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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD008367, 2020 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as pneumonia developing in people who have received mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours. VAP is a potentially serious complication in these patients who are already critically ill. Oral hygiene care (OHC), using either a mouthrinse, gel, swab, toothbrush, or combination, together with suction of secretions, may reduce the risk of VAP in these patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of oral hygiene care (OHC) on incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation in hospital intensive care units (ICUs). SEARCH METHODS: Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 25 February 2020), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2020, Issue 1), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 25 February 2020), Embase Ovid (1980 to 25 February 2020), LILACS BIREME Virtual Health Library (1982 to 25 February 2020) and CINAHL EBSCO (1937 to 25 February 2020). We also searched the VIP Database (January 2012 to 8 March 2020). The US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of OHC (mouthrinse, gel, swab, toothbrush or combination) in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two review authors independently assessed search results, extracted data and assessed risk of bias in included studies. We contacted study authors for additional information. We reported risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes, using the random-effects model of meta-analysis when data from four or more trials were combined. MAIN RESULTS: We included 40 RCTs (5675 participants), which were conducted in various countries including China, USA, Brazil and Iran. We categorised these RCTs into five main comparisons: chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthrinse or gel versus placebo/usual care; CHX mouthrinse versus other oral care agents; toothbrushing (± antiseptics) versus no toothbrushing (± antiseptics); powered versus manual toothbrushing; and comparisons of other oral care agents used in OHC (other oral care agents versus placebo/usual care, or head-to-head comparisons between other oral care agents). We assessed the overall risk of bias as high in 31 trials and low in two, with the rest being unclear. Moderate-certainty evidence from 13 RCTs (1206 participants, 92% adults) shows that CHX mouthrinse or gel, as part of OHC, probably reduces the incidence of VAP compared to placebo or usual care from 26% to about 18% (RR 0.67, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.47 to 0.97; P = 0.03; I2 = 66%). This is equivalent to a number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) of 12 (95% CI 7 to 128), i.e. providing OHC including CHX for 12 ventilated patients in intensive care would prevent one patient developing VAP. There was no evidence of a difference between interventions for the outcomes of mortality (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.33; P = 0.86, I2 = 0%; 9 RCTs, 944 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), duration of mechanical ventilation (MD -1.10 days, 95% CI -3.20 to 1.00 days; P = 0.30, I2 = 74%; 4 RCTs, 594 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or duration of intensive care unit (ICU) stay (MD -0.89 days, 95% CI -3.59 to 1.82 days; P = 0.52, I2 = 69%; 5 RCTs, 627 participants; low-certainty evidence). Most studies did not mention adverse effects. One study reported adverse effects, which were mild, with similar frequency in CHX and control groups and one study reported there were no adverse effects. Toothbrushing (± antiseptics) may reduce the incidence of VAP (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.91; P = 0.01, I2 = 40%; 5 RCTs, 910 participants; low-certainty evidence) compared to OHC without toothbrushing (± antiseptics). There is also some evidence that toothbrushing may reduce the duration of ICU stay (MD -1.89 days, 95% CI -3.52 to -0.27 days; P = 0.02, I2 = 0%; 3 RCTs, 749 participants), but this is very low certainty. Low-certainty evidence did not show a reduction in mortality (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.05; P = 0.12, I2 = 0%; 5 RCTs, 910 participants) or duration of mechanical ventilation (MD -0.43, 95% CI -1.17 to 0.30; P = 0.25, I2 = 46%; 4 RCTs, 810 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Chlorhexidine mouthwash or gel, as part of OHC, probably reduces the incidence of developing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in critically ill patients from 26% to about 18%, when compared to placebo or usual care. We did not find a difference in mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation or duration of stay in the intensive care unit, although the evidence was low certainty. OHC including both antiseptics and toothbrushing may be more effective than OHC with antiseptics alone to reduce the incidence of VAP and the length of ICU stay, but, again, the evidence is low certainty. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether any of the interventions evaluated in the studies are associated with adverse effects.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/prevenção & controle , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Criança , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Escovação Dentária/métodos
