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1.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 27(4): 261-267, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154276

RESUMO

COVID-19, a highly infectious disease, caused by a novel virus, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has brought about an unprecedented threat to global health. First reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, it has now spread to all continents of the world becoming a pandemic. There is no known treatment or vaccine for it although many candidate drugs and vaccines are in various clinical trial phases. For now, non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs) have become the mainstay of response for COVID-19 and are being used across the world to flatten the epidemiologic curve with some success. This review focussed on identifying which NPIs have been effective. NPIs that are effective include isolation and quarantine, physical distancing, use of face masks and hand hygiene. These measures are best used in combination and simultaneously. The evidence is that they should be instituted early in the pandemic and for sustained periods. They should also be implemented in the context of the cultural and socioeconomic conditions of the populace. Ineffective NPIs include ultraviolet irradiation and spraying of outdoor spaces and individuals. We recommend that decision makers weigh the evidence carefully, as it applies to the local setting to inform public health decisions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Higiene das Mãos , Humanos , Máscaras , Nigéria , Pandemias , Quarentena , Isolamento Social
2.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(42): e380, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140592

RESUMO

There were two rallies of medical students and trainee doctors, where 9,000 participants gathered. We performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based universal screening for the participants using pooling at a tertiary care hospital. Around 609 (94%) of 646 participants underwent PCR tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; all of them tested negative. Our data suggested low transmission rates in open air mass gatherings when appropriate personal protective practices were followed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Higiene das Mãos , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Máscaras , Programas de Rastreamento , Pandemias , Médicos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Isolamento Social , Estudantes de Medicina , Centros de Atenção Terciária
3.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 73(suppl 2): e20200487, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reflect and propose adaptations to the Multimodal Hand Hygiene Strategy for field hospitals, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: Reflective study, carried out in April 2020, based on the recommendations of the World Health Organization and the guide for the implementation of the five components of the Multimodal Strategy: system change related to infrastructure; training/education; evaluation and feedback; reminders in the workplace; and institutional security climate. RESULTS: The Multimodal Strategy, proposed for hospitals in general, can be adapted for field hospitals in order to reduce the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Investments to adapt the infrastructure and education of workers require foresight and speed and are of special relevance to promote hand hygiene in this care context. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: Adjusting the Multimodal Strategy, especially for the reduced time in the execution of each component, is necessary for field hospitals with a view to preventing COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Unidades Móveis de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Guias como Assunto , Higiene das Mãos/organização & administração , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Organização Mundial da Saúde
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(41): 1485-1491, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056951

