral health beliefs have not been described among AI/AN parents. This study explored constructs of the health belief model informing oral health beliefs and oral hygiene behaviours of parents of AI/AN children ages  0-6 years. The study aimed to determine the toothbrushing behaviour in parents of AI/AN childrenand the relationship between parent oral health beliefs and toothbrushing frequency. A cross-sectional survey which included the Oral Hygiene Scale, Oral Health Belief Questionnaire and the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale was administered to a convenience sample of parents of AI/AN children 71 months or younger attending outpatient paediatric primary care appointments (N=100). Analyses were conducted to determine parent toothbrushing and the relationship between parent health beliefs and child toothbrushing. The odds of regular child toothbrushing were 49.10 times higher when the parent brushed their own teeth regularly (confidence interval (CI)=11.46-188.14; p<0.001). Parental toothbrushing had a strong positive association with the belief that oral health is as important as physical health. This research endorses parent-focused toothbrushing interventions to reduce AI/AN early childhood caries rates.


Assuntos
Nativos do Alasca , Saúde Bucal/etnologia , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Acta Odontol Scand ; 77(5): 359-363, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789085

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the association between maternal perception about child's oral health and child dental caries experience and maternal self-perception about oral health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with mothers and their children aged six to 13 years. A questionnaire was applied to mothers. Children were dentally examined using the DMF-T/dmf-t Index. For analysis, Poisson regression models with robust variance were employed for each variable of interest (child dental caries experience and maternal self-report about oral health). Magnitudes of associations were estimated through Prevalence Ratio (PR) as effect measure with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A significant level of p ≤ .05 was adopted. RESULTS: Overall, 131 mothers-children dyads were included. Most of children were girls (52.7%) and aged between 10 to 13 years (60.3%). Negative maternal perception about child's oral health was associated to maternal negative self-perception about oral health (PR 2.54; 95%CI 1.54-4.30) and to higher child dental caries experience (PR 2.21; 95%CI 1.41-3.47). CONCLUSION: Maternal perception about child oral health was associated to child dental caries and to maternal self-report about oral health.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica para Crianças/estatística & dados numéricos , Cárie Dentária/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães/psicologia , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene Bucal/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
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