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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143057

RESUMO

The aim of this case-control study was the evaluation of the association between biomarkers of early primary arterial hypertension (HA) and oral diseases among children and adolescents. Material and methods. Subjects suspected of primary HA (n = 180) underwent a complex evaluation of their vascular status: blood pressure, heart rate, vascular stiffness, sympathetic activity in a 24 h ambulatory examination, followed by measurement of serum uric acid (UA), cystatin C, and creatinine. This procedure allowed the identification of children with primary (n = 58) and secondary HA (n = 74), as well as of children with normal arterial blood pressure, who served as a control group (n = 48). All subjects with secondary HA were excluded from further investigation. Oral examination included the measurement of caries intensity (using the decayed, missing, filled index for permanent teeth DMFT /primary teeth dmft), bacterial plaque (by the plaque control record index, PCR%), and gingivitis (by the bleeding on probing index, BOP%). For statistical analysis, a linear regression model and Spearman rank correlation were used. Results. UA, cystatin C, and creatinine were not altered in the HA group. However, the number of decayed permanent teeth (DT) and the DMFT, PCR%, and BOP% indexes were significantly higher in the primary HA group compared to the control group (p = 0.0006; p = 0.02; p = 0.0009; p = 0.003). Our results are not sufficient to prove the important role of caries and gingival inflammation in the modulation of HA symptoms, although they prove the association of oral diseases with primary HA symptoms. This may indicate future strategies for preventive measures for hypertensive children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Creatinina/sangue , Cistatina C/sangue , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Índice CPO , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Masculino
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066329

RESUMO

This prospective study monitored the dental status, the presence of plaque, and cariogenic microorganism levels of identical children over three years. The aim was to determine the dynamics of caries increment as well as the relationship between risk factors and caries prevalence. A total number of 125 children (72 boys and 53 girls) was included in the study, with an average age of 3.95 ± 0.06 years at the baseline. During the clinical examination at the nursery schools, the presence of dental plaque was recorded, and saliva samples were collected from the tongue of children for the DentoCult SM test providing easy detection of mutans streptococci from saliva samples. At baseline, 65.6% of the children had no caries, 4% had restored teeth with fillings or crowns or missing teeth due to caries, and 30.4% had at least one untreated caries. The percentages of intact teeth, restored or missing teeth, and untreated caries were 52.8%, 8.8%, 38.4% in the second year and 49.1%, 13.8%, and 31.1% in the third year. The dmft index value was 1.41 ± 0.24 in the first year, 2.29 ± 0.30 in the second year, and 2.33 ± 0.31 in the third year. There was a significant correlation between plaque presence and dt and dmft values (p < 0.05; the statistical analyses were performed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test). This 3-year longitudinal study highlighted the importance of examining both the oral hygiene and the level of cariogenic microorganisms when undertaking the evaluation of caries risk evaluation in preschool children.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Saliva/microbiologia , Pré-Escolar , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Restauração Dentária Permanente/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
3.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(3): 90-94, sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128958

RESUMO

Las afecciones bucodentales constituyen un problema de salud pública por su alta prevalencia y su fuerte impacto individual y colectivo en términos de dolor, malestar y discapacidad social y funcional. El Centro de Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria San Pantaleón, ubicado en la provincia de Buenos Aires, brinda asistencia sanitaria gratuita a la comunidad. Un relevamiento documentó que el 97% de los concurrentes presentaba caries y no se lavaban los dientes por falta de cepillo y pasta dental. Se decidió llevar adelante un programa de promoción de la salud bucodental. El objetivo fue evaluar su implementación; que incluyó: a) rastreo de caries y problemas odontológicos; b) coordinación interinstitucional; c) entrega de cepillos y pasta dental; d) intervención educativa; e) extensión comunitaria. Participaron en forma irregular 120 niñas, niños y adolescentes entre 5 y 18 años del Centro de Apoyo Escolar Fundación Bajo Boulogne. Se realizaron dos encuentros educativos y entrega de cepillos y pasta dental. En la revisión odontológica inicial sobre 60 participantes se detectaron caries en 43 (71,6%), que fueron derivados para tratamiento odontológico, pero concurrieron solo 26 (60,4%). El conocimiento sobre salud bucodental mostró cambios entre los más pequeños luego de las intervenciones educativas. Se logró implementar el programa, cumplimentando las actividades propuestas. Pero surgieron barreras que dificultaron la cobertura. En cuanto a la eficacia de la intervención educativa, no se logró mostrar cambios en el conocimiento. Se consiguió la detección oportuna, la incorporación de hábitos como el cepillado dentro de la institución educativa, la articulación para mejorar el acceso a la atención y la vinculación entre los diferentes actores comunitarios. (AU)