RESUMO

Frequent hand hygiene, including handwashing with soap and water or using a hand sanitizer containing ≥60% alcohol when soap and water are not readily available, is one of several critical prevention measures recommended to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).* Previous studies identified demographic factors associated with handwashing among U.S. adults during the COVID-19 pandemic (1,2); however, demographic factors associated with hand sanitizing and experiences and beliefs associated with hand hygiene have not been well characterized. To evaluate these factors, an Internet-based survey was conducted among U.S. adults aged ≥18 years during June 24-30, 2020. Overall, 85.2% of respondents reported always or often engaging in hand hygiene following contact with high-touch public surfaces such as shopping carts, gas pumps, and automatic teller machines (ATMs).† Respondents who were male (versus female) and of younger age reported lower handwashing and hand sanitizing rates, as did respondents who reported lower concern about their own infection with SARS-CoV-2§ and respondents without personal experience with COVID-19. Focused health promotion efforts to increase hand hygiene adherence should include increasing visibility and accessibility of handwashing and hand sanitizing materials in public settings, along with targeted communication to males and younger adults with focused messages that address COVID-19 risk perception.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Higiene das Mãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 761, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Device-associated health care-associated infections (DA-HAIs) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients constitute a major therapeutic issue complicating the regular hospitalisation process and having influence on patients' condition, length of hospitalisation, mortality and therapy cost. METHODS: The study involved all patients treated > 48 h at ICU of the Medical University Teaching Hospital (Poland) from 1.01.2015 to 31.12.2017. The study showed the surveillance and prevention of DA-HAIs on International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) Surveillance Online System (ISOS) 3 online platform according to methodology of the INICC multidimensional approach (IMA). RESULTS: During study period 252 HAIs were found in 1353 (549F/804M) patients and 14,700 patient-days of hospitalisation. The crude infections rate and incidence density of DA-HAIs was 18.69% and 17.49 ± 2.56 /1000 patient-days. Incidence density of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLA-BSI) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CA-UTI) per 1000 device-days were 12.63 ± 1.49, 1.83 ± 0.65 and 6.5 ± 1.2, respectively. VAP(137) constituted 54.4% of HAIs, whereas CA-UTI(91) 36%, CLA-BSI(24) 9.6%.The most common pathogens in VAP and CA-UTI was multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii (57 and 31%), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) in CLA-BSI (45%). MDR Gram negative bacteria (GNB) 159 were responsible for 63.09% of HAIs. The length of hospitalisation of patients with a single DA-HAI at ICU was 21(14-33) days, while without infections it was 6.0 (3-11) days; p = 0.0001. The mortality rates in the hospital-acquired infection group and no infection group were 26.1% vs 26.9%; p = 0.838; OR 0.9633;95% CI (0.6733-1.3782). Extra cost of therapy caused by one ICU acquired HAI was US$ 11,475/Euro 10,035. Hand hygiene standards compliance rate was 64.7%, while VAP, CLA-BSI bundles compliance ranges were 96.2-76.8 and 29-100, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: DA-HAIs was diagnosed at nearly 1/5 of patients. They were more frequent than in European Centre Disease Control report (except for CLA-BSI), more frequent than the USA CDC report, yet less frequent than in limited-resource countries (except for CA-UTI). They prolonged the hospitalisation period at ICU and generated substantial additional costs of treatment with no influence on mortality. The Acinetobacter baumannii MDR infections were the most problematic therapeutic issue. DA-HAIs preventive methods compliance rate needs improvement.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/epidemiologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/genética , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Hospitais Universitários/economia , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/economia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Infecções por Acinetobacter/economia , Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Acinetobacter/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/economia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Feminino , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/economia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/microbiologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/prevenção & controle , Polônia/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/economia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Urinárias/economia , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle
6.
Anesth Analg ; 131(5): 1342-1354, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079853

RESUMO

Many health care systems around the world continue to struggle with large numbers of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, while others have diminishing numbers of cases following an initial surge. There will most likely be significant oscillations in numbers of cases for the foreseeable future, based on the regional epidemiology of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Less affected hospitals and facilities will attempt to progressively resume elective procedures and surgery. Ramping up elective care in hospitals that deliberately curtailed elective care to focus on SARS-CoV-2-infected patients will present unique and serious challenges. Among the challenges will be protecting patients and providers from recurrent outbreaks of disease while increasing procedure throughput. Anesthesia providers will inevitably be exposed to SARS-CoV-2 by patients who have not been diagnosed with infection. This is particularly concerning in consideration that aerosols produced during airway management may be infective. In this article, we recommend an approach to routine anesthesia care in the setting of persistent but variable prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We make specific recommendations for personal protective equipment and for the conduct of anesthesia procedures and workflow based on evidence and expert opinion. We propose practical, relatively inexpensive precautions that can be applied to all patients undergoing anesthesia. Because the SARS-CoV-2 virus is spread primarily by respiratory droplets and aerosols, effective masking of anesthesia providers is of paramount importance. Hospitals should follow the recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for universal masking of all providers and patients within their facilities. Anesthesia providers should perform anesthetic care in respirator masks (such as N-95 and FFP-2) whenever possible, even when the SARS-CoV-2 test status of patients is negative. Attempting to screen patients for infection with SARS-CoV-2, while valuable, is not a substitute for respiratory protection of providers, as false-negative tests are possible and infected persons can be asymptomatic or presymptomatic. Provision of adequate supplies of respirator masks and other respiratory protection equipment such as powered air purifying respirators (PAPRs) should be a high priority for health care facilities and for government agencies. Eye protection is also necessary because of the possibility of infection from virus coming into contact with the conjunctiva. Because SARS-CoV-2 persists on surfaces and may cause infection by contact with fomites, hand hygiene and surface cleaning are also of paramount importance.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Exposição por Inalação/prevenção & controle , Intubação Intratraqueal , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Aerossóis , Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos de Proteção dos Olhos , Higiene das Mãos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Segurança do Paciente , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores de Proteção , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Vestimenta Cirúrgica
7.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e040910, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033099

