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1.
J Bras Nefrol ; 42(2 suppl 1): 12-14, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877492

RESUMO

Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease are among those individuals at increased risk for developing more serious forms of Covid-19. This increased risk starts in the pre-dialysis phase of the disease. Providing useful information for these patients, in language that facilitates the understanding of the disease, can help nephrologists and other healthcare professionals to establish a more effective communication with these patients and help minimize contagion and the risks of serious illness in this population.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/normas , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Atividades Cotidianas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Instalações de Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Nefrologia/normas , Espaço Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal , Fatores de Risco , Avaliação de Sintomas
2.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e21257, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is an important health crisis worldwide. Several strategies were implemented to combat COVID-19, including wearing masks, hand hygiene, and social distancing. The impact of these strategies on COVID-19 and other viral infections remains largely unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aim to investigate the impact of implemented infectious control strategies on the incidences of influenza, enterovirus infection, and all-cause pneumonia during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We utilized the electronic database of the Taiwan National Infectious Disease Statistics System and extracted incidences of COVID-19, influenza virus, enterovirus, and all-cause pneumonia. We compared the incidences of these diseases from week 45 of 2016 to week 21 of 2020 and performed linear regression analyses. RESULTS: The first case of COVID-19 in Taiwan was reported in late January 2020 (week 4). Infectious control strategies have been promoted since late January. The influenza virus usually peaks in winter and decreases around week 14. However, a significant decrease in influenza was observed after week 6 of 2020. Regression analyses produced the following results: 2017, R2=0.037; 2018, R2=0.021; 2019, R2=0.046; and 2020, R2=0.599. A dramatic decrease in all-cause pneumonia was also reported (R2 values for 2017-2020 were 0.435, 0.098, 0.352, and 0.82, respectively). Enterovirus had increased by week 18 in 2017-2019, but this was not observed in 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Using this national epidemiological database, we found a significant decrease in cases of influenza, enterovirus, and all-cause pneumonia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Wearing masks, hand hygiene, and social distancing may contribute not only to the prevention of COVID-19 but also to the decline of other respiratory infectious diseases. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the causal relationship.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Enterovirus/prevenção & controle , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/tendências , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distância Social
3.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008756, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853280

RESUMO

This Pearl article recounts the story of a US corporation, Lennar, the nation's leading homebuilder, an essential function in the US (not allowed to lock down), when faced with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic at the end of February 2020. The culture of the company, which allowed it to proceed safely, is one of cohesion, trust, teamwork, and respect for fellow humans. Theirs is a culture in which the safety, wellness, and health of the associates (employees) and the communities they serve is the number one priority. All associates wear a name badge with first name only, and all name badges share the same family name, Lennar. At Lennar, individual success means nothing, and collective success means everything. This is the story of how Lennar took control of the COVID-19 pandemic, metamorphosed itself into an even stronger organization, better suited to deal with COVID-19, and more importantly, optimally suited for the 21st century. The lessons learned not only were instrumental to Lennar but could also apply to any company eager to reopen their business.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Cultura Organizacional , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Corporações Profissionais , Betacoronavirus , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Distância Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
s.l; s.n; jul. 2020.
Não convencional em Português | LILACS, Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-1102877

RESUMO

Este documento visa orientar os gestores das organizações privadas quanto à prevenção e acompanhamento das condições de saúde de seus colaboradores, visando prevenir a disseminação da Covid-19 nos ambientes de trabalho. Neste protocolo são apresentadas diretrizes para a realização de ações de prevenção, triagem, testagem, conduta e comunicação de casos suspeitos. As ações de acompanhamento das condições de saúde por parte das organizações privadas devem estar vinculadas às diretrizes e recomendações do Sistema Público de Vigilância em Saúde.