Oral disorders are a public health problem due to their high prevalence and their strong individual and collective impact in terms of pain, discomfort, and social and functional disability. The San Pantaleón Family and Community Medicine Center, located in the province of Buenos Aires, provides free healthcare to the community. A survey documented that 97% of those present had cavities and did not brush their teeth due to a lack of brush and toothpaste. It was decided to carry out an oral health promotion program. The objective was to evaluate its implementation; which included: a) tracking of caries and dental problems; b) inter-institutional coordination; c) delivery of brushes and toothpaste; d) educational intervention; e) community extension. 120 girls and boys and adolescents between 5 and 18 years of age from the Bajo Boulogne Foundation School Support Center irregularly participated. Two educational meetings were held, handing out brushes and toothpaste. In the initial dental review of 60 participants, caries was detected in 43 (71.6%), who were referred for dental treatment, with only 26 (60.4%) concurring. Oral health knowledge showed changes among the youngest after educational interventions. It was possible to implement the program, completing the proposed activities. Barriers arose that made coverage difficult. Regarding the effectiveness of the educational intervention, it was not possible to show changes in knowledge. Timely detection was achieved, the incorporation of habits such as brushing within the educational institution, articulation to improve access to care and the link between the different community actors. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Saúde Bucal/educação , Educação em Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Argentina , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Bucal/tendências , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação em Saúde Bucal/métodos , Educação em Saúde Bucal/tendências , Odontologia Comunitária/educação , Odontologia Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento , Doenças da Boca/prevenção & controle
4.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200094, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965303

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Poor oral hygiene, regular use of mouthwash and absence of visits to the dentist could correspond to potential risk factors for the development of head and neck cancer. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether oral hygiene is associated with the occurrence of oral cavity and head and neck cancer in a Brazilian sample. METHOD: The variables of oral hygiene condition, such as toothbrushing frequency, dental loss, need and use of prosthesis, and regular visit to the dentist in a case-control study were analyzed in patients from five hospitals in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, paired by gender and age, from the multicenter project Genoma do Câncer de Cabeça e Pescoço (GENCAPO). RESULTS: The most frequent malignancies in the 899 patients included were those of the tongue border (11.41%) and tongue base (10.92%). The multivariable statistical analysis found odds ratio values: Brushing once 0.33 (95%CI 0.25 - 0.44); Brushing twice 0.42 (95%CI 0.35 - 0.52); Flossing always 0.19 (95%CI 0.13 - 0.27); Flossing sometimes 0.19 (95%CI 0.15 - 0.24); Bleeding 2.40 (95%CI 1.40 - 4.09); Prosthesis 1.99 (95%CI 1.54 - 2.56); Visiting the dentist 0.29 (95%CI 0.22 - 0.37); Good hygiene 0.21 (95%CI 0.17 - 0.27); Regular hygiene 0.20 (95%CI 0.15 - 0.25); number of missing teeth (6 or more) 3.30 (95%CI 2.67 - 4.08). CONCLUSION: These data showed that, in the population studied, indicators of good hygiene such as brushing teeth and flossing were protective factors for mouth and head and neck cancer, while bleeding and many missing teeth were risk factors.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Laríngeas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Escovação Dentária , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Laríngeas/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia
5.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 318, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of negative impacts of oral health conditions on the quality of life of quilombola and non-quilombola rural adolescents and identify associated factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out in a rural area in the countryside of Bahia, Brazil, in 2015. Participants were asked to complete the Oral Impacts on Daily Performance Questionnaire. Prevalence and prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated together with their respective 95% confidence intervals. Multiple analysis was conducted using Poisson regression with robust error variance and hierarchical entry of variables. RESULTS: Of the 390 rural adolescents who took part in the study, 42.8% were quilombolas, and 45.6% of all participants reported a negative impact of their oral health conditions on their quality of life. The most prevalent impact was difficulty eating (32.6%). After adjusted analysis, the following factors were found to be associated with the negative impact of oral health conditions on quality of life: age (PR = 1.04), feeling lonely (PR = 1.42), worst evaluation of oral health (PR = 1.52), need of dental care (PR = 1.33), and occurrence of toothache in the last 6 months (PR = 1.83). Quilombolas and non-quilombolas presented with a different prevalence of discomfort when brushing their teeth and had different factors associated with the negative impact of oral health conditions on their quality of life. Both quilombola and non-quilombola rural adolescents showed a high prevalence of negative impact of oral health conditions on their quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the need for improved oral healthcare for specific populations like the quilombolas. Furthermore, the results illustrate the importance of incorporating oral healthcare strategies that take into consideration the sociocultural context of adolescents.