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate psychological and behavioural responses to COVID-19 among the Chinese general population. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a population-based mobile phone survey between 1 February and 10 February 2020 via random digit dialling. A total of 1011 adult residents in Wuhan (n=510), the epicentre and quarantined city, and Shanghai (n=501) were interviewed. Proportional quota sampling and poststratification weighting were used. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigate perception factors associated with the public responses. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured anxiety levels using the 7-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and asked respondents to report their precautionary behaviours before and during the outbreak. RESULTS: The prevalence of moderate or severe anxiety was significantly higher (p<0.001) in Wuhan (32.8%) than Shanghai (20.5%). Around 79.6%-88.2% residents reported always wearing a face mask when they went out and washing hands immediately when they returned home, with no discernible difference across cities. Only 35.5%-37.0% of residents reported a handwashing duration above 40 s as recommended by the WHO. The strongest predictor of moderate or severe anxiety was perceived harm of the disease (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.5 to 2.1), followed by confusion about information reliability (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.5 to 1.9). None of the examined perception factors were associated with odds of handwashing duration above 40 s. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of moderate or severe anxiety and strict personal precautionary behaviours was generally high, regardless of the quarantine status. Our results support efforts for handwashing education programmes with a focus on hygiene procedures in China and timely dissemination of reliable information.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Surtos de Doenças , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Higiene das Mãos , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Appl Behav Anal ; 53(4): 1935-1954, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063854

RESUMO

The coronavirus pandemic highlighted that workplaces may serve as a hub of disease transmission if proper precautions are not enacted. The Centers for Disease Control recommends several strategies for decreasing the spread of illnesses in the workplace, including a) promoting proper hand hygiene, b) cleaning and sanitizing the work area, c) encouraging sick employees to stay home, d) personal protective equipment, and, e) social distancing. Research suggests that instructions are often not sufficient to change work behaviors, and behavioral interventions may be needed. Thus, the present paper reviews existing research that informs the implementation of behavioral strategies to reduce the spread of disease in the workplace, and makes recommendations for organizations to protect employees, clients, and customers. Intervention components such as training, prompts, the reduction of response effort, clear workplace policies, feedback, and consequences are discussed, and practical recommendations and suggestions for future research are provided.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Local de Trabalho , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Desinfecção/métodos , Higiene das Mãos , Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Licença Médica , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração
9.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 58(229): 690-695, 2020 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068093