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD003864, 2020 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For people with physical, sensory and cognitive limitations due to stroke, the routine practice of oral health care (OHC) may become a challenge. Evidence-based supported oral care intervention is essential for this patient group. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of OHC interventions with usual care or other treatment options for ensuring oral health in people after a stroke. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group and Cochrane Oral Health Group trials registers, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and six other databases in February 2019. We scanned reference lists from relevant papers and contacted authors and researchers in the field. We handsearched the reference lists of relevant articles and contacted other researchers. There were no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated one or more interventions designed to improve the cleanliness and health of the mouth, tongue and teeth in people with a stroke who received assisted OHC led by healthcare staff. We included trials with a mixed population provided we could extract the stroke-specific data. The primary outcomes were dental plaque or denture plaque. Secondary outcomes included presence of oral disease, presence of related infection and oral opportunistic pathogens related to OHC and pneumonia, stroke survivor and providers' knowledge and attitudes to OHC, and patient satisfaction and quality of life. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened abstracts and full-text articles according to prespecified selection criteria, extracted data and assessed the methodological quality using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool. We sought clarification from investigators when required. Where suitable statistical data were available, we combined the selected outcome data in pooled meta-analyses. We used GRADE to assess the quality of evidence for each outcome. MAIN RESULTS: Fifteen RCTs (22 randomised comparisons) involving 3631 participants with data for 1546 people with stroke met the selection criteria. OHC interventions compared with usual care Seven trials (2865 participants, with data for 903 participants with stroke, 1028 healthcare providers, 94 informal carers) investigated OHC interventions compared with usual care. Multi-component OHC interventions showed no evidence of a difference in the mean score (DMS) of dental plaque one month after the intervention was delivered (DMS -0.66, 95% CI -1.40 to 0.09; 2 trials, 83 participants; I2 = 83%; P = 0.08; very low-quality evidence). Stroke survivors had less plaque on their dentures when staff had access to the multi-component OHC intervention (DMS -1.31, 95% CI -1.96 to -0.66; 1 trial, 38 participants; P < 0.0001; low-quality evidence). There was no evidence of a difference in gingivitis (DMS -0.60, 95% CI -1.66 to 0.45; 2 trials, 83 participants; I2 = 93%; P = 0.26: very low-quality evidence) or denture-induced stomatitis (DMS -0.33, 95% CI -0.92 to 0.26; 1 trial, 38 participants; P = 0.69; low-quality evidence) among participants receiving the multi-component OHC protocol compared with usual care one month after the intervention. There was no difference in the incidence of pneumonia in participants receiving a multi-component OHC intervention (99 participants; 5 incidents of pneumonia) compared with those receiving usual care (105 participants; 1 incident of pneumonia) (OR 4.17, CI 95% 0.82 to 21.11; 1 trial, 204 participants; P = 0.08; low-quality evidence). OHC training for stroke survivors and healthcare providers significantly improved their OHC knowledge at one month after training (SMD 0.70, 95% CI 0.06 to 1.35; 3 trials, 728 participants; I2 = 94%; P = 0.03; very low-quality evidence). Pooled data one month after training also showed evidence of a difference between stroke survivor and providers' oral health attitudes (SMD 0.28, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.54; 3 trials, 728 participants; I2 = 65%; P = 0.06; very low-quality evidence). OHC interventions compared with placebo Three trials (394 participants, with data for 271 participants with stroke) compared an OHC intervention with placebo. There were no data for primary outcomes. There was no evidence of a difference in the incidence of pneumonia in participants receiving an OHC intervention compared with placebo (OR 0.39, CI 95% 0.14 to 1.09; 2 trials, 242 participants; I2 = 42%; P = 0.07; low-quality evidence). However, decontamination gel reduced the incidence of pneumonia among the intervention group compared with placebo gel group (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.84; 1 trial, 203 participants; P = 0.028). There was no difference in the incidence of pneumonia in participants treated with povidone-iodine compared with a placebo (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.18 to 3.51; 1 trial, 39 participants; P = 0.77). One OHC intervention compared with another OHC intervention Twelve trials (372 participants with stroke) compared one OHC intervention with another OHC intervention. There was no difference in dental plaque scores between those participants that received an enhanced multi-component OHC intervention compared with conventional OHC interventions at three months (MD -0.04, 95% CI -0.33 to 0.25; 1 trial, 61 participants; P = 0.78; low-quality evidence). There were no data for denture plaque. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found low- to very low-quality evidence suggesting that OHC interventions can improve the cleanliness of patient's dentures and stroke survivor and providers' knowledge and attitudes. There is limited low-quality evidence that selective decontamination gel may be more beneficial than placebo at reducing the incidence of pneumonia. Improvements in the cleanliness of a patient's own teeth was limited. We judged the quality of the evidence included within meta-analyses to be low or very low quality, and this limits our confidence in the results. We still lack high-quality evidence of the optimal approach to providing OHC to people after stroke.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Educação em Saúde Bucal , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/enfermagem , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Placa Dentária/diagnóstico , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Casas de Saúde , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estomatite sob Prótese/epidemiologia
3.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(4): e3094, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144444

