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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 27, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777295

RESUMO

Introduction: long-distance truck drivers have been identified as a high-risk group for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection. Thus, the aim of this scoping review is to map out the existing evidence on the impact of long-distance truck drivers on the spread of COVID-19 and measures that countries can implement to mitigate this route of spread in the African region. Methods: we searched the PubMed database and the website of the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020 for eligible studies. Results: the search strategy identified 669 citations, of which six met the inclusion criteria. The most frequently reported interventions were maintaining hand hygiene, social distance, testing truck drivers, regulation of trade and transport e.g. only trucks with the food, medical supplies, fuels, agricultural supplies will be allowed to operate in interstate operations and regulating and controlling trucks carrying essential goods and services e.g. truck drivers are required to declare their final destination and are urged to stop only at designated points. Two studies from the African region reported about border closures and entry and exit screening, two studies from the US reported about the threat for public safety and risks and mitigation plans and 2 guidelines reported about harmonisation and facilitation of cross border in the context of the COVID-19 outbreak. Conclusion: this review highlights the countries response to mitigate the impact of the pandemic by implementing measures to facilitate safe cross-border trade and adopting regional harmonization of trucking regulations.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional , África/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Humanos , Veículos Automotores , Saúde do Trabalhador , Fatores de Risco
2.
J Hosp Infect ; 111: 27-34, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33716086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has affected healthcare workers (HCWs) in their clinical practice. HCWs were challenged with new guidelines and practices to protect themselves from occupational risks. AIM: To determine whether hand hygiene behaviour by real-time measurement was related to the dynamic of the epidemic, and the type of patient being cared for in France. METHODS: This study used an automated hand hygiene recording system to measure HCW hand hygiene on entry to and exit from patient rooms throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. The correlation between hand hygiene compliance and COVID-19 epidemiological data was analysed. Analysis of variance was performed to compare compliance rate during the different periods of the epidemic. FINDINGS: HCW hand hygiene rate on room entry decreased over time; on room exit, it increased by 13.73% during the first wave of COVID-19, decreased by 9.87% during the post-lockdown period, then rebounded by 2.82% during the second wave of the epidemic. Hand hygiene during patient care and hand hygiene on room exit had a positive relationship with the local COVID-19 epidemic; conversely, hand hygiene on room entry did not depend on the trend of the epidemic, nor on nursing of COVID-19 patients, and it decreased over time. CONCLUSION: HCWs modified their behaviours to face the risk propensity of the pandemic. However, to improve the poor compliance at room entry, reducing confusion between the hand hygiene recommendation and glove recommendation may be necessary; disinfection of gloving hands might solve this issue.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene das Mãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , França , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Pandemias
3.
J Hosp Infect ; 111: 6-26, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is general consensus that hand hygiene is the most effective way to prevent healthcare-associated infections. However, low rates of compliance amongst healthcare workers have been reported globally. The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has further emphasized the need for global improvement in hand hygiene compliance by healthcare workers. AIM: This comprehensive systematic review provides an up-to-date compilation of clinical trials, reported between 2014 and 2020, assessing hand hygiene interventions in order to inform healthcare leaders and practitioners regarding approaches to reduce healthcare-associated infections using hand hygiene. METHODS: CINAHL, Cochrane, EMbase, Medline, PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for clinical trials published between March 2014 and December 2020 on the topic of hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers. In total, 332 papers were identified from these searches, of which 57 studies met the inclusion criteria. FINDINGS: Forty-five of the 57 studies (79%) included in this review were conducted in Asia, Europe and the USA. The large majority of these clinical trials were conducted in acute care facilities, including hospital wards and intensive care facilities. Nurses represented the largest group of healthcare workers studied (44 studies, 77%), followed by physicians (41 studies, 72%). Thirty-six studies (63%) adopted the World Health Organization's multi-modal framework or a variation of this framework, and many of them recorded hand hygiene opportunities at each of the 'Five Moments'. However, recording of hand hygiene technique was not common. CONCLUSION: Both single intervention and multi-modal hand hygiene strategies can achieve modest-to-moderate improvements in hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/tendências , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Higiene das Mãos/tendências , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Feminino , Previsões , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene das Mãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 234, 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goals of the National Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) of Japan include "implementing appropriate infection prevention and control" and "appropriate use of antimicrobials," which are relevant to healthcare facilities. Specifically, linking efforts between existing infection control teams and antimicrobial stewardship programs was suggested to be important. Previous studies reported that human resources, such as full-time equivalents of infection control practitioners, were related to improvements in antimicrobial stewardship. METHODS: We posted questionnaires to all teaching hospitals (n = 1017) regarding hospital countermeasures against AMR and infections. To evaluate changes over time, surveys were conducted twice (1st survey: Nov 2016, 2nd survey: Feb 2018). A latent transition analysis (LTA) was performed to identify latent statuses, which refer to underlying subgroups of hospitals, and effects of the number of members in infection control teams per bed on being in the better statuses. RESULTS: The number of valid responses was 678 (response rate, 66.7%) for the 1st survey and 559 (55.0%) for the 2nd survey. More than 99% of participating hospitals had infection control teams, with differences in activity among hospitals. Roughly 70% had their own intervention criteria for antibiotics therapies, whereas only about 60 and 50% had criteria established for the use of anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus antibiotics and broad-spectrum antibiotics, respectively. Only 50 and 40% of hospitals conducted surveillance of catheter-associated urinary tract infections and ventilator-associated pneumonia, respectively. Less than 50% of hospitals used maximal barrier precautions for central line catheter insertion. The LTA identified five latent statuses. The membership probability of the most favorable status in the 2nd study period was slightly increased from the 1st study period (23.6 to 25.3%). However, the increase in the least favorable status was higher (26.3 to 31.8%). Results of the LTA did not support a relationship between increasing the number of infection control practitioners per bed, which is reportedly related to improvements in antimicrobial stewardship, and being in more favorable latent statuses. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest the need for more comprehensive antimicrobial stewardship programs and increased surveillance activities for healthcare-associated infections to improve antimicrobial stewardship and infection control in hospitals.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/métodos , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Hospitais de Ensino , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/normas , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Higiene das Mãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hospitais de Ensino/normas , Hospitais de Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Japão/epidemiologia , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/prevenção & controle , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Int J Dermatol ; 60(3): 327-331, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral illness caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 which spreads via droplets from an infected person. There has been an unprecedented rise in the use of personal protective equipment and practice of personal hygiene measures against COVID-19. The extended use of protective measures (PM) can lead to ill effects on the skin. Our aim was to investigate PM-induced dermatoses amongst healthcare workers and the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 2 months. The study subjects were patients who presented to dermatology outpatient clinics or sought teleconsultation for skin problems related to the use of PMs against COVID-19. A detailed history was obtained and cutaneous examination was documented for all the patients in a pre-set proforma. Diagnoses of the adverse skin effects were formulated based upon history and clinical examination. RESULTS: A total of 101 cases with cutaneous adverse effects due to the use of PMs against COVID-19 were included in the study. The general population and healthcare workers were affected similarly, comprising of 54.5% and 45.5%, respectively. The mean age of the study participants was 36.71 ± 15.72 years. The most common culprit material was soap and water (56.4%). Contact dermatitis was found to be the most common adverse effect in the majority of our patients (72.3%). The most common symptom reported was pruritus (45.5%). The wearing of personal protective equipment for a longer duration was significantly associated with multiple symptoms (P = 0.026). CONCLUSION: The enhanced use of different PMs against COVID-19 can result in a variety of adverse skin effects. In our study, the use of soap and water was the most common culprit PM, and contact dermatitis was the most common adverse effect noted.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Dermatite de Contato/epidemiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/efeitos adversos , Adulto , /transmissão , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/instrumentação , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Estudos Transversais , Dermatite de Contato/etiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia , Feminino , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Sabões/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 761, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Device-associated health care-associated infections (DA-HAIs) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients constitute a major therapeutic issue complicating the regular hospitalisation process and having influence on patients' condition, length of hospitalisation, mortality and therapy cost. METHODS: The study involved all patients treated > 48 h at ICU of the Medical University Teaching Hospital (Poland) from 1.01.2015 to 31.12.2017. The study showed the surveillance and prevention of DA-HAIs on International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) Surveillance Online System (ISOS) 3 online platform according to methodology of the INICC multidimensional approach (IMA). RESULTS: During study period 252 HAIs were found in 1353 (549F/804M) patients and 14,700 patient-days of hospitalisation. The crude infections rate and incidence density of DA-HAIs was 18.69% and 17.49 ± 2.56 /1000 patient-days. Incidence density of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLA-BSI) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CA-UTI) per 1000 device-days were 12.63 ± 1.49, 1.83 ± 0.65 and 6.5 ± 1.2, respectively. VAP(137) constituted 54.4% of HAIs, whereas CA-UTI(91) 36%, CLA-BSI(24) 9.6%.The most common pathogens in VAP and CA-UTI was multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii (57 and 31%), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) in CLA-BSI (45%). MDR Gram negative bacteria (GNB) 159 were responsible for 63.09% of HAIs. The length of hospitalisation of patients with a single DA-HAI at ICU was 21(14-33) days, while without infections it was 6.0 (3-11) days; p = 0.0001. The mortality rates in the hospital-acquired infection group and no infection group were 26.1% vs 26.9%; p = 0.838; OR 0.9633;95% CI (0.6733-1.3782). Extra cost of therapy caused by one ICU acquired HAI was US$ 11,475/Euro 10,035. Hand hygiene standards compliance rate was 64.7%, while VAP, CLA-BSI bundles compliance ranges were 96.2-76.8 and 29-100, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: DA-HAIs was diagnosed at nearly 1/5 of patients. They were more frequent than in European Centre Disease Control report (except for CLA-BSI), more frequent than the USA CDC report, yet less frequent than in limited-resource countries (except for CA-UTI). They prolonged the hospitalisation period at ICU and generated substantial additional costs of treatment with no influence on mortality. The Acinetobacter baumannii MDR infections were the most problematic therapeutic issue. DA-HAIs preventive methods compliance rate needs improvement.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/epidemiologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/genética , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Hospitais Universitários/economia , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/economia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Infecções por Acinetobacter/economia , Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Acinetobacter/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/economia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Feminino , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/economia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/microbiologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/prevenção & controle , Polônia/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/economia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Urinárias/economia , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle
8.
Int J Dermatol ; 59(12): 1437-1449, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107038