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 infection is caused by a new strain of SARS CoV-2 virus, which transmits directly from person-to-person and has become a pandemic. To counteract this, actions related to mass quarantines or stay-at-home orders have been used termed as lockdown. This study aims to study lifestyle, behaviour, perception and practice of people regarding during the lockdown. METHODS: An online survey was conducted with structured questionnaire in Google forms after ethical approval from Nepal Health Research Council (Ref-2631). The attributes of knowledge, attitude and practices were explored using multiple-choice questions and results were statistically analysed using Microsoft excel. RESULTS: Five hundred fifty-five respondents completed the survey with 280 (50.5%) males and 275 (49.5%) female. The knowledge regarding viral pandemic was increased in 496 (89.3%) respondents. 424 (76.4%) people developed stress due to pandemic. Three hundred fifty three (63.6%) were adversely affected by professional works or suffered economic loss in business. More than 42% participants are using their time for study in personal development, online classes etc. Conclusions: The knowledge of viral pandemic as well as personal hygiene habits have improved in majority of people but many also developed stress. They were convinced that lockdown lowered transmission of infection which in turn affected lifestyle behaviour and practices. Practicing social distancing becomes too difficult for the poor in the absence of proper social security system and government support. E-Learning has become more acceptable due to lockdown. Further studies with in-person interviews are warranted.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Status Econômico , Educação a Distância , Emprego , Feminino , Luvas Protetoras , Higiene das Mãos , Higienizadores de Mão , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Máscaras , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal , Quarentena , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 799, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common healthcare infections. Common strategies aiming at controlling CDI include antibiotic stewardship, environmental decontamination, and improved hand hygiene and contact precautions. Mathematical models provide a framework to evaluate control strategies. Our objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of control strategies in decreasing C. difficile colonization and infection using an agent-based model in an acute healthcare setting. METHODS: We developed an agent-based model that simulates the transmission of C. difficile in medical wards. This model explicitly incorporates healthcare workers (HCWs) as vectors of transmission, tracks individual patient antibiotic histories, incorporates varying risk levels of antibiotics with respect to CDI susceptibility, and tracks contamination levels of ward rooms by C. difficile. Interventions include two forms of antimicrobial stewardship, increased environmental decontamination through room cleaning, improved HCW compliance, and a preliminary assessment of vaccination. RESULTS: Increased HCW compliance with CDI patients was ranked as the most effective intervention in decreasing colonizations, with reductions up to 56%. Antibiotic stewardship practices were highly ranked after contact precaution compliance. Vaccination and reduction of high-risk antibiotics were the most effective intervention in decreasing CDI. Vaccination reduced CDI cases to up to 90%, and the reduction of high-risk antibiotics decreased CDI cases up to 23%. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, interventions that decrease patient susceptibility to colonization by C. difficile, such as antibiotic stewardship, were the most effective interventions in reducing both colonizations and CDI cases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Clostridium/transmissão , Clostridium difficile/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Análise de Sistemas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Infecções por Clostridium/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Clostridium difficile/imunologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Higiene das Mãos , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Vacinação
12.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 73(suppl 2): e20200239, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965398

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to identify scientific evidence on the effectiveness of using cloth masks as safe protectors against COVID-19. METHOD: an integrative review of articles available in full obtained at PubMed, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Controlled, non-controlled descriptors and keywords such as "mask", "home-made" and "cloth" or "cotton" and "infection control" or "infection prevention" were used. RESULTS: thirty-eight articles were selected; of these, seven studies made up the sample. Evidence shows that cloth masks do not have the same protective characteristics as surgical masks, indicating an increased risk of infection due to humidity, diffusion of fluids, virus retention, and improper preparation. Considering the shortage of surgical masks during the pandemic, cloth masks could be proposed as a last resort. CONCLUSION: cloth masks should be used together with preventive measures, such as home insulation, good respiratory conduct, and regular hand hygiene.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Têxteis/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Higiene das Mãos , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
13.
Br J Nurs ; 29(17): 1003-1006, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972218