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Odontalgia/epidemiologia
6.
Clin Interv Aging ; 15: 1305-1315, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32982191

RESUMO

Purpose: The primary aim was to describe the effects for nursing home residents of monthly professional cleaning and individual oral hygiene instruction provided by registered dental hygienists (RDHs), in comparison with daily oral care as usual. The secondary aim was to study the knowledge and attitudes among nursing staff regarding oral health care and needs. Patients and Methods: In this randomised controlled trial (RCT), 146 residents were recruited from nine nursing homes in Regions of Stockholm and Sörmland and were randomly assigned (on nursing home level) to either intervention group (I; n=72) or control group (C; n=74). Group I received monthly professional cleaning, individual oral hygiene instructions and information given by an RDH. Group C proceeded with daily oral care as usual (self-performed or nursing staff-assisted). Oral health-related data was registered with the mucosal-plaque score index (MPS), the modified sulcus bleeding index (MSB), and root caries. The nursing staff's attitudes and knowledge were analysed at baseline and at six-month follow-up. Statistical analysis was performed by Fisher's exact test and two-way variance analysis (ANOVA). Results: Improvements were seen in both Group I and Group C concerning MPS, MSB and active root caries. The nursing staff working with participants in Group I showed significant improvements regarding the Nursing Dental Coping Beliefs Scale (DCBS) in two of four dimensions, oral health care beliefs (p=0.0331) and external locus of control (p=0.0017) compared with those working with Group C. The knowledge-based questionnaire showed improvement (p=0.05) in Group I compared with Group C. Conclusion: Monthly professional oral care, combined with individual oral health care instructions, seems to improve oral hygiene and may reduce root caries among nursing home residents. This may also contribute to a more positive attitude regarding oral hygiene measures among nursing home staff, as compared with daily oral care as usual.


Assuntos
Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Casas de Saúde/organização & administração , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Periodontais/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hemorragia Gengival/prevenção & controle , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Cárie Radicular/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 20(10): 917-926, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830417

RESUMO

AIM: This large epidemiological survey of older people examined oral hypofunction and the relationship between oral hypofunction and frailty. METHODS: Participants were community-dwelling adults aged 65-85 years in Japan. The oral function evaluation included seven items (oral hygiene, oral dryness, occlusal force, tongue-lip motor function, tongue pressure, masticatory function and swallowing function), and oral hypofunction was defined as having abnormalities in at least three of these items. The frailty status was classified into three categories (robust, pre-frail and frail) according to the total Kihon Checklist score. We analyzed 978 subjects with complete data. The relationship between oral function and frailty status was analyzed using multivariate multinomial logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Approximately 60% of the older adults had oral hypofunction. The multivariate odds ratios (ORs) for a pre-frail or frail status were significantly higher for older people with reduced occlusal force, reduced tongue-lip motor function and deteriorated swallowing function than in those without deterioration of those items. Of the oral function items, swallowing function was most strongly associated with the frailty status, and the ORs (95% confidence interval [CI]) for deteriorated swallowing function in pre-frail and frail patients were 6.4 (3.9-10.8) and 10.2 (5.4-19.1), respectively. Those with oral hypofunction had significantly higher adjusted ORs for pre-frail (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-2.0) and frail (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.5) statuses. CONCLUSION: Many community-dwelling older people have reduced oral function or oral hypofunction, which is significantly associated with frailty in older people. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 917-926.