Assuntos
Humanos , Nível de Saúde , Triagem/normas , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Protocolos/métodos , Isolamento Social , Ventilação/métodos , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Higiene das Mãos/métodos
7.
Am J Infect Control ; 48(9): 1074-1079, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher requirement is put forward in the measurement of hand hygiene (HH) during a pandemic. This study aimed to describe HH compliance measurement and explore observed influencing factors with respect to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) guidelines in China. METHODS: Compliance was measured as the percentage of compliant opportunities based on criteria for 17 moments. The criteria for compliance included HH behavior, procedure, duration, hand drying method, and the overall that counts them all. The observed influencing factors included different departments and areas and protection motivation. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were performed. RESULTS: The compliance of overall criteria, HH behavior, procedure, duration, and hand drying method were 79.44%, 96.71%, 95.74%, 88.93%, and 88.42%, respectively, which were significantly different from each other (P < .001). Meanwhile, the overall and hand drying method compliance in semi-contaminated areas (odds ratio [OR] = 1.829, P < .001; OR = 2.149, P = .001) and hygienic areas (OR = 1.689, P = .004; OR = 1.959, P = .015) were significantly higher than those in contaminated area. The compliance with HH behavior for the motivation of patient-protection (OR = 0.362, P < .001) was lower than that for the motivation of self-protection. CONCLUSIONS: HH compliance was firstly measured using different criteria for 17 moments according to COVID-19 guidelines in China. The measurement of HH compliance needs clearer definition and comprehensive practice. Contaminated areas and motivation of patient-protection contribute to lower compliance, which may be addressed by allocating more human resources and increasing supervision and education.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Hospitais/normas , Controle de Infecções/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Am J Infect Control ; 48(9): 1062-1067, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32565272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The emergence of the novel virus, SARS-CoV-2, has posed unprecedented challenges to public health around the world. Currently, strategies to deal with COVID-19 are purely supportive and preventative, aimed at reducing transmission. An effective and simple method for reducing transmission of infections in public or healthcare settings is hand hygiene. Unfortunately, little is known regarding the efficacy of hand sanitizers against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: In this review, an extensive literature search was performed to succinctly summarize the primary active ingredients and mechanisms of action of hand sanitizers, compare the effectiveness and compliance of gel and foam sanitizers, and predict whether alcohol and non-alcohol hand sanitizers would be effective against SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Most alcohol-based hand sanitizers are effective at inactivating enveloped viruses, including coronaviruses. With what is currently known in the literature, one may not confidently suggest one mode of hand sanitizing delivery over the other. When hand washing with soap and water is unavailable, a sufficient volume of sanitizer is necessary to ensure complete hand coverage, and compliance is critical for appropriate hand hygiene. CONCLUSIONS: By extrapolating effectiveness of hand sanitizers on viruses of similar structure to SARS-CoV-2, this virus should be effectively inactivated with current hand hygiene products, though future research should attempt to determine this directly.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Higienizadores de Mão/análise , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Etanol/análise , Humanos , Sabões/análise
10.
Int J Pharm ; 584: 119431, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-277012

RESUMO

The world is facing a medical crisis amid the CoViD-19 pandemic and the role of adequate hygiene and hand sanitisers is inevitable in controlling the spread of infection in public places and healthcare institutions. There has been a great surge in demand for hand sanitisation products leading to shortages in their supply. A consequent increase of substandard products in the market has raised safety concerns. This article, therefore, presents a critical review of hand sanitation approaches and products available on the market in light of the scientific evidence available to date. This review also provides a range of hand sanitisation product formulations, and manufacturing instructions to allow for extemporaneous preparations at the community and hospital pharmacies during this urgent crisis. In addition, this emergent situation is expected to continue, hence hand sanitisers will be in demand for an extended time, and the availability and purchase of substandard products on the market create an ongoing safety concern. Therefore, this article shall also provide various commercial organisations, interested in stepping forward the production and marketing of hand sanitisers, with a guide on the development of products of standardised ingredients and formulations.