RESUMO

The significance of hand hygiene for preventing the transmission of microorganisms and reducing the spread of infection has been brought into sharp focus following the global coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. In the months since the initial outbreak, international public health campaigns and practitioner education has concentrated on hand washing and hand sanitising, with very little reference to hand drying, if any at all. However, hand drying is integral to effective hand hygiene, and is important in controlling the spread of microorganisms and maintaining healthy skin integrity. This research commentary will focus on two issues of importance with regards to hand drying: microbial transmission and skin irritation, with implications for healthcare practitioners and practice considered. It is argued that a more holistic approach to hand hygiene must be the ambition if health professional and public behaviour is to become embedded and sustained.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Mãos/virologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele
14.
Work ; 66(4): 713-716, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The primary response to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has been to minimize social contact through lockdown measures. The closure of non-essential businesses to tackle the spread of the coronavirus has had negative consequences for the global economy, production, and employment. OBJECTIVE: To outline how known occupational health principles can be used for preventative management of the coronavirus in workplaces to support resumption of work. METHODS: A discussion of current knowledge of COVID-19, the cost of the lockdown strategy, and preventative biological cycle management. RESULTS: The evidence-based literature indicates that biological cycle management can control the risk of coronavirus infection, provide a suitable and sufficient exit strategy from lockdown, and support getting employees back to work. Adherence to personal protective equipment standards has been insufficient, indicating a need for workplace investment and education. CONCLUSION: Imposed restrictions on workplace operations can be lifted without compromising worker health and safety when a workplace commits to practicing the three principles of biological cycle management.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/normas , Retorno ao Trabalho , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Guias como Assunto , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Quarentena/organização & administração , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Work ; 66(4): 717-729, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a highly contagious acute respiratory syndrome and has been declared a pandemic in more than 209 countries worldwide. At the time of writing, no preventive vaccine has been developed and tested in the community. This study was conducted to review studies aimed at preventing the spread of the coronavirus worldwide. METHODS: This study was a review of the evidence-based literature and was conducted by searching databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect, until April 2020. The search was performed based on keywords including "coronavirus", "COVID-19", and "prevention". The list of references in the final studies has also been re-reviewed to find articles that might not have been obtained through the search. The guidelines published by trustworthy organizations such as the World Health Organization and Center for Disease Control have been used in this study. CONCLUSION: So far, no vaccine or definitive treatment for COVID-19 has been invented, and the disease has become a pandemic. Therefore, observation of hand hygiene, disinfection of high-touch surfaces, observation of social distance, and lack of presence in public places are recommended as preventive measures. Moreover, to control the situation and to reduce the incidence of the virus, some of the measures taken by the decision-making bodies and the guidelines of the deterrent institutions to strengthen telecommuting of employees and reduce the presence of people in the community and prevent unnecessary activities, are very important.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Guias como Assunto , Controle de Infecções/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Tomada de Decisões Gerenciais , Desinfecção/organização & administração , Desinfecção/normas , Higiene das Mãos/organização & administração , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Humanos , Incidência , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Distância Social , Telecomunicações/organização & administração , Telecomunicações/normas , Local de Trabalho/normas
16.
Work ; 66(4): 767-775, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevention is the best way to manage a pandemic like COVID-19. The World Health Organization has issued public advice to create awareness by providing people knowledge to prevent/protect them from COVID-19. Hence, the present study was planned to assess knowledge of prevention and its practical use amongst samples from the Saudi Arabian population. It can be used to bring awareness among the masses not only in expanding their knowledge about COVID-19 but also on how to enforce a practicing behavior in relation to the prevention of COVID-19. The study is among the pioneer studies on the issue related to knowledge and practice of the prevention of COVID-19 among Saudis and foreign nationals residing in Saudi Arabia. OBJECTIVE: The prime objective of this study is to examine the existence of knowledge among the Saudi and non-Saudi nationals about COVID-19 and its impact on their behavior to practice the protocols to prevent the disastrous infection of COVID-19. This study has also examined how the residents in Saudi Arabia react to the methods and protection measures adopted by the government for their dominions to eradicate the spread of COVID-19. METHODS: The study used a survey-based methodology and data was collected from Saudi nationals as well as expatriates living and working in five different regions of Saudi Arabia. Non-probability snowball sampling was used to reach and select the population of the current study. A self-designed, structured, and validated questionnaire was electronically distributed among the respondents. SPSS version 21 was used to analyze the data of the current study. RESULTS: Out of the 443 respondents, 356 respondents (84%) knew they had to wash their hands for 20 seconds and did this as well, 303 respondents (75%) knew that sneezing or coughing into the arm/elbow can prevent the spread of COVID-19 and were doing this as well, 357 respondents (82%) knew that COVID-19 can be transferred by shaking hands and avoided this, 333 respondents (79%) knew that they had to maintain a safe distance of at least one meter and kept this distance, 315 respondents (76%) knew that touching one's face can transfer the virus and avoid this, and 414 respondents (95%) knew that staying at home can decrease the chances of getting infected. The relationship between different regions and most of the knowledge-based and practice-based questions was significant (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Results reveal that there is a significant relationship between knowledge and practice, but the strength of association is weak. It was found that knowledge and practice of COVID-19 was followed differently in the five regions of Saudi Arabia and the level of education of the respondents influenced their choice of practice to protect themselves from the effects of COVID-19. The study has contributed in the body of literature by examining the inter-relationship between knowledge and practice and their use in prevention of COVID-19 among the Saudi population.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Controle de Infecções/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Higiene das Mãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Distância Social , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
17.
S Afr Med J ; 110(6): 478-483, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880558