RESUMO

Numerous unexplained pneumonia cases were reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) by Wuhan, China, in December 2020. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), a zoonotic pathogen, came into sight, spreading coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) all over the globe. Association of cutaneous signs and symptoms with COVID-19 is being studied worldwide, principally, to determine if these dermatoses can help in early recognition of SARS-CoV-2 infection. These dermatological manifestations can range from erythematous rash, urticaria to livedo reticularis, and acrocyanosis in patients of all age groups. Correspondingly, dermatologists treating COVID-19 patients, suffering from inflammatory dermatoses, with biologics or immunomodulators should exert caution and use specific protocols to adjust the doses of these medications. Prevention of person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 is being promoted universally, with the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), hand washes, and hand sanitizers around the clock. However, an array of cutaneous adverse effects such as contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, friction blisters, contact urticaria, acne, and infections are associated with the use of PPE. Extra-pulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 are still emerging in the community, and physicians and researchers are working together globally to strengthen the clinical management of these patients. Cases of COVID-19 continue to rise across the world, and an unprecedented approach has been taken to develop effective vaccines and therapeutic strategies against existing and forthcoming mutagenic strains of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dermatite de Contato/epidemiologia , Dermatologia/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/instrumentação , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dermatite de Contato/diagnóstico , Dermatite de Contato/etiologia , Dermatologia/normas , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/efeitos adversos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/virologia
10.
Br J Nurs ; 29(17): 1003-1006, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972218