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: The oral health of students from rural areas is a priority public health problem in Peru. Objective: To determine socioeconomic factors in relation to oral health in students from a rural Peruvian area. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional observational study. The sample consisted of 604 students from a rural Peruvian area selected for convenience, meeting criteria of inclusion and exclusion, following ethical standards in scientific research. Socioeconomic factors were assessed using a structured questionnaire and the oral health using an epidemiological record with the indicators: DMFT index, Significant Caries Index (SiC), Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S), Index of clinical consequences of untreated dental caries (PUFA). The evaluation was performed with natural light by calibrated observers. The data was analyzed in the program STATA 14 through frequency distribution tables and graphics. The relationship of each of the socioeconomic factors with the experience of dental caries was evaluated by the simple binary logistic regression tests. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 85, 26 percent (DMFT = 6, 60 SiC=7, 23). The most frequent oral hygiene condition was regular, the prevalence of untreated tooth decay was 61.75 percent. Conclusions: The level of illiterate instruction, family responsibility and independent parental occupation showed a statistically significant association with their children's dental caries experience in a rural Peruvian area. (p < 0.001)(AU)


RESUMEN Introducción: La salud bucal de los estudiantes de zonas rurales es un problema prioritario de salud pública en el Perú. Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre factores socioeconómicos y salud bucal en estudiantes de una zona rural peruana. Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal. La muestra estuvo conformada por 604 estudiantes de una zona rural peruana, los que fueron seleccionados por conveniencia. Se evaluaron los factores socioeconómicos mediante un cuestionario estructurado y la salud bucal a través de una ficha epidemiológica con los indicadores: Índice CPOD, índice de significancia de caries dental (SIC), índice de higiene oral simplificado (IHO-S), índice de consecuencias clínicas de caries no tratadas (PUFA), la evaluación fue realizada con luz natural por observadores calibrados. Los datos se analizaron en el programa STATA v.14 mediante tablas de distribución de frecuencias y figuras. La relación de cada uno de los factores socioeconómicos con la experiencia de la caries dental se evaluó mediante pruebas de regresión logística binarias simples. Resultados: La prevalencia de caries dental fue de 85,26 por ciento (CPOD = 6,60, SIC = 7,23) y la prevalencia de caries dental no tratada fue 61,75 por ciento . La condición de higiene oral más frecuente fue regular. Conclusiones: El nivel de instrucción analfabeto, la responsabilidad familiar y la ocupación independiente de los padres mostraron asociación estadísticamente significativa con la experiencia de caries dental de sus hijos en un área rural peruana (p < 0,001)(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes , Saúde Bucal , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Peru , Zona Rural , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
4.
Med. oral patol. oral cir. bucal (Internet) ; 25(5): e608-e615, sept. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-196516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With greater number of implants being placed in clinical practice, incidence of peri-implant diseases are on the rise. It is not known whether chlorhexidine (CHX) improves outcomes in the management of peri-implant diseases. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the role of CHX in improving outcomes with non-surgical management of peri-implant mucositis and periimplantitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An electronic search of PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) databases up to 1st August 2019 was carried out to search for studies evaluating the efficacy of CHX for non-surgical management of peri-implant diseases. RESULTS: Seven studies were included. Four studies evaluated the role of CHX in peri-implant mucositis and three in peri-implantitis. Oral prophylaxis with mechanical cleansing of implant surface prior to CHX use was carried out in all seven studies. Meta-analysis indicated that use of CHX did not improve probing depths in peri-implant mucositis (SMD = 0.11; 95% CI: -0.16 to 0.38; p = 0.42, I2= 0%). Similarly, CHX did not significantly reduce probing depths in patients with peri-implantitis (MD= 1.57; 95% CI: -0.88 to 4.0; p = 0.21, I2 = 98%). Results on the efficacy of CHX in reducing BOP in peri-implantitis are conflicting. CONCLUSIONS: Results of our study indicate that adjunctive therapy with CHX may not improve outcomes with non-surgical management of periimplant mucositis. Conclusions with regards to its role in non-surgical management of periimplantitis cannot be drawn. There is a need for more homogenous RCTs with large sample size to define the role of CHX in non-surgical management of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Estomatite/tratamento farmacológico , Peri-Implantite/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Implantes Dentários/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Higiene Bucal/métodos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784777

RESUMO

Dementia is one of the main causes of disability among elderly people. It is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects elderly people's ability to perform daily living activities. Alzheimer's disease is the main subtype of dementia and causes declining memory, reasoning, and communication skills. They also have behavioural and psychological symptoms, such as depression and aggression. It is essential for them to maintain good oral health, as oral health is an important and integral part of their general health. Neglecting oral health allows dental diseases to develop, and these diseases are difficult and costly to treat. However, dental diseases can be treated with ambulatory care rather than hospitalisation and emergency care. Elderly people should establish daily oral hygiene care routines during the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. They should have regular dental examinations and early minimal interventions to prevent the need for extensive and complicated procedures. Maintaining oral health becomes challenging, however, when Alzheimer's disease progresses to the middle and late stages. Because elderly people might forget or lose interest in keeping their teeth healthy, caretakers and community health workers may need to take over this task. Dentists should provide guidance on the maintenance of oral health, as the techniques used to provide this support vary depending on the elderly people concerned. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of oral health and the importance of oral care for elderly people with Alzheimer's disease. The paper also discusses appropriate dental interventions and techniques for maintaining good oral health and helping people with Alzheimer's to enjoy a satisfactory quality of life.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene Bucal , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Humanos , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia
6.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(2): 103-107, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592553

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study, which consisted of a motivational lecture and hands-on training, was to evaluate the role of oral hygiene education for adolescents. METHODS: The study population included sixty-two high school students between fourteen and fifteen years of age (thirty males and thirty-two females). The response rate was 76.5%. The measurement of oral hygiene level was performed using the modified Green Vermilion Index (GVI). The values were recorded at baseline, one week, three months, and six months after education through motivational lecture and hands-on training was performed. Descriptive and nonparametric statistical methods were used in statistical analysis. Level of significance was 0.05. RESULTS: At the beginning of the study, the GVI of all examined subjects was 3.52 (SD = 0.70). One week after the motivational lecture and training, it decreased to 2.64 (SD = 0.69). Three months later, the level of plaque index had the lowest value (1.44; SD = 0.66). At the end of the study the level of plaque index increased to 2.52 (SD = 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: A significant oral hygiene improvement in adolescents as a result of education was presented. However, due to a decline in oral hygiene level six months after the education, there is a need for educational programmes continuity.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Motivação , Saúde Bucal/educação , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Adolescente , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Higiene Bucal/educação , Higiene Bucal/psicologia , Estudantes
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(6): e204321, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558913