Assuntos
Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Força de Mordida , Lista de Checagem , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos de Deglutição/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fragilidade , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Vida Independente , Japão , Masculino , Mastigação , Razão de Chances , Inquéritos e Questionários , Xerostomia/epidemiologia
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 77, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32774636

RESUMO

Introduction: it has been close to four years since the authors highlighted the total neglect of the oral health of street children in the Journal of Public Health Policy. Since then, the authorities appear to have simply turned the blind eye making this follow-up imperative. This follow-up report specifically examines the resultant oral health disparity between Nigeria's street children and Private, fee-paying secondary school students in Northern Nigeria. Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional comparative survey of randomly selected 12-14 years old street children (children of Quranic informal educational institutions) in Northern Nigeria while fee paying, private secondary school children served as controls. A simple close-ended questionnaire translated into Hausa language was used to assess oral health knowledge and the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index used to categorize oral hygiene status of the participants. Results: the mean age (SD) of the participating street children was 12.7 (0.86) while that of the private secondary school students (PSSS) was 13.05 (0.96). The majority (89%) of parents of street children compared with that (7%) of parents of students of private secondary schools had no western education. Only 6% of street children compared with 90% of PSSS cleaned their teeth for the right reasons. Only 5% of street children compared with 90% of private secondary school students used a fluoride-containing toothpaste. Though both groups of children have poor knowledge (street children 3%, private secondary school students 16%) on the use of dental floss, the mean oral hygiene score (SD) for street children was 4.42 (0.85) compared with 1.90 (0.09) for private secondary school students. There were striking differences in knowledge and practice with only 4% of street children compared with 69% of PSSS with knowledge about fluoride and its use (p < 0.0005). Also, 2% of street children compared with 40% of PSSS were aware of the benefits of regular dental visits. Sixty five (65%) of street children used finger and water only for tooth cleaning, none of the secondary school students practiced this (p = 0.0005). Conclusion: there is disparity in oral health practice between Nigeria's street children and private secondary school children. This disparity may be attributed to lack of western education and socio-economic status.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Jovens em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Pais , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237510, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810155