RESUMO

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, numerous countries worldwide declared national states of emergency and implemented interventions to minimise the risk of transmission among the public. Evidence was needed to inform strategies for limiting COVID-19 transmission on public transport. On 20 March 2020, we searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, Web of Science and the World Health Organization's database of 'Global research on coronavirus disease (COVID-19)' to conduct a rapid review on interventions that reduce viral transmission on public ground transport. After screening 74 records, we identified 4 eligible studies. These studies suggest an increased risk of viral transmission with public transportation use that may be reduced with improved ventilation. International and national guidelines suggest the following strategies: keep the public informed, stay at home when sick, and minimise public transport use. Where use is unavoidable, environmental control, respiratory etiquette and hand hygiene are recommended, while a risk-based approach needs to guide the use of non-medical masks.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Saúde Pública , Transportes , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Higiene das Mãos , Humanos , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/transmissão , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Ventilação
18.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 38(2): 139-143, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883925

RESUMO

COVID-19 as a pandemic has spanned across all continents. With the increasing numbers in cases worldwide, even the countries with the best of healthcare facilities are reeling under the burden of the disease. Therefore, in countries with limited access to resources and poor healthcare infrastructure, the low and middle-income countries (LMICs), limiting spread becomes even more challenging. Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are severely hit by any outbreak and pandemics and face the lack of infrastructure and problem of overcrowding. Health facilities are compromised and almost exhausted at the time of emergency. There is disruption of normal supply chain, and consumables are not in sufficient quantity. In the current situation, rationalized use of available supplies is important. This paper presents the perspective on the basis of current literature on gaps in various infection prevention and control (IPC) strategies that are being followed currently in LMICs and suggestions for bridging these gaps.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Higiene das Mãos/organização & administração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Países em Desenvolvimento , Desinfecção/métodos , Instalações de Saúde/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
19.
J. Health NPEPS ; 5(2)set. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1120029

RESUMO

Objetivo: verificar a persistência do SARS-CoV-2 nas diferentes superfícies e medidas preventivas contra a transmissão do vírus. Método: revisão sistemática norteada pelo método PRISMA. Foram utilizadas as bases de buscas PubMed e LILACS de janeiro a junho de 2020, com os descritores: "2019-nCOV" OR "SARS-CoV-2" OR "COVID-19" AND "transmission" OR "transmission route" AND "viability" AND "surface" OR "inanimate surface" AND "prevention". As informações extraídas foram autor/ano, país, tipo de publicação, nome da revista, idioma, país da publicação e base de dados. Resultados: foram identificadas 178 publicações, com exclusão de 164 artigos, nove por idioma, 12 por outras doenças e/ou patógenos e 143 pelo título e/ou resumo. Foram incluídos 14 artigos qualitativos, oito artigos de revisões narrativas, uma comunicação breve, dois artigos originais e um editorial. Treze artigos foram publicados em inglês e um em português. Conclusão: coronavírus humanos (HCoV 229E) podem se manter em diferentes superfícies durante duas horas até nove dias. Baixas temperaturas e reduzida umidade relativa do ar favorecem a sobrevivência do SARS-CoV-2, sendo mais estável em plásticos e aço inoxidável do que em cobre e papelão. A recomendação é higienização de superfícies e mãos com água, sabão ou higienizadores à base de álcool.(AU)