Assuntos
Álcoois/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Humanos
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(9): 2064-2068, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459621

RESUMO

As a result of the coronavirus disease pandemic, commercial hand hygiene products have become scarce and World Health Organization (WHO) alcohol-based hand rub formulations containing ethanol or isopropanol are being produced for hospitals worldwide. Neither WHO formulation meets European Norm 12791, the basis for approval as a surgical hand preparation, nor satisfies European Norm 1500, the basis for approval as a hygienic hand rub. We evaluated the efficacy of modified formulations with alcohol concentrations in mass instead of volume percentage and glycerol concentrations of 0.5% instead of 1.45%. Both modified formulations met standard requirements for a 3-minute surgical hand preparation, the usual duration of surgical hand treatment in most hospitals in Europe. Contrary to the originally proposed WHO hand rub formulations, both modified formulations are appropriate for surgical hand preparation after 3 minutes when alcohol concentrations of 80% wt/wt ethanol or 75% wt/wt isopropanol along with reduced glycerol concentration (0.5%) are used.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Higienizadores de Mão/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , 2-Propanol/análise , Etanol/análise , Europa (Continente) , Mãos/microbiologia , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Higienizadores de Mão/análise , Humanos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
12.
Int J Pharm ; 584: 119431, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461194

RESUMO

The world is facing a medical crisis amid the CoViD-19 pandemic and the role of adequate hygiene and hand sanitisers is inevitable in controlling the spread of infection in public places and healthcare institutions. There has been a great surge in demand for hand sanitisation products leading to shortages in their supply. A consequent increase of substandard products in the market has raised safety concerns. This article, therefore, presents a critical review of hand sanitation approaches and products available on the market in light of the scientific evidence available to date. This review also provides a range of hand sanitisation product formulations, and manufacturing instructions to allow for extemporaneous preparations at the community and hospital pharmacies during this urgent crisis. In addition, this emergent situation is expected to continue, hence hand sanitisers will be in demand for an extended time, and the availability and purchase of substandard products on the market create an ongoing safety concern. Therefore, this article shall also provide various commercial organisations, interested in stepping forward the production and marketing of hand sanitisers, with a guide on the development of products of standardised ingredients and formulations.


Assuntos
Álcoois/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Humanos
15.
Guatemala; MSPAS, Unidad de Gestión de Riesgos; 03 abr 2020. 12 p. ilus.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1096349