RESUMO

Periodontitis is a highly prevalent condition leading to a continuous destruction of tooth-supporting tissues. It increases the risk for various systemic diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Therefore, screening for periodontitis is important. Screening measures can range from self-reported symptoms to clinical full-mouth periodontal examination. The hypothesis of our study was that self-reported parameters and clinical definition perform equally well in identifying periodontitis patients. The aim of this study was to develop, validate its internal consistency, and evaluate a self-reported instrument against periodontal clinical evaluation for diagnosis of periodontitis in a group of postpartum women, as well as to describe their periodontal status and the risk factors associated with periodontal disease. A cross-sectional study on postpartum women was conducted in a tertiary university hospital, from April 2018 to March 2019. Sociodemographic and behavioral data, periodontal clinical parameters, and self-reported periodontal perception were collected. A 16-item questionnaire was developed to obtain information about perceived periodontal alterations and oral hygiene habits. The utility of the questionnaire was tested against a periodontal diagnosis based on a full-mouth periodontal examination. The questionnaire was applied in 215 postpartum women aged 29.16±5.54 years (mean age (y) ± standard deviation) having the following periodontal status: 16 individuals without periodontal disease (7.44%), 32 individuals with gingivitis (14.88%), 19 individuals with mild periodontitis (8.84%), 132 individuals with moderate periodontitis (61.39%), and 16 individuals with severe periodontitis (7.44%). A significant association was observed between oral hygiene score, smoking status, and periodontal conditions (p<0.05). A significant association between the self-reported items related to "gum swelling", "halitosis", "previous periodontal diagnosis" and "previous periodontal treatment" with clinical periodontitis have been identified (p<0.05). Using self-reported questionnaires for detection of periodontal disease was ineffective in our studied population, since self-reported parameters and clinical definition do not appear to perform equally in identifying periodontitis cases. Clinical periodontal examination remains the gold standard for screening. Periodontitis was frequent in our group and the severity was significantly associated with the oral hygiene score and smoking. These results underline the necessity for periodontal clinical examination during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Doenças Periodontais/etiologia , Transtornos Puerperais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Puerperais/etiologia , Autorrelato , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Europa Oriental/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Gengivite/etiologia , Halitose/epidemiologia , Halitose/etiologia , Humanos , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Periodontite/etiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Romênia/epidemiologia , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 202, 2020 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and bullying have negative effects on oral health. Promotive assets (resilience, self-esteem) and resources (perceived social support) can ameliorate their negative impact. The aim of this study was to determine the association between oral diseases (caries, caries complications and poor oral hygiene), ACE and bully victimization and the effect of access to promotive assets and resources on oral diseases. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of data collected through a cross-sectional school survey of children 6-16-years-old in Ile-Ife, Nigeria from October to December 2019. The outcome variables were caries, measured with the dmft/DMFT index; caries complications measured with the pufa/PUFA index; and poor oral hygiene measured with the oral hygiene index-simplified. The explanatory variables were ACE, bully victimization, resilience, self-esteem, and social support. Confounders were age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Association between the explanatory and outcome variables was determined with logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 1001 pupils with complete data, 81 (8.1%) had poor oral hygiene, 59 (5.9%) had caries and 6 (10.2%) of those with caries had complications. Also, 679 (67.8%) pupils had one or more ACE and 619 (62.1%) pupils had been bullied one or more times. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) for ACE was 1(3), for bully victimization was 1(5), and for self-esteem and social support scores were 22(5) and 64(34) respectively. The mean (standard deviation) score for resilience was 31(9). The two factors that were significantly associated with the presence of caries were self-esteem (AOR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.85-0.98; p = 0.02) and social support (AOR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.97-1,00; p = 0.02). No psychosocial factor was significantly associated with caries complications. Self-esteem was associated with poor oral hygiene (AOR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.09-1.17; p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: There was a complex relationship between ACE, bully victimization, access to promotive assets and resources by children and adolescents, and oral health. ACE and bully victimization were not associated with oral health problems. Though self-esteem was associated with caries and poor oral hygiene, the relationships were inverse. Promotive assets and resources were not associated with caries complications though resources were associated with lower prevalence of caries.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Bullying , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Resiliência Psicológica , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Higiene Bucal/psicologia , Prevalência , Apoio Social
11.
Ann Saudi Med ; 40(2): 126-135, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gingivitis is a site-specific inflammatory condition initiated by dental biofilm accumulation. The accumulation of dental plaque on the gingival margin triggers inflammatory effects that can become chronic. In addition to its local effect, gingival inflammation has recently been suggested to have an impact on general health. OBJECTIVE: Determine the prevalence of gingivitis and its relationship to oral hygiene practices in high school children in Saudi Arabia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: High schools from different regions in Saudi Arabia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Periodontal examinations were conducted on a randomly selected sample of high school children between the ages of 15 and 19 years. Gingival and plaque indices, probing depth, clinical attachment level, oral hygiene practices and sociodemographic characteristics were recorded. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square and the independent t test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Prevalence of gingivitis as defined by mean gingival index. SAMPLE SIZE: 2435 high school students. RESULTS: Twenty-one percent of the sample had slight gingivitis, 42.3% had moderate, and 1.8% had severe. Gender, toothbrushing, tongue brushing, plaque index, and the percentage of pocket depth (PD) ≥4 mm showed a significant relationship with the severity of gingivitis. Almost 39.3% of females had a healthy periodontal status when compared to males (30.7%). Thirty-five percent (35.5%) of students who brushed their teeth had a healthy periodontium compared to 26.9% who did not brush. The mean plaque index was significantly higher in students with severe gingivitis when compared to students with healthy periodontium (2.4 vs. 0.79, respectively). CONCLUSION: Gingivitis prevalence was high compared with Western countries in a nationally representative sample of high school students in Saudi Arabia and was influenced by oral hygiene practices. LIMITATIONS: The half-mouth study design may underestimate disease prevalence. Data on oral hygiene practices was self-reported and may thus have been affected by social desirability bias. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.