RESUMO

The significance of hand hygiene for preventing the transmission of microorganisms and reducing the spread of infection has been brought into sharp focus following the global coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. In the months since the initial outbreak, international public health campaigns and practitioner education has concentrated on hand washing and hand sanitising, with very little reference to hand drying, if any at all. However, hand drying is integral to effective hand hygiene, and is important in controlling the spread of microorganisms and maintaining healthy skin integrity. This research commentary will focus on two issues of importance with regards to hand drying: microbial transmission and skin irritation, with implications for healthcare practitioners and practice considered. It is argued that a more holistic approach to hand hygiene must be the ambition if health professional and public behaviour is to become embedded and sustained.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Mãos/virologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele
11.
Work ; 66(4): 713-716, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The primary response to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has been to minimize social contact through lockdown measures. The closure of non-essential businesses to tackle the spread of the coronavirus has had negative consequences for the global economy, production, and employment. OBJECTIVE: To outline how known occupational health principles can be used for preventative management of the coronavirus in workplaces to support resumption of work. METHODS: A discussion of current knowledge of COVID-19, the cost of the lockdown strategy, and preventative biological cycle management. RESULTS: The evidence-based literature indicates that biological cycle management can control the risk of coronavirus infection, provide a suitable and sufficient exit strategy from lockdown, and support getting employees back to work. Adherence to personal protective equipment standards has been insufficient, indicating a need for workplace investment and education. CONCLUSION: Imposed restrictions on workplace operations can be lifted without compromising worker health and safety when a workplace commits to practicing the three principles of biological cycle management.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/normas , Retorno ao Trabalho , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Guias como Assunto , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Quarentena/organização & administração , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Work ; 66(4): 717-729, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a highly contagious acute respiratory syndrome and has been declared a pandemic in more than 209 countries worldwide. At the time of writing, no preventive vaccine has been developed and tested in the community. This study was conducted to review studies aimed at preventing the spread of the coronavirus worldwide. METHODS: This study was a review of the evidence-based literature and was conducted by searching databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect, until April 2020. The search was performed based on keywords including "coronavirus", "COVID-19", and "prevention". The list of references in the final studies has also been re-reviewed to find articles that might not have been obtained through the search. The guidelines published by trustworthy organizations such as the World Health Organization and Center for Disease Control have been used in this study. CONCLUSION: So far, no vaccine or definitive treatment for COVID-19 has been invented, and the disease has become a pandemic. Therefore, observation of hand hygiene, disinfection of high-touch surfaces, observation of social distance, and lack of presence in public places are recommended as preventive measures. Moreover, to control the situation and to reduce the incidence of the virus, some of the measures taken by the decision-making bodies and the guidelines of the deterrent institutions to strengthen telecommuting of employees and reduce the presence of people in the community and prevent unnecessary activities, are very important.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Guias como Assunto , Controle de Infecções/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Tomada de Decisões Gerenciais , Desinfecção/organização & administração , Desinfecção/normas , Higiene das Mãos/organização & administração , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Humanos , Incidência , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Telecomunicações/organização & administração , Telecomunicações/normas , Local de Trabalho/normas
13.
Work ; 66(4): 767-775, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevention is the best way to manage a pandemic like COVID-19. The World Health Organization has issued public advice to create awareness by providing people knowledge to prevent/protect them from COVID-19. Hence, the present study was planned to assess knowledge of prevention and its practical use amongst samples from the Saudi Arabian population. It can be used to bring awareness among the masses not only in expanding their knowledge about COVID-19 but also on how to enforce a practicing behavior in relation to the prevention of COVID-19. The study is among the pioneer studies on the issue related to knowledge and practice of the prevention of COVID-19 among Saudis and foreign nationals residing in Saudi Arabia. OBJECTIVE: The prime objective of this study is to examine the existence of knowledge among the Saudi and non-Saudi nationals about COVID-19 and its impact on their behavior to practice the protocols to prevent the disastrous infection of COVID-19. This study has also examined how the residents in Saudi Arabia react to the methods and protection measures adopted by the government for their dominions to eradicate the spread of COVID-19. METHODS: The study used a survey-based methodology and data was collected from Saudi nationals as well as expatriates living and working in five different regions of Saudi Arabia. Non-probability snowball sampling was used to reach and select the population of the current study. A self-designed, structured, and validated questionnaire was electronically distributed among the respondents. SPSS version 21 was used to analyze the data of the current study. RESULTS: Out of the 443 respondents, 356 respondents (84%) knew they had to wash their hands for 20 seconds and did this as well, 303 respondents (75%) knew that sneezing or coughing into the arm/elbow can prevent the spread of COVID-19 and were doing this as well, 357 respondents (82%) knew that COVID-19 can be transferred by shaking hands and avoided this, 333 respondents (79%) knew that they had to maintain a safe distance of at least one meter and kept this distance, 315 respondents (76%) knew that touching one's face can transfer the virus and avoid this, and 414 respondents (95%) knew that staying at home can decrease the chances of getting infected. The relationship between different regions and most of the knowledge-based and practice-based questions was significant (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Results reveal that there is a significant relationship between knowledge and practice, but the strength of association is weak. It was found that knowledge and practice of COVID-19 was followed differently in the five regions of Saudi Arabia and the level of education of the respondents influenced their choice of practice to protect themselves from the effects of COVID-19. The study has contributed in the body of literature by examining the inter-relationship between knowledge and practice and their use in prevention of COVID-19 among the Saudi population.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Controle de Infecções/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Higiene das Mãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Bras Nefrol ; 42(2 suppl 1): 12-14, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877492

RESUMO

Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease are among those individuals at increased risk for developing more serious forms of Covid-19. This increased risk starts in the pre-dialysis phase of the disease. Providing useful information for these patients, in language that facilitates the understanding of the disease, can help nephrologists and other healthcare professionals to establish a more effective communication with these patients and help minimize contagion and the risks of serious illness in this population.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/normas , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Atividades Cotidianas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Instalações de Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Nefrologia/normas , Espaço Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal , Fatores de Risco , Avaliação de Sintomas
15.
Br J Dermatol ; 182(6): e195, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745237

RESUMO

Since cases first emerged in December 2019, COVID-19 (a type of coronavirus) has rapidly become pandemic. This fast-tracked paper (published quickly) from China on COVID-19 is written by dermatologists at the epicentre of the outbreak in Wuhan. Dermatology clinic staff may be at risk because protective equipment is not routinely available, and skin lesions might possibly transmit the virus indirectly. These authors suggest preventive measures based on experience in this and previous coronavirus outbreaks. Online consultation for non-urgent patients reduces the numbers of patients attending clinics. Nurse-led triage, to identify patients with possible COVID-19, at the entrances of hospital and skin clinics directs patients with a cough or fever to a specific COVID-19 area and a dermatologist is consulted if the fever might be related to skin disease. Clinic staff wear N95 masks and observe hand hygiene during consultations. Patients are admitted to a ward only if routine blood tests and chest CT scans exclude COVID-19. Triage will not detect patients who are showing no symptoms but who are developing the disease, so the hospital should provide an on-call expert team to discuss inpatients suspected or diagnosed with COVID-19 and refer them to radiology, respiratory or intensive care colleagues as required. Confirmed cases are managed following local policies. Skin disorders in COVID-19 inpatients can usually be managed remotely using photographs, email and teleconferencing. If necessary a multidisciplinary team (a team of medical staff from different specialties) can meet in the clean area of the isolation ward. If the dermatologist must see the patient, all records should be provided in advance to minimise exposure time. With these precautions, as of 20th February 2020 no infected patients were detected in the Wuhan Dermatology Department. This is a summary of the study: Emergency management for preventing and controlling nosocomial infection of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for the dermatology department.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dermatologia/normas , Emergências , Controle de Infecções/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Hospitais/normas , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/instrumentação , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Encaminhamento e Consulta/normas , Triagem/normas
16.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 73 Suppl 2: e20200467, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667573

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to identify with the literature the measures to prevent and control neonatal infection by COVID-19. METHODS: a scope review carried out by searching for studies in databases and institutional health websites. The final sample was 25 articles. RESULTS: among the main measures are the use of masks by suspected or infected people in contact with healthy newborns, hand hygiene before and after each care and feeding as well as the tools used for milking. It is indispensable to use personal protective equipment by health professionals in neonatology services to maintain a private room for infected newborns or to use physical barriers. Early diagnosis and timely case management is essential to reduce virus transmissibility. CONCLUSIONS: the research contributed to elucidate health and nursing actions in preventing and controlling neonatal infection by COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Enfermagem Neonatal/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Higiene das Mãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 83(6): 1730-1737, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707253