RESUMO

Detalla el procedimiento para homogenizar el equipo de protección personal (EPP) que se recomienda utilizar en las acciones relacionadas con la obtención de muestras a analizar para detectar la presencia del virus, así como establecer las especificaciones y características que deben llenar los diferentes elementos a emplear, priorizando la seguridad del personal de salud involucrado.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Infecções/normas , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Guatemala
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD012566, 2020 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Illness-related absenteeism is an important problem among preschool and school children for low-, middle- and high- income countries. Appropriate hand hygiene is one commonly investigated and implemented strategy to reduce the spread of illness and subsequently the number of days spent absent. Most hand hygiene strategies involve washing hands with soap and water, however this is associated with a number of factors that act as a barrier to its use, such as requiring running water, and the need to dry hands after cleaning. An alternative method involves washing hands using rinse-free hand wash. This technique has a number of benefits over traditional hand hygiene strategies and may prove to be beneficial in reducing illness-related absenteeism in preschool and school children. OBJECTIVES: 1. To assess the effectiveness of rinse-free hand washing for reducing absenteeism due to illness in preschool and school children compared to no hand washing, conventional hand washing with soap and water or other hand hygiene strategies. 2. To determine which rinse-free hand washing products are the most effective (if head-to-head comparisons exist), and what effect additional strategies in combination with rinse-free hand washing have on the outcomes of interest. SEARCH METHODS: In February 2020 we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, 12 other databases and three clinical trial registries. We also reviewed the reference lists of included studies and made direct contact with lead authors of studies to collect additional information as required. No date or language restrictions were applied. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), irrespective of publication status, comparing rinse-free hand wash in any form (hand rub, hand sanitizer, gel, foam etc.) with conventional hand washing using soap and water, other hand hygiene programs (such as education alone), or no intervention. The population of interest was children aged between two and 18 years attending preschool (childcare, day care, kindergarten, etc.) or school (primary, secondary, elementary, etc.). Primary outcomes included child or student absenteeism for any reason, absenteeism due to any illness and adverse skin reactions. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Following standard Cochrane methods, two review authors (out of ZM, CT, CL, CS, TB), independently selected studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted relevant data. Absences were extracted as the number of student days absent out of total days. This was sometimes reported with the raw numbers and other times as an incidence rate ratio (IRR), which we also extracted. For adverse event data, we calculated effect sizes as risk ratios (RRs) and present these with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane for data analysis and followed the GRADE approach to establish certainty in the findings. MAIN RESULTS: This review includes 19 studies with 30,747 participants. Most studies were conducted in the USA (eight studies), two were conducted in Spain, and one each in China, Colombia, Finland, France, Kenya, Bangladesh, New Zealand, Sweden, and Thailand. Six studies were conducted in preschools or day-care centres (children aged from birth to < five years), with the remaining 13 conducted in elementary or primary schools (children aged five to 14 years). The included studies were judged to be at high risk of bias in several domains, most-notably across the domains of performance and detection bias due to the difficulty to blind those delivering the intervention or those assessing the outcome. Additionally, every outcome of interest was graded as low or very low certainty of evidence, primarily due to high risk of bias, as well as imprecision of the effect estimates and inconsistency between pooled data. For the outcome of absenteeism for any reason, the pooled estimate for rinse-free hand washing was an IRR of 0.91 (95% CI 0.82 to 1.01; 2 studies; very low-certainty evidence), which indicates there may be little to no difference between groups. For absenteeism for any illness, the pooled IRR was 0.82 (95% CI 0.69 to 0.97; 6 studies; very low-certainty evidence), which indicates that rinse-free hand washing may reduce absenteeism (13 days absent per 1000) compared to those in the 'no rinse-free' group (16 days absent per 1000). For the outcome of absenteeism for acute respiratory illness, the pooled IRR was 0.79 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.92; 6 studies; very low-certainty evidence), which indicates that rinse-free hand washing may reduce absenteeism (33 days absent per 1000) compared to those in the 'no rinse-free' group (42 days absent per 1000). When evaluating absenteeism for acute gastrointestinal illness, the pooled estimate found an IRR of 0.79 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.85; 4 studies; low-certainty evidence), which indicates rinse-free hand washing may reduce absenteeism (six days absent per 1000) compared to those in the 'no rinse-free' group (eight days absent per 1000). There may be little to no difference between rinse-free hand washing and 'no rinse-free' group regarding adverse skin reactions with a RR of 1.03 (95% CI 0.8 to 1.32; 3 studies, 4365 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Broadly, compliance with the intervention appeared to range from moderate to high compliance (9 studies, 10,749 participants; very-low certainty evidence); narrativley, no authors reported substantial issues with compliance. Overall, most studies that included data on perception reported that teachers and students perceived rinse-free hand wash positively and were willing to continue its use (3 studies, 1229 participants; very-low certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this review may have identified a small yet potentially beneficial effect of rinse-free hand washing regimes on illness-related absenteeism. However, the certainty of the evidence that contributed to this conclusion was low or very low according to the GRADE approach and is therefore uncertain. Further research is required at all levels of schooling to evaluate rinse-free hand washing regimens in order to provide more conclusive, higher-certainty evidence regarding its impact. When considering the use of a rinse-free hand washing program in a local setting, there needs to be consideration of the current rates of illness-related absenteeism and whether the small beneficial effects seen here will translate into a meaningful reduction across their settings.