Assuntos
Índice de Placa Dentária , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice Periodontal , Adolescente , Feminino , Bolsa Gengival/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
12.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(3)2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188041

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Masticatory limitations on the dietary habits of edentulous subjects restrict their access to adequate nutrition, exposing them to a greater risk of protein energy malnutrition. The aim of this study is to verify the existence of an association between Masticatory Performance (MP) and nutritional changes in the elderly. Materials and Methods: 76 participants were enrolled. MP testing was performed using the two-color chewing gum mixing test. The system used reveals the extent to which the two differently colored chewing gums mix, and allows discrimination between different MPs. The assessment of the participants' nutritional statuses was carried out through a food interview. Anthropometric parameters were collected, and bioimpedance analysis was performed. Results: Mean MP was 0.448 ± 0.188. No statistically significant differences were detected between male and female subjects (p > 0.05). According to the Body Mass Index (BMI), obese patients had a lower MP than overweight and normal weight subjects (0.408 ± 0.225, 0.453 ± 0.169 and 0.486 ± 0.181, respectively). MP values were lower both in male and female subjects with a waist circumference above the threshold than those below it (0.455 ± 0.205 vs. 0.476 ± 0.110, respectively, in males and 0.447 ± 0.171 vs. 0.501 ± 0.138, respectively, in females). No relationship was noticed between MP and bioimpedance parameters (p > 0.05). Conclusions: A statistically significant relation was observed between MP and the number of missing teeth. A reduced MP could worsen nutritional parameters. A reduced MP did not seem to negatively affect bioimpedance parameters.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antropometria , Força de Mordida , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Obesidade , Higiene Bucal/efeitos adversos , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobrepeso , Sarcopenia/complicações , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952176

RESUMO

People with masticatory discomfort are unable to consume a balanced diet, which impacts their general health. We studied the relationship between quality of life and dental care associated with masticatory discomfort. Data from Korea's representative 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were used. Complex sampling analysis with the stratification variable, clustering variable, and weight was applied. Demographic and dental treatment characteristics and activity limitations were compared through chi-square tests. The comparison of quality of life according to masticatory discomfort was performed using linear regression. The risk of masticatory discomfort was high in people who did not undergo regular oral examinations and preventive and definitive caries treatment and in those who received periodontal, surgical, endodontic, or prosthetic treatments. Generally, people with masticatory discomfort engaged in less activity owing to other disorders like arthritis, rheumatism, and back, neck, and oral disease. People with masticatory discomfort scored low on quality of life. People who received regular oral examinations and preventive care had a low level of masticatory discomfort, and the treated persons had high masticatory discomfort. Therefore, in order to reduce masticatory discomfort, more diverse and active care should be provided for prevention, specifically regular oral examinations.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , República da Coreia , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 21, 2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current study was performed; to validate the Arabic version of WHO child oral health assessment tool (A-OHAT), to assess the oral health status of Arab school children and finally to identify the important risk factors associated with the poor teeth and gum conditions of school children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with two-staged simple random sampling technique was implemented. A-OHAT, a self-assessment tool was subjected to psychometric analyses with the respondents being high school children. The Cronbach's alpha and the Intra class correlation values were computed. Paired t-test was performed to identify the differences between the readings after repeated administration, followed by the analysis for convergent validity. This tested Arabic-WHO Child-OHAT was administered to collect the data. Univariate, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to report on the potential risk factors associated with poor teeth and poor gum conditions of school children. RESULTS: Psychometric analyses revealed that the Arabic Child Oral Health Assessment Tool (A-OHAT) was reliable and valid. A total of 478 (N) high school children were subjected to the tested tool, of which 66.5% were male and 33.5% were female with a mean age of 16.28 + 1.04 years. 80.3% of school children had poor teeth condition and 36.2% of school children had often experienced toothache. Children had 1.5 times higher odds of having poor teeth condition if they had increased frequency of sweet and candy consumption. It was also seen that increased frequency of sweets and candy consumption by school children had put them at nearly 20% higher risk of having poor gum condition. Finally, children with the habit of using toothbrush had nearly 50% lower chance of having poor gum condition in contrast to the school children who do not use toothbrush. CONCLUSION: To conclude, the study provides a reliable and valid tool to assess the oral health status of Arab adolescents. Improper oral hygiene habits and diet were identified as the plausible risk factors for poor teeth and gum condition.


Assuntos
Árabes , Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal/normas , Saúde Bucal , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças da Boca/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Arábia Saudita , Autorrelato , Doenças Dentárias/diagnóstico , Traduções
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835830

RESUMO

Our aim was to assess the knowledge of pregnant women in terms of oral health and prevention, correlating it with socio-sanitary and educational factors, as well as self-care and oral health state referred. A total of 139 women from a Health Department in Comunidad Valenciana (Valencia, Spain) participated in the study. They underwent an auto-administered survey which included socio-economic and educational factors, self-care in terms of oral hygiene, referred oral health state, and general knowledge on prevention and oral health. Chi-squared test (χ2 test) and ANOVA (p < 0.05) were performed for the analysis. Variables significantly associated with general knowledge were included in a logistic regression analysis. Variables which explained general knowledge in terms of oral health were Spanish nationality (Exp B = 3.59 p = 0.017), secondary/bachelor or equivalent level of education (Exp B = 0.23 p = 0.010), medium or high level of self-care (Exp B = 0.146 p = 0.024 and Exp B = 0.208 p = 0.046, respectively), and medium or high knowledge on prevention (Exp B = 0.092 p = 0.003 and Exp B = 0.280 p = 0.017, respectively). Level of education, nationality, self-care, and knowledge on prevention and oral health were the factors that determined a greater level of general knowledge on oral health from the pregnant women.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Saúde Bucal , Gestantes , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Autocuidado , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 258, 2019 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined as childhood neurobehavioural disorder. Due to short attention span, oral hygiene and dental treatment of such individuals can be challenging. Aim of this study was to evaluate the oral health of children and adolescents with and without ADHD living in residential care in rural Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. METHODS: Included in the study were 79 participants (male/female:58/21, age 9-15 years) living in residential care: 34 participants with ADHD and 45 participants without ADHD (control). Oral examination included the following parameters decayed, missing, filled teeth in the primary dentition (dmft), decayed, missing, filled surfaces/teeth in the secondary dentition (DMFS/DMFT), approximal plaque index (API), bruxism and orthodontic treatment. Additionally, oral hygiene, last dental visit and treatment performed, and dietary habits were assessed by questionnaire. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in dmft, API, bruxism and oral hygiene habits between groups. However, participants with ADHD tended to have higher DMFS/DMFT values than the control group. Ongoing orthodontic treatment was found more often in the control group. The ADHD group tended to consume acidic/sugary beverages and sweet snacks more often than the controls. Different treatments (control visit/prophylaxis, dental therapy, orthodontic treatment) were performed at the last dental visit in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of this study, oral health was similar in children and adolescents with or without ADHD from the same residential care setting. Parents/guardians need instructions for better supervision of oral hygiene and dietary habits to improve the poor oral health of children with or without ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Cárie Dentária/complicações , Saúde Bucal , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Índice de Placa Dentária , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Residenciais , População Rural , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The world population is aging. This phenomenon is accompanied by an increase in the number of elderly with dementia, whose oral hygiene care is a challenge. OBJECTIVE: This paper presents a literature review of oral health status and the need for oral care in people with dementia, as compared to people without dementia and also of the relationship between periodontal disease and cognitive impairment. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library. Fifty-six articles met the inclusion criteria and were consequently included for quality assessment and data extraction. RESULTS: No significant differences were found between both groups with regard to the number of present teeth, DMFT Index, edentulousness/use of denture, and orofacial pain. Coronal/root caries and retained roots were more common in people with dementia than in those without dementia. Most of the participants with dementia presented gingival bleeding or inflammation and they suffered from the periodontal disease more than people without dementia. CONCLUSIONS: Poor oral health is a common condition among the elderly with dementia. The education process of caregivers might improve the oral health status of people with dementia. Finally, periodontal disease might contribute to the onset or progression of dementia.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Periodontais/complicações
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 272, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692856

RESUMO

Introduction: Prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity (DH) may be on the increase as a result of changing lifestyles. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of DH and relative importance of associated factors in 18-35 year old Nigerians and compare to findings from a similar European study. Methods: Following ethical approval, 1349 subjects from the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria participated in this cross sectional study. DH was clinically evaluated by cold air tooth stimulation, patient pain rating (yes/no) and investigator rated pain using the Schiff ordinal scale (0-3). Erosive tooth wear using the BEWE index was assessed. A questionnaire regarding the nature of the DH, erosive dietary intakes, tooth brushing habits and other factors was completed by patients. Bivariate analysis was conducted. Results: 32.8% of patients reported pain on tooth stimulation and 32.9% scored ≥1 on Schiff scale for at least one tooth. Questionnaire reported sensitivity was 41.2%. There were statistically significant associations between Schiff score and clinically elicited DH (p < 0.001); and BEWE erosive tooth wear score and clinically elicited DH (p < 0.001). There were significant associations between DH and some oral hygiene practices such as brushing frequency, brush movement and brushing after breakfast. Fresh fruit and fruit/vegetable juice intake also showed significant association. Conclusion: The most important risk factors of DH for this population in Nigeria appear to be the frequency and characteristics of tooth brushing. This should be considered in its prevention and management.


Assuntos
Sensibilidade da Dentina/epidemiologia , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Desgaste dos Dentes/epidemiologia , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 31(8_suppl): 97S-104S, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640393

RESUMO

This cross-sectional national survey aimed to determine the prevalence of oral and hand hygiene practices as well as associations between sociodemographic characteristics and oral and hygiene practice among adolescents aged 13 to 17 years during the past 30 days. A validated self-administered bilingual questionnaire adapted from the Malaysian Global School Health Survey with computer-scanable answer sheets was distributed to 30 823 adolescents attending government secondary schools in Malaysia; and 89.2% responded to the questionnaire given. More than 80% (87.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 86.24-87.96) of the adolescents reported that they had brushed their teeth at least twice daily and had always washed their hands after using the toilet (86.6%; 95% CI = 85.85-87.36). The odds of adolescents who brushed their teeth at least 2 times daily and washed their hands after using the toilet was significantly associated with sociodemographic characteristics. This study highlights the need to further improve the effectiveness of current oral health promotion programs with consideration for sociodemographic characteristics.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Higiene das Mãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0222568, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are inconsistent reports on the prevalence of oral conditions and their associated factors among adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV). The current inconsistencies may hinder the development of clear guidelines on the prevention and treatment of oral conditions among ALHIV. This study provides an update on oral conditions and their associated factors in a cohort of South African ALHIV and receiving routine HIV treatment services at a Johannesburg HIV wellness clinic. METHODS: Decayed Teeth (DT), Decayed Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) and Oral HIV/AIDS Research Alliance case definitions were used for caries examination and reporting of the Oral Mucosal Lesions (OML) respectively. Data analyses were stratified by the study main outcomes; chi-squared tests were performed to determine the associations; and multiple logistic regressions were also used to identify associated factors after adjusting for other exposure variables. In addition to fitting logistic regressions, we explored the data for potential confounders and effect modifiers. RESULTS: A total of 407 ALHIV were assessed, of which 51.0% were females. The mean age of the ALHIV was 14.75 years (SD 2.43) while the median age of their parents was 43 years (IQR 37-48 years). Regardless of sex, age group and other socio-demographic characteristics, participants had high count of dental caries (DMFT>0). The overall prevalence of dental caries was 56.76% (n = 231) with mean DT score of 2.0 (SD 2.48) and mean DMFT score of 2.65 (SD 3.01). Dental caries prevalence (DT>0) was significantly associated with the HIV clinical markers. HIV RNA viral loads more than 1000 copies/ml and CD4 cell counts less than 200 count cells/mm3, increased the likelihood of having dental decay among ALHIV (p<0.05). ALHIV at WHO staging III, IV had higher caries prevalence ranging from 70% to 75% (p<0.05). The prevalence of dental caries was directly related to the presence of oral mucosal lesions (p<0.05). The prevalence of OML was 22%, with linear gingival erythema (13.8%) accounting for most of the OML. Multiple logistic regression modelling suggested that dental caries experience (DMFT>0), age category 13-15 years, WHO staging of IV and viral load of more than 1000 copies/ml significantly predicted the outcome of oral lesions as assessed using the OHARA case definitions (p<0.05). The odds of developing dental caries was also 1.5 times more among ALHIV who brush their teeth less frequently and those who reported more frequent eating of sugar sweetened diets (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There is high prevalence of dental caries and OML among ALHIV in Johannesburg. The reported prevalence was associated with high HIV RNA viral loads, shorter duration on antiretroviral treatment and high WHO staging of HIV disease on crude analysis. Additionally, caries experience contributed to the prevalence of OML. Our study acknowledges the protective effect of HIV treatment and positive oral health practices on the presence of oral conditions among ALHIV in Johannesburg.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Doenças da Boca/epidemiologia , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Feminino , HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças da Boca/etiologia , Doenças da Boca/patologia , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Socioeconômicos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
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