RESUMO

Importance: Pneumonia affects more than 250 000 nursing home (NH) residents annually. A strategy to reduce pneumonia is to provide daily mouth care, especially to residents with dementia. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Mouth Care Without a Battle, a program that increases staff knowledge and attitudes regarding oral hygiene, changes mouth care, and improves oral hygiene, in reducing the incidence of pneumonia among NH residents. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pragmatic cluster randomized trial observing 2152 NH residents for up to 2 years was conducted from September 2014 to May 2017. Data collectors were masked to study group. The study included 14 NHs from regions of North Carolina that evidenced proportionately high rehospitalization rates for pneumonia and long-term care residents. Nursing homes were pair matched and randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. Intervention: Mouth Care Without a Battle is a standardized program that teaches that mouth care is health care, provides instruction on individualized techniques and products for mouth care, and trains caregivers to provide care to residents who are resistant and in special situations. The control condition was standard mouth care. Main Outcomes and Measures: Pneumonia incidence (primary) and hospitalization and mortality (secondary), obtained from medical records. Results: Overall, the study enrolled 2152 residents (mean [SD] age, 79.4 [12.4] years; 1281 [66.2%] women; 1180 [62.2%] white residents). Participants included 1219 residents (56.6%) in 7 intervention NHs and 933 residents (43.4%) in 7 control NHs. During the 2-year study period, the incidence rate of pneumonia per 1000 resident-days was 0.67 and 0.72 in the intervention and control NHs, respectively. Neither the primary (unadjusted) nor secondary (covariate-adjusted) analyses found a significant reduction in pneumonia due to Mouth Care Without a Battle during 2 years (unadjusted incidence rate ratio, 0.90; upper bound of 1-sided 95% CI, 1.24; P = .27; adjusted incidence rate ratio, 0.92; upper bound of 1-sided 95% CI, 1.27; P = .30). In the second year, the rate of pneumonia was nonsignificantly higher in intervention NHs. Adjusted post hoc analyses limited to the first year found a significant reduction in pneumonia incidence in intervention NHs (IRR, 0.69; upper bound of 1-sided 95% CI, 0.94; P = .03). Conclusions and Relevance: This matched-pairs cluster randomized trial of a mouth care program compared with standard care was not effective in reducing pneumonia incidence at 2 years, although reduction was found during the first year. The lack of significant results in the second year may be associated with sustainability. Improving mouth care in US NHs may require the presence and support of dedicated oral care aides. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03817450.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle
8.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(2): e2954, abr.-jun. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126510

RESUMO

RESUMO Introdução: A halitose é um sinal da presença de mau cheiro ofensivo ao olfato humano, geralmente é provocada pela falta de higiene ou estilo de vida e afeta milhares de pessoas em todo o mundo. Objetivo: Realizar uma revisão de literatura a respeito da etiologia, diagnóstico e tratamento da halitose buscando proporcionar um maior embasamento cientifico com informações atualizadas para os profissionais da área. Métodos: O estudo caracterizou-se por uma busca de artigos na base de dados eletrônicos PubMed, Lilacs, Google Acadêmico e Scielo publicados entre 2014 e 2019, em inglês, português e espanhol. Foram consultados 52 trabalhos, destes, 28 foram selecionados após uma criteriosa filtragem. Análise e integração das informações: Diversas etiologias advindas da cavidade bucal podem provocar a halitose. Existem vários exames complementares para auxílio diagnóstico da halitose, tais como testes sialométricos, organoléptico e a análise de presença de saburra para o diagnóstico. Há diversos protocolos instituídos para o tratamento da halitose, desde procedimentos preventivos a curativos. Conclusão: No que concerne a etiologia, a halitose pode ocorrer por fatores fisiológicos ou patológicos; 90 porcento dos casos tem como origem a cavidade oral, podendo estar associada ao biofilme dentário, cárie, língua saburrosa, próteses mal adaptadas e cicatrização tecidual. O diagnóstico deve ser realizado por meio de um exame clínico criterioso. A utilização de questionários para colher informações como frequência, duração, quantidade de vezes que aparece no mesmo dia, hábitos e medicamentos utilizados ajudarão na elucidação do caso. O sucesso do tratamento depende do diagnóstico e da implementação de uma terapia relacionada com a causa-efeito e de uma abordagem multidisciplinar racional que se torna essencial para a obtenção de bons resultados, com objetivo de melhorar a saúde oral, bem como, seus efeitos individuais e sociais(AU)


RESUMEN Introducción: Halitosis o mal olor es ofensivo al olfato humano, generalmente es provocada por la falta de higiene o estilo de vida y afecta a miles de personas en todo el mundo. Objetivo: Llevar a cabo una revisión de la literatura sobre la etiología, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de la halitosis buscando proporcionar una mayor base científica con información actualizada para los profesionales en el campo. Métodos: El estudio se caracterizó por una búsqueda de artículos en la base de datos electrónica PubMed, Lilacs, Google Scholar y SciELO publicados entre 2014 y 2019, en inglés, portugués y español. Se consultaron 52 documentos, de los cuales 28 fueron seleccionados después de un filtrado cuidadoso. Análisis e integración de las informaciones: Diversas etiologías provenientes de la cavidad bucal pueden provocar la halitosis. Existen varios exámenes complementarios para ayudar a diagnosticar la halitosis, tales como pruebas sialométricas, organolépticas y el análisis de presencia de saburra para el diagnóstico. Hay varios protocolos instituidos para el tratamiento de la halitosis, desde procedimientos preventivos a curativos. Conclusiones: En cuanto a la etiología de la halitosis puede ocurrir debido a factores fisiológicos o patológicos. Aunque el 90 por ciento de los casos se originan en la cavidad bucal y pueden estar asociados con biopelículas dentales, caries, toques de lengua, prótesis mal adaptadas y cicatrización de tejidos. El diagnóstico debe hacerse mediante un examen clínico cuidadoso. El uso de cuestionarios para recopilar información como la frecuencia, la duración, la cantidad de veces que aparece el mismo día, los hábitos y los medicamentos utilizados ayudarán a dilucidar el caso. El tratamiento exitoso depende del diagnóstico y la implementación de la terapia de causa y efecto y de un enfoque multidisciplinario racional que es esencial para obtener resultados exitosos para mejorar la salud bucal y sus efectos individuales y social(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Oral halitosis or malodor is offensive to the human sense of smell. It is often the result of poor hygiene or lifestyle and affects thousands of people worldwide. Objective: Conduct a literature review about the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of halitosis with the purpose of contributing a broader scientific basis of updated information for professionals in the field. Methods: The study was characterized by a search for papers published in the electronic databases PubMed, Lilacs, Google Scholar and Scielo between 2014 and 2019 in English, Portuguese or Spanish. A total 52 papers were consulted, of which 28 were selected after careful filtering. Data analysis and integration: Halitosis may be due to a variety of oral cavity etiologies. Several complementary tests are available which help diagnose halitosis, e.g. sialometric tests, organoleptic tests and analysis of the presence of saburra for the diagnosis. Several protocols have been implemented for the treatment of halitosis. These range from preventive to healing procedures. Conclusions: The etiology of halitosis may be due to physiological or pathological factors. Although 90 percent of the cases originate in the oral cavity and may be associated with dental biofilm, caries, tongue saburra, ill-fitted prostheses or tissue scarring, diagnosis should be based on careful clinical examination. Using questionnaires to gather information such as frequency, duration, number of times it appears on the same day, habits and medications will help elucidate the case. Successful treatment depends on the diagnosis and implementation of a cause-and-effect therapy and a rational multidisciplinary approach which is essential to obtain positive outcomes and improve oral health as well as its individual and social effects(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Saúde Bucal , Halitose/diagnóstico , Halitose/etiologia , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Halitose/terapia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232775, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374766