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Medicina Preventiva/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD013597, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Handwashing is important to reduce the spread and transmission of infectious disease. Ash, the residue from stoves and fires, is a material used for cleaning hands in settings where soap is not widely available. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of hand cleaning with ash compared with hand cleaning using soap or other materials for reducing the spread of viral and bacterial infections. SEARCH METHODS: On 26 March 2020 we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, WHO Global Index Medicus, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all types of studies, in any population, that examined hand cleaning with ash compared to hand cleaning with any other material. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened titles and full texts, and one review author extracted outcome data and assessed risk of bias, which another review author double-checked. We used the ROBINS-I tool for observational studies, we used RoB 2.0 for three interventional studies, and we used GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence. We planned to synthesise data with random-effects meta-analyses. Our prespecified outcome measures were overall mortality, number of cases of infections (as defined in the individual studies), severity of infectious disease, harms (as reported in the individual studies), and adherence. MAIN RESULTS: We included 14 studies described in 19 records using eight different study designs, but only one randomised trial. The studies were primarily conducted in rural settings in low- and lower-middle-income countries. Six studies reported outcome data relevant to our review. A retrospective case-control study and a cohort study assessed diarrhoea in children under the age of five years and self-reported reproductive tract symptoms in women, respectively. It was very uncertain whether the rate of hospital contacts for moderate-to-severe diarrhoea in children differed between households that cleaned hands using ash compared with households cleaning hands using soap (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.11; very low-certainty evidence). Similarly, it was very uncertain whether the rate of women experiencing symptoms of reproductive tract infection differed between women cleaning hands with ash compared with cleaning hands using soap (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.12 to 1.86; very low-certainty evidence) or when compared with handwashing with water only or not washing hands (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.96; very low-certainty evidence). Four studies reported on bacteriological counts after hand wash. We rated all four studies at high risk of bias, and we did not synthesise data due to methodological heterogeneity and unclear outcome reporting. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on the available evidence, the benefits and harms of hand cleaning with ash compared with soap or other materials for reducing the spread of viral or bacterial infections are uncertain.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Material Particulado/uso terapêutico , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Culinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Fogo , Mãos/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Infecções do Sistema Genital/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Sabões , Viroses/epidemiologia
18.
Health Psychol ; 39(6): 471-481, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hospital visitors pose a risk for transmitting pathogens that can cause health care-associated infections. The present study aimed to test an evidence-based intervention to improve visitors' hand hygiene behavior through persuasive messages. METHOD: For the 14-week-long field experiment, 7 signs were designed according to the principles of persuasion proposed by Cialdini: reciprocity, consistency, social-proof, unity, liking, authority, and scarcity. Each sign was displayed on a screen for 1 week directly above the hand-rub dispenser in a hospital lobby. After each 1-week posting, the screen was blank for 1 week. RESULTS: An electronic monitoring system counted 246,098 people entering and leaving the hospital's lobby and 17,308 dispenser usages. The signs based on the authority and the social-proof principles significantly increased the hand-rub dispenser usage rate in comparison to the average baseline usage rate. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that simple and cost-efficient interventions can initiate expedient behavior change in hospitals. However, the findings also highlight the importance of careful planning and rigorous pretesting of material for an intervention to be effective. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Comunicação Persuasiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Visitas a Pacientes
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 90: 197-200, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene (HH) is crucial to prevent healthcare-associated infections and the spread of multidrug-resistant organisms. The monitoring of HH compliance may be affected by observer expertise. A sufficient duration of HH is necessary to remove microorganisms. The aim of this study was to measure compliance with both the World Health Organization (WHO) checklist and optimal HH as reported by unit-based observers and infection control nurses (ICN). METHODS: Optimal HH was defined as adhering to the exact duration and following a six-step procedure. The disparity in compliance with the WHO checklist and optimal HH was analyzed among each profession, unit, and indication, covering a period of 3 years. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference in WHO checklist compliance (94.4% vs. 87.0%, p<0.01) and optimal HH rate (86.3% vs. 42.4%, p<0.01) between unit-based observers and ICN. The optimal HH rate was especially lower for doctors (30.1%), in the intensive care units (39.4%), and before clean and aseptic procedures (37.0%) as observed by ICN. CONCLUSIONS: Although the overall WHO checklist HH rate was reported to be higher than 90%, optimal HH was only half this rate. More education and awareness of the significance of HH, as well as adherence to the optimal HH procedures, are needed to prevent hospital-acquired infections.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Lista de Checagem , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
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