RESUMO

The recent COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in increased hand hygiene and hand cleansing awareness. To prevent virus transmission, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends frequent hand washing with soap and water. Hand hygiene products are available in a variety of forms, and while each of these formulations may be effective against COVID-19, they may also alter skin barrier integrity and function. As health care workers and the general population focus on stringent hand hygiene, the American Contact Dermatitis Society anticipates an increase in both irritant contact and allergic contact hand dermatitis. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers with moisturizers have the least sensitizing and irritancy potential when compared to soaps and synthetic detergents. This article provides an overview of the most frequently used hand hygiene products and their associations with contact dermatitis as well as recommendations from the American Contact Dermatitis Society on how to treat and prevent further dermatitis.


Assuntos
Dermatite de Contato/prevenção & controle , Dermatite Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Dermatoses da Mão/prevenção & controle , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Dermatite de Contato/etiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia , Dermatoses da Mão/induzido quimicamente , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Irritantes/administração & dosagem , Irritantes/efeitos adversos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sabões/efeitos adversos , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Estados Unidos
18.
Am J Infect Control ; 48(9): 1074-1079, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher requirement is put forward in the measurement of hand hygiene (HH) during a pandemic. This study aimed to describe HH compliance measurement and explore observed influencing factors with respect to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) guidelines in China. METHODS: Compliance was measured as the percentage of compliant opportunities based on criteria for 17 moments. The criteria for compliance included HH behavior, procedure, duration, hand drying method, and the overall that counts them all. The observed influencing factors included different departments and areas and protection motivation. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were performed. RESULTS: The compliance of overall criteria, HH behavior, procedure, duration, and hand drying method were 79.44%, 96.71%, 95.74%, 88.93%, and 88.42%, respectively, which were significantly different from each other (P < .001). Meanwhile, the overall and hand drying method compliance in semi-contaminated areas (odds ratio [OR] = 1.829, P < .001; OR = 2.149, P = .001) and hygienic areas (OR = 1.689, P = .004; OR = 1.959, P = .015) were significantly higher than those in contaminated area. The compliance with HH behavior for the motivation of patient-protection (OR = 0.362, P < .001) was lower than that for the motivation of self-protection. CONCLUSIONS: HH compliance was firstly measured using different criteria for 17 moments according to COVID-19 guidelines in China. The measurement of HH compliance needs clearer definition and comprehensive practice. Contaminated areas and motivation of patient-protection contribute to lower compliance, which may be addressed by allocating more human resources and increasing supervision and education.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Hospitais/normas , Controle de Infecções/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Enferm Clin ; 30(6): 360-370, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571661

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the factors related to the situation of SARS-CoV-2 transmission identified by health professionals in Spain and to propose prevention strategies. METHOD: Cross-sectional descriptive study. The population were healthcare professionals working in institutions caring for COVID-19 patients and also confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection. A questionnaire with sociodemographic, occupational and epidemiological variables was used. Descriptive and bivariate analysis was performed according to the nature of the variables. RESULTS: A total of 2.230 questionnaires were analysed on a potential population of 41,239 (5.47%). The diagnosis was made based on a suspicious case (63.4%) and a probable case (12.3%). A study of contacts was carried out at 50.3%. The perception about the availability of protective measures as «always/frequently¼ were: FPP1 mask 57.3%, gloves 89.5%, soap 95% and hydroalcoholic solution 91.5%. In PPE, FPP2, FPP3 mask, goggles and disposable gowns at around 50%. The availability of protective measures, by field of work, presented significant differences. The average number of patients attended related to the performance of hand hygiene at moment4 and the perception of performing it correctly at moments4 and5. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary data are presented, with variability in the response rate by Autonomous Region. Healthcare professionals infected by SARS-CoV-2 identified the management of the chain of infection transmission, the use and adequacy of protective equipment, as well as the effectiveness of handwashing as factors related to the transmission of the virus among professionals.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pessoal de Saúde , Doenças Profissionais/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adulto , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/classificação , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
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