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1.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244873, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have highlighted the negative impact of COVID-19 and its particular effects on vulnerable sub-populations. Complementing this work, here, we report on the social patterning of self-reported positive changes experienced during COVID-19 national lockdown in Scotland. METHODS: The CATALYST study collected data from 3342 adults in Scotland during weeks 9-12 of a national lockdown. Using a cross-sectional design, participants completed an online questionnaire providing data on key sociodemographic and health variables, and completed a measure of positive change. The positive change measure spanned diverse domains (e.g., more quality time with family, developing new hobbies, more physical activity, and better quality of sleep). We used univariate analysis and stepwise regression to examine the contribution of a range of sociodemographic factors (e.g., age, gender, ethnicity, educational attainment, and employment status) in explaining positive change. RESULTS: There were clear sociodemographic differences across positive change scores. Those reporting higher levels of positive change were female, from younger age groups, married or living with their partner, employed, and in better health. CONCLUSION: Overall our results highlight the social patterning of positive changes during lockdown in Scotland. These findings begin to illuminate the complexity of the unanticipated effects of national lockdown and will be used to support future intervention development work sharing lessons learned from lockdown to increase positive health change amongst those who may benefit.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , /prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escócia/epidemiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Higiene do Sono , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375691

RESUMO

Post-exercise recovery is a broad term that refers to the restoration of training capacity. After training or competition, there is fatigue accumulation and a reduction in sports performance. In the hours and days following training, the body recovers and performance is expected to return to normal or improve. ScienceDirect, PubMed/MEDLINE, and Google Scholar databases were reviewed to identify studies and position declarations examining the relationship between nutrition and sports recovery. As an evidence-based framework, a 4R's approach to optimizing post-exercise recovery was identified: (i) Rehydration-a fundamental process that will depend on the athlete, environment and sports event; (ii) Refuel-the consumption of carbohydrates is not only important to replenish the glycogen reserves but also to contribute to the energy requirements for the immune system and tissue reparation. Several bioengineered carbohydrates were discussed but further research is needed; (iii) Repair-post-exercise ingestion of high-quality protein and creatine monohydrate benefit the tissue growth and repair; and (iv) Rest-pre-sleep nutrition has a restorative effect that facilitates the recovery of the musculoskeletal, endocrine, immune, and nervous systems. Nutritional consultancy based on the 4R's is important for the wise stewardship of the hydration, feeding, and supplementation strategies to achieve a timely recovery.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Mialgia , Higiene do Sono , Desempenho Atlético , Características da Família , Glicogênio , Humanos , Necessidades Nutricionais
4.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e041995, 2020 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Jordan, a Middle Eastern country, declared a state of national emergency due to COVID-19 and a strict nationwide lockdown on 17 March 2020, banning all travel and movement around the country, potentially impacting mental health. This study sought to investigate the association between mental health (eg, anxiety and depressive symptoms) and sleep health among a sample of Jordanians living through a state of COVID-19-induced nationwide lockdown. METHODS: Using Facebook, participants (n=1240) in Jordan in March 2020 were recruited and direct to a web-based survey measuring anxiety (items from General Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale instrument), depressive symptoms (items from Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), sleep health (items from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and sociodemographic. A modified Poisson regression model with robust error variance. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) and 95% CIs were estimated to examine how anxiety and depressive symptoms may affect different dimensions of sleep health: (1) poor sleep quality, (2) short sleep duration, (3) encountering sleep problems. RESULTS: The majority of participants reported having experienced mild (33.8%), moderate (12.9%) or severe (6.3%) levels of anxiety during lockdown, and nearly half of respondents reported depressive symptoms during lockdown. Similarly, over 60% of participants reported having experienced at least one sleep problem in the last week, and nearly half reported having had short sleep duration. Importantly, anxiety was associated with poor sleep health outcomes. For example, corresponding to the dose-response relationship between anxiety and sleep health outcomes, those reporting severe anxiety were the most likely to experience poor sleep quality (aPR =8.95; 95% CI=6.12 to 13.08), short sleep duration (aPR =2.23; 95% CI=1.91 to 2.61) and at least one problem sleep problem (aPR=1.73; 95% CI=1.54 to 1.95). Moreover, depressive symptoms were also associated with poor sleep health outcomes. As compared with scoring in the first quartile, scoring fourth quartile was associated with poor sleep quality (aPR=11.82; 95% CI=6.64 to 21.04), short sleep duration (aPR=1.87; 95% CI=1.58 to 2.22), and experiencing at least one sleep problem (aPR=1.90; 95% CI=1.66 to 2.18). CONCLUSIONS: Increased levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms can negatively influence sleep health among a sample of Jordanian adults living in a state of COVID-19-induced nationwide lockdown.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Depressão , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , /prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental/tendências , Redes Sociais Online , Prevalência , Técnicas Psicológicas , Higiene do Sono , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 120(9. Vyp. 2): 62-67, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076647

RESUMO

Behavioral insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in young children. It significantly reduces the quality of parent's life and is one of the common complaints to a pediatrician or neurologist. The basis treatment of childhood insomnia is behavioral therapy, which includes sleep hygiene, age-appropriate daily routine and sleep associations, stable bedtime routines, positive reinforcement, bedtime fading, scheduled awakenings. Although a systematic ignoring («crying it out¼) is effective and widely used in behavioral therapy, it has low compliance and its safety is insufficiently studied. Therefore, a systematic ignoring is not a priority method of behavioral therapy and should not be used in children under 6 months of age. Behavioral therapy of childhood insomnia is complemented by psychological and informational support from parents, and in some cases, drug therapy. Prevention includes education of expectant parents on baby sleep hygiene.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Terapia Comportamental , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Sono , Higiene do Sono , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia
6.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 242-246, mayo 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192060