RESUMO

Antibacterial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) and antibacterial blue light (aBL) are emerging treatment methods auxiliary to mechanical debridement for periodontitis. APDT provided with near-infrared (NIR) light in conjunction with an indocyanine green (ICG) photosensitizer has shown efficacy in several dental in-office-treatment protocols. In this study, we tested Streptococcus mutans biofilm sensitivity to either aPDT, aBL or their combination dual-light aPDT (simultaneous aPDT and aBL) exposure. Biofilm was cultured by pipetting diluted Streptococcus mutans suspension with growth medium on the bottom of well plates. Either aPDT (810 nm) or aBL (405 nm) or a dual-light aPDT (simultaneous 810 nm aPDT and 405 nm aBL) was applied with an ICG photosensitizer in cases of aPDT or dual-light, while keeping the total given radiant exposure constant at 100 J/cm2. Single-dose light exposures were given after one-day or four-day biofilm incubations. Also, a model of daily treatment was provided by repeating the same light dose daily on four-day and fourteen-day biofilm incubations. Finally, the antibacterial action of the dual-light aPDT with different energy ratios of 810 nm and 405 nm of light were examined on the single-day and four-day biofilm protocols. At the end of each experiment the bacterial viability was assessed by colony-forming unit method. Separate samples were prepared for confocal 3D biofilm imaging. On a one-day biofilm, the dual-light aPDT was significantly more efficient than aBL or aPDT, although all modalities were bactericidal. On a four-day biofilm, a single exposure of aPDT or dual-light aPDT was more efficient than aBL, resulting in a four logarithmic scale reduction in bacterial counts. Surprisingly, when the same amount of aPDT was repeated daily on a four-day or a fourteen-day biofilm, bacterial viability improved significantly. A similar improvement in bacterial viability was observed after repetitive aBL application. This viability improvement was eliminated when dual-light aPDT was applied. By changing the 405 nm to 810 nm radiant exposure ratio in dual-light aPDT, the increase in aBL improved the antibacterial action when the biofilm was older. In conclusion, when aPDT is administered repeatedly to S. mutans biofilm, a single wavelength-based aBL or aPDT leads to a significant biofilm adaptation and increased S. mutans viability. The combined use of aBL light in synchrony with aPDT arrests the adaptation and provides significantly improved and sustained antibacterial efficacy.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Verde de Indocianina/farmacologia , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Adaptação Biológica/efeitos da radiação , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos da radiação , Biofilmes/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos da radiação , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos da radiação
10.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(5): 589-595, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367863

RESUMO

Background: The prevalence of white spot lesions/tooth demineralization during orthodontic fixed appliance therapy ranges widely from 2 to 96% of patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate measures used by orthodontists practicing in Nigeria to manage demineralization during and after fixed orthodontic treatment and how it compares with the available evidence-based information. Method: Study group comprised of 60 practitioners (21 orthodontists and 39 orthodontic residents) in Nigeria. Self-administered questionnaires were used to obtain information on the measures they use to prevent the occurrence of demineralization at the onset and during orthodontic treatment, as well as the management of its occurrence at treatment completion. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 17.0. Descriptive statistics were used. Level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Responses obtained showed that 96.7% of orthodontic practitioners routinely advised their patients on tooth cleaning methods; the use of manual orthodontic toothbrush (78.3%) and dental floss (51.7%) being popularly recommended methods. However, 51.7% used a specific demineralization preventive protocol at the start of treatment. Oral hygiene instruction was observed to be the most commonly adopted protocol (51.7%), followed by fluoride rinses (41.7%) (considered relatively ineffective). Extraoral hygiene instruction was the most common treatment protocol used when tooth demineralization occurred during and after treatment (56.7% and 73.3% respectively). Approximately 92% of the orthodontists agreed on the need for the development of a basic protocol to prevent demineralization. Conclusion: The demineralization preventive measures used by Nigerian orthodontists and orthodontic residents are inconsistent and not based on evidence-based information. The development of standardized demineralization prevention protocol was therefore recommended.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Aparelhos Ortodônticos/efeitos adversos , Ortodontia Corretiva/métodos , Ortodontistas , Padrões de Prática Odontológica , Desmineralização do Dente/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Odontologia Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Feminino , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Braquetes Ortodônticos/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Escovação Dentária
11.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 119, 2020 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensified preventive regimen based on a 'high-risk' approach has been proposed instead the routine prevention that is generally given to the whole population. The effectiveness of these regimens may still be an issue. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare two preventive programs carried out in a Public School for kindergarten children. METHODS: The data from clinical examinations were used to assess the caries risk for 121 children. Children with at least 2 carious lesions were considered as high risk for dental caries development. These children were randomized into two groups. Half (High risk basic-HRB group) were provided the basic prevention regimen (oral-hygiene instruction and hands-on brushing practice for teachers and caregivers, daytime tooth brushing supervised by teachers at least once a week, newly erupted first permanent molar sealant, provision of toothbrush, fluoride-containing dentifrice, and a guidebook), which was also given to low-risk children (Low risk basic-LRB group). The other half (High risk intensive-HRI group) were additionally given an intensified preventive regimen (F-varnish application, primary molar sealant, and silver diamine fluoride (SDF) application on carious lesions). Clinical examinations were performed semiannually to determine the dmfs caries increment of the three groups. RESULTS: The 89 children completed the 24-month examination were 3- to 5-year-old with 19, 35, and 35 children in the LRB, HRB, and HRI group, respectively. The new caries development at 24 months of the HRB group (75%) was higher than that of the HRI group (65.7%) and the LRB group (21.1%). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated no significant differences of caries increment between the HRB and HRI groups at the end of our study (p = 0.709). CONCLUSIONS: The negligible difference in caries increment between the HRI and HRB groups implies that intensified prevention produced minimal additional benefit. Offering all children only basic prevention could have obtained virtually the same preventive effect with substantially less effort and lower cost. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Thai Clinical Trials Registry (TCTR), TCTR20180124001. Registered 24 January 2018 - Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Escovação Dentária , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Dentifrícios/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fluoretos Tópicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Dente Molar , Tailândia
12.
Av. odontoestomatol ; 36(1): 27-34, ene.-abr. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192997

RESUMO

Las intervenciones educativas en salud oral han cambiado a travès del tiempo, partiendo desde la simple entrega de información se ha avanzado hacia programas que utilizan estrategias psicológicas para motivar el cambio de conducta. La incorporación de internet en smartphones junto con el amplio uso de ellos entrega la oportunidad para realizar intervenciones innovadoras en salud con mHealth (salud móvil) para mejorar la salud y calidad de vida a nivel mundial. El uso de nuevas tecnologías está presente en el día a día de los niños, lo que entrega la oportunidad de promocionar la salud oral de una forma didáctica a los nativos digitales. El objetivo de la presente revisión de literatura es describir los resultados de la evidencia reciente del uso de aplicaciones móviles o Apps para mejorar la higiene oral en niños. La tecnología con smartphones ha crecido a un ritmo acelerado junto con el desarrollo de Apps, sin embargo, la investigación no ha llevado el ritmo. Se necesitan estudios estandarizados y específicos para cada población, especialmente en niños, antes de aprobar una App y dejarla disponible para descargar. De esta manera se podrán generar cambios efectivos a largo plazo respecto a los hábitos de salud oral de niños y adultos


Educational interventions in oral health have changed over time, starting from the simple delivery of information, progress has been made towards programs that use psychological strategies to motivate behavior change. The incorporation of the internet in smartphones along with the wide use of them provides the opportunity to carry out innovative health interventions with mHealth (mobile health) to improve health and quality of life worldwide. The use of new technologies is present in the daily lives of children, which gives the opportunity to promote oral health in a didactic way to digital natives. The aim of this literature review is to describe the results of recent evidence of the use of mobile applications or Apps to improve oral hygiene in children. Technology with smartphones has grown at an accelerated pace along with the development of Apps, however, research has not kept pace. Standardized and specific studies are needed for each population, especially in children, before approving an App and making it available for download. In this way, effective long-term changes can be generated regarding the oral health habits of children and adults


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Higiene Bucal/tendências , Smartphone/tendências , Saúde Bucal/educação , Higiene Bucal/educação , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Promoção da Saúde
13.
Med. oral patol. oral cir. bucal (Internet) ; 25(2): e161-e167, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-196245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To improve the results of the classic periodontal treatment, probiotics have been suggested recently to decrease the number of bacteria and the expression of mediators of inflammation. This systematic review aimed to assess the literature for the effectiveness of different probiotic strains as adjuvants to non-surgical periodontal therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The electronic database of MEDLINE (via Pubmed) was searched up to December 2017 for randomised clinical trials in English comparing non-surgical periodontal treatment and probiotics versus periodontal treatment and placebo. The primary outcome investigated was reduction in pocket probing depth. Secondary outcomes were bleeding on probing, plaque index reduction and bacteria counts. RESULTS: Nine trials were included. A narrative data synthesis did not result in any major improvement of overall pocket probing depth but moderate pockets from 4 to 6 mm showed larger reductions in study groups, which could decrease the need for surgery. Sites with bleeding on probing and presence of plaque decreased after treatment. For periimplant mucositis, there was a small tendency to better results in the study group. CONCLUSIONS: With the available data, it is concluded that probiotics may provide an additional benefit to manual debridement in chronic periodontitis. More studies are required on dose, route of administration and strains of probiotics used


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Periodontite Crônica/terapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Raspagem Dentária/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Fatores de Tempo , Índice Periodontal , Índice de Placa Dentária
14.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 43, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the large number of trials conducted using herbal oral care products for the reduction of dental plaque or gingivitis, results are conflicting and inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of herbal oral care products compared to conventional products in reducing dental plaque and gingivitis adults. METHODS: We searched the following databases for Randomised controlled trials (RCTs): MEDLINE Ovid, EMBASE Ovid etc. which yielded 493 trails. Of which 24 RCTs comparing herbal toothpaste or mouth rinse with over the counter toothpaste or mouth rinse in adults aged 18 to 65 years were included. Two authors extracted information and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies using Risk of Bias. Meta-analyses using the random-effects model were conducted for four outcomes for tooth paste and mouth rinse respectively. Mean difference (MD) or standardized mean difference (SMD) were used to estimate the effect, with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: A total of 1597 adults participated in 24 RCT studies. These were classified as herbal toothpaste (HTP) (15 trials, 899 participants) and herbal mouth rinse (HMR) (9 trials, 698 participants) compared with non-herbal toothpaste (NHTP) or non-herbal mouth rinse (NHMR). We found that HTP was superior over NHTP (SMD 1.95, 95% CI (0.97-2.93)) in plaque reduction. The long-term use of NHMR was superior in reduction of dental plaque over HMR (SMD -2.61, 95% (CI 4.42-0.80)). From subgroup analysis it showed that HTP was not superior over fluoride toothpaste (SMD 0.99, 95% CI (0.14-2.13)) in reducing dental plaque. However, HTP was favoured over non-fluoride toothpaste (SMD 4.64, 95% CI (2.23-7.05)). CONCLUSION: For short-term reduction in dental plaque, current evidence suggests that HTP is as effective as compared to NHTP; however, evidence is from low quality studies.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Antissépticos Bucais , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Cremes Dentais , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
15.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(9): 4263-4273, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900618

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the occurrence and severity of oral complications, number of radiotherapy (RT) interruptions and quality of life (QoL) in a population of head and neck cancer patients receiving a preventive oral care program (POCP) and photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT). METHODS: Prospective cohort of 61 head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiochemotherapy were monitored and submitted to a POCP that included oral hygiene and plaque control, removal of infection foci, dental restorations, periodontal therapy, fluorotherapy, oral hydration, and denture removal at night, combined with daily PBMT. Outcomes included occurrence of adverse effects such as severity of oral mucositis (OM) and oral symptoms (pain, solid and fluid dysphagia, odynophagia, dysgeusia), quality of life impacts, and interruptions of radiotherapy (RT) due to symptoms. Disease-free and overall survival rates were evaluated. RESULTS: There was a significant improvement in oral health conditions between initial assessment and the two longitudinal assessments (p < 0.05), which indicates that the POCP was effective for plaque control and reduction of gingival inflammation. All participants were free of OM at the beginning of the RT regimen and only 45.9% after the 7th session, and few patients ranked the highest score of OM. For all symptoms related to OM, there was a progressive increase of severity until the 14th RT session, which remained stable until the completion of the RT regimen. The same effect was observed for the quality of life measures. Discontinued RT due to OM occurred in only three patients (5%), and the maximum duration was 10 days. The overall survival rate was 77% and disease-free survival was 73.8%. Lower survival time was observed for patients with no response to RT (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest a positive effect of an oral preventive care program for head and neck cancer patients submitted to RT. The PBMT associated with a rigorous POCP resulted in satisfactory control of oral adverse effects, reduction of quality of life impacts, and interruption of RT regimen due to severe OM.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Doenças da Boca/etiologia , Doenças da Boca/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças da Boca/induzido quimicamente , Saúde Bucal , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle
16.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 59(5): 988-996, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504982

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is a relationship between RA and periodontal disease. We aimed to investigate if a good oral hygiene could improve activity of RA. METHODS: The patients with RA according to ACR/EULAR 2010 criteria and included in the French early arthritis ESPOIR cohort were included in a randomized nested study into: (i) intervention group: general recommendations of good oral hygiene including teeth brushing, daily antiseptic mouthwash and twice a year scaling; and (ii) control group: no intervention. The primary end point was the delta DAS28-ESR. RESULTS: Four hundred and seventy-two patients were randomized (238 in intervention and 234 in control). 92/238 from the intervention group accepted the procedure and 81 had a first visit to the dentist. 56% of patients had periodontal disease at baseline. Duration of RA was 9.0±0.7 years. Baseline DAS28-ESR was 2.7±1.3. After a median duration of 24 months, delta DAS28-ESR was -0.17±1.29 and -0.09±1.28 in intervention and control groups, respectively (mean difference (complier average causal effect): -0.37 (95% CI -1.12, 0.37), P = 0.33). In the intervention group, there was a significant decrease of the bacteria involved in the red complex: Porphyromonas gingivalis (P = 0.002), Tannerella forsythia (P = 0.002) and Treponema denticola (P = 0.019). The patients with baseline periodontal disease and those who became negative for one red complex bacterium had a slightly more important decrease of DAS28-ESR. CONCLUSION: Oral hygiene instruction together with regular scaling and polishing of the teeth significantly decreased the load of periodontal pathogens but did not decrease RA activity. This intervention should be tested in patients with earlier RA and more active disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, http://clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01831648.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Higiene Bucal/efeitos adversos , Doenças Periodontais/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/microbiologia , Feminino , França , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Papel (figurativo) , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais
17.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 68(2): 411-416, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479533

RESUMO

The oral cavity is exposed to the external environment and from a very young age is colonized by infectious agents. Under certain circumstances including poor oral hygiene, dry mouth, trauma, and the use of antibiotics, oral infections can occur. They can result in damage to the oral cavity including teeth and their support structures. Oral infections can also lead to the extension of infection into surrounding tissues and to systemic infections. Chronic oral infection is a recognized risk factor for heart disease. Older adults are at high risk for oral infections and associated complications. Tooth loss, for which infection is the most significant cause, leads to cosmetic changes and a decreased ability to masticate certain foods that can lead to malnutrition. Chronic oral infections and the manipulation of teeth and supporting structures can lead to the hematogenous spread of infection including the infection of artificial joints and endocardial implants. Good oral hygiene, the use of fluoride, regular dental care, and the appropriate use of antibiotics can all reduce oral infections and their associated complications. J Am Geriatr Soc 68:411-416, 2020.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/prevenção & controle , Odontologia Geriátrica/métodos , Saúde Bucal/normas , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Idoso , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Cárie Dentária/complicações , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Complicações do Diabetes/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Doenças Periodontais/complicações , Doenças Periodontais/prevenção & controle
18.
Aust Crit Care ; 33(1): 62-64, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327659

RESUMO

Oral care for intubated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) is known to reduce bacterial colonization in oropharyngeal cavities decrease development of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) and the associated costs of managing this complication (1-4). Provision of oral hygiene by nurses is a fundamental aspect of care in the ICU (5). However, such a basic nursing activity can be devalued or rendered invisible by nurses when there is a greater emphasis on managing and maintaining biotechnology and/or a failure to underpin practice with research evidence that demonstrates the importance of fundamental care (5). A Canadian study by Dale and colleagues (6) to explore clinicians' knowledge of, and experiences with, delivering oral care in intubated patients is a timely reminder that the complexity of performing oral care in the ICU should not be underestimated or undervalued.


Assuntos
Enfermagem de Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/prevenção & controle , Antropologia Cultural , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Intubação Intratraqueal , Masculino , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital
19.
J Clin Nurs ; 29(11-12): 1920-1932, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342565

RESUMO

AIM: To explore descriptors of difficulty accessing the mouths of intubated and mechanically ventilated adults for oral care, consequences, modifiable antecedents and recommendations for improving care delivery. BACKGROUND: Nurses report oral access and care delivery difficulty in most mechanically ventilated patients. DESIGN: A prospective qualitative descriptive design. METHODS: Data were collected using video and photographic elicitation interviews focused on delivery of oral care. Directed content analysis was used to explore descriptive categories. Reporting used the SRQR guidelines. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A university-affiliated hospital in Toronto, Canada. Participants included clinicians experienced in accessing the oral space of adults representing nursing, medicine, dentistry and allied health professionals. FINDINGS: We recruited 18 participants; 9 representing critical care and 9 other specialties frequently accessing the mouth, that is dentistry. Descriptors for observed difficulty accessing the oral cavity were "oral crowding with tubes" and "aversive patient responses", which were considered to result in insufficient oral care. Participants perceived aversive patient responses (e.g. biting, turning head side to side, gagging, coughing) as a consequence of forced introduction of instruments inside a crowded mouth. A key finding identified by participants was the observation of substantial procedural pain during oral care interventions. Potentially modifiable antecedents to difficult oral care delivery identified were procedural pain, oral health deterioration (e.g. xerostomia) and lack of interprofessional team problem-solving. Recommendations to address these antecedents included patient preparation for oral care through verbal and nonverbal cueing, pharmacological and nonpharmacological strategies, and ICU interprofessional education. CONCLUSIONS: Oral care in mechanically ventilated adults is complex and painful. Visual research methods offer important advantages for oral care exploration including its ability to reveal less visible aspects of the nurse-patient encounter, thereby enabling novel insights and care. RELEVANCE FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE: Interprofessional education and training in oral health and care interventions tailored to mechanically ventilated patients are recommended.


Assuntos
Boca , Higiene Bucal/educação , Respiração Artificial/enfermagem , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Dor Processual/prevenção & controle , Fotografação , Estudos Prospectivos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Gravação em Vídeo
20.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(2): 661-670, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123869

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the association between adherence to dental treatment and (1) oral complications and (2) clinical and sociodemographic aspects of pediatric and adolescent patients with cancer. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study with a sample of 147 children and adolescents who underwent cancer treatment of solid tumors or lymphomas was carried out. The patients were divided into three groups according to previously established criteria. Sociodemographic aspects and oncological, dental, and oral complications were analyzed. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 6.7 ± 6.09 years; 57.1% were males and 42.9% were females. Of the 147 patients, 37.41% had full adherence, 33.3% had partial adherence, and 29.3% had non-adherence to the proposed dental treatment. A statistically significant association between oral complications and adherence to dental treatment (p = 0.006) could be observed. The presence of caries lesions at the initial oral examination presented a statistically significant association with adherence to dental treatment (p = 0.004). Children with caries lesions at the initial dental examination had an 88% higher risk of developing oral complications compared with those without caries (RR = 1.88, 95% CI 1.01-3.49). After adjustments for age and the presence of caries lesions at the initial examination, adherence to dental treatment remained the only independent risk factor for oral complications (adjusted RR = 2.56, 95% CI 1.17-5.57). CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated that non-adherence to dental treatment was associated with higher incidence of oral complications and it is a risk factor for these complications. The presence of caries lesions at the initial oral examination was associated with non-adherence to dental treatment.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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