Objective: to verify the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 on different types of surfaces and the preventive measures against the transmission of the virus. Method: a systematic review was carried out, using the PRISMA method. The PubMed and LILACS databases from January to June 2020 were used, with the following descriptors: "2019-nCOV" OR "SARS-CoV-2" OR "COVID-19" AND "transmission" OR "transmission route" AND "viability" AND "surface" OR "inanimate surface" AND "prevention". Information extracted was author/year, country, type of publication, journal name, language, country of publication and database. Results: 178 publications were identified. 164 articles were excluded, nine by language, 12 by other diseases and/or pathogens and 143 by title and/or abstract. 14 qualitative articles were included, eight articles of narrative reviews, one short communication, two original articles and one editorial. Thirteen articles were published in English and one in Portuguese. Conclusion: human coronaviruses (HCoV 229E) can persist on different surfaces for two hours up to nine days. Low temperatures and low relative humidity of the air favor the survival of SARS-CoV-2, which is more stable on plastics and on stainless steel than on copper and cardboard. The recommendation is frequent surface and hand hygiene with water, soap or alcohol-based rubs.(AU)


Objetivo: verificar la persistencia del SARS-CoV-2 en diferentes superficies y las medidas preventivas contra la transmisión del virus. Método: se realizó una revisión sistemática, utilizando el método PRISMA. Se utilizaron las bases de datos de búsqueda de PubMed y LILACS de enero a junio de 2020, con los descriptores: "2019-nCOV" O "SARS-CoV-2" O "COVID-19" Y "transmisión" O "ruta de transmisión" Y "viabilidad" Y "superficie" O "superficie inanimada" Y "prevención". Las informaciones extraídas fueron autor / año, país, tipo de publicación, nombre de la revista, idioma, país de publicación y base de datos. Resultados: se identificaron 178 publicaciones. Se excluyeron 164 artículos, nueve por idioma, 12 por otras enfermedades y/o patógenos y 143 por título y/o resumen, incluidos 14 artículos cualitativos, ocho artículos de revisiones narrativas, una comunicación breve, dos artículos originales y uno editorial. Se publicaron trece artículos en inglés y uno en portugués. Conclusión: los coronavirus humanos (HCoV 229E) pueden matenerse en diferentes superficies durante dos horas hasta nueve días. Las bajas temperaturas y la reducida humedad relativa del aire favorecen la supervivencia del SARS-CoV-2, siendo más estable en plásticos y acero inoxidable que en cobre y carton. La recomendación es limpiar superficies y manos con agua, jabón o limpiadores a base de alcohol.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Prevenção de Doenças , Viabilidade Microbiana , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Higiene das Mãos
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239234, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931509

RESUMO

Effective and culturally appropriate hand-hygiene education is essential to promote health-related practices to control and prevent diseases such as Diarrhoea, Ebola and COVID-19. In this paper we outline and evaluate the Co-Creation processes underpinning a handwashing intervention for young children (A Germ's Journey) developed and delivered in India, Sierra Leone and the UK, and consider the implications surrounding Imperialist/Colonial discourse and the White Saviour Complex. The paper focuses both on the ways Co-Creation was conceptualised by our collaborators in all three countries and the catalysts and challenges encountered. Qualitative data have been drawn from in-depth interviews with five key stakeholders, focus group data from 37 teachers in Sierra Leone and responses to open-ended questionnaires completed by teachers in India (N = 66) and UK (N = 63). Data were analysed using thematic analysis and three themes, each with three constituent subthemes are presented. In the theme 'Representations of and Unique Approaches to Co-Creation' we explore the ways in which Co-Creation was constructed in relation to teamwork, innovative practice and more continuous models of evaluation. In 'Advantages of Co-Creation' we consider issues around shared ownership, improved outcomes and more meaningful insights alongside the mitigation of risks and short-circuiting of problems. In 'Challenges of Co-Creation' we discuss issues around timing and organisation, attracting and working with appropriate partners and understanding the importance of local context with inherent social, economic and structural barriers, especially in low-and-middle-income countries. We consider how theoretical elements of Co-Creation can inform effective international public health interventions; crucial during a global pandemic in which handwashing is the most effective method to control the transmission of COVID-19. Finally we reflect on some of the methodological challenges of our own work and in managing the potentially conflicting goals of the ethical and participatory values of Co-Creation with pragmatic considerations about ensuring an effective final 'product'.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Higiene das Mãos , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Doenças Transmissíveis/patologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Índia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Serra Leoa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
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