RESUMO

El objetivo de la investigación fue estudiar los hábitos de sueño y la salud psicológica de profesionales del sector sanitario, así como analizar las relaciones entre ambas variables. La muestra contó con 511 trabajadores de hospitales públicos de la Comunidad de Madrid. La salud psicológica fue evaluada con el Cuestionario GHQ-28; los hábitos de sueño a través del Cuestionario CHAS, además, se recogieron datos sociodemográficos como edad, sexo, puesto de trabajo, categoría profesional. Los resultados mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en síntomas somáticos, salud psicológica y estabilidad en hábitos de sueño. Los análisis de regresión indicaron que calidad del sueño y somnolencia diurna son las variables más relacionadas con las dimensiones de salud, especialmente con la ansiedad/insomnio y síntomas somáticos. Estos los resultados ponen de manifiesto las diferencias entre hábitos de sueño y salud percibida en personal de enfermería y facultativos. En conclusión, la población sanitaria presenta mayor prevalencia en malestar psicológico, peor calidad de sueño e inestabilidad en las horas de sueño. Deterioro del sueño, somnolencia y síntomas somáticos son más frecuentes en personal de enfermería que en el resto de profesionales sanitarios


The aim was to study the sleep habits and the psychological health of professionals in the health sector, as well as to analyze the relationships between both variables. The sample consisted of 511 workers from public hospitals in the Community of Madrid. Psychological health was evaluated using the GHQ-28 Questionnaire; and sleep habits with the CHAS Questionnaire. In addition, sociodemographic data were collected, such as age, sex, job position, professional category. The results showed statistically significant differences in somatic symptoms, psychological health and stability in sleep habits. Regression analysis indicated that sleep quality and daytime sleepiness are the variables most related to health dimensions, especially with anxiety/insomnia and somatic symptoms. These results reveal the differences between sleep habits and perceived health in nursing staff and physicians. Finally, the health workers present a higher prevalence of psychological distress, and poor sleep quality and instability in sleep hours. Sleep impairment, somnolence and somatic symptoms are more frequent in nursing staff than in other health professionals


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Higiene do Sono/fisiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Regressão , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(10): 944-954, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791893

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Efforts to prevent depression, the leading cause of disability worldwide, have focused on a limited number of candidate factors. Using phenotypic and genomic data from over 100,000 UK Biobank participants, the authors sought to systematically screen and validate a wide range of potential modifiable factors for depression. METHODS: Baseline data were extracted for 106 modifiable factors, including lifestyle (e.g., exercise, sleep, media, diet), social (e.g., support, engagement), and environmental (e.g., green space, pollution) variables. Incident depression was defined as minimal depressive symptoms at baseline and clinically significant depression at follow-up. At-risk individuals for incident depression were identified by polygenic risk scores or by reported traumatic life events. An exposure-wide association scan was conducted to identify factors associated with incident depression in the full sample and among at-risk individuals. Two-sample Mendelian randomization was then used to validate potentially causal relationships between identified factors and depression. RESULTS: Numerous factors across social, sleep, media, dietary, and exercise-related domains were prospectively associated with depression, even among at-risk individuals. However, only a subset of factors was supported by Mendelian randomization evidence, including confiding in others (odds ratio=0.76, 95% CI=0.67, 0.86), television watching time (odds ratio=1.09, 95% CI=1.05, 1.13), and daytime napping (odds ratio=1.34, 95% CI=1.17, 1.53). CONCLUSIONS: Using a two-stage approach, this study validates several actionable targets for preventing depression. It also demonstrates that not all factors associated with depression in observational research may translate into robust targets for prevention. A large-scale exposure-wide approach combined with genetically informed methods for causal inference may help prioritize strategies for multimodal prevention in psychiatry.


Assuntos
Depressão/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/genética , Dieta , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fatores de Risco , Tempo de Tela , Higiene do Sono
8.
Saudi Med J ; 41(7): 746-752, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601644

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the fit of different competing factor models (a one-factor model, 3 2-factor models, and 2 4-factor models) of the Leeds sleep evaluation questionnaire (LSEQ) in the data from a Jordanian student population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on university students, with 2 sleep-related tools - the LSEQ and the sleep hygiene index (SHI). The students (n=166) at Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan participated in this study from January-April, 2019. A total of 12 LSEQ models (6 models with all 10-items, and 6 models with one item deleted) were evaluated by using confirmatory factor analysis. The summary statistics of correlation coefficients, descriptive measures of item analysis, the model fit, and Cronbach's alpha were determined. RESULTS: The findings show that a 4-factor correlated solution was a plausible model for the LSEQ with 9-items, compared to a one-factor, 2-factor, and other 4-factor variant models. The deletion of one item from the original LSEQ improved the data fit significantly in the studied population. Moreover, correlation analysis between the LSEQ and SHI confirmed the divergent validity of the LSEQ. CONCLUSION: The results support the validity of a 4-factor structure of the LSEQ with 9-items with adequate internal consistency and divergent validity.


Assuntos
Psicometria/métodos , Higiene do Sono/fisiologia , Sono , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
9.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(2)2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548993

RESUMO

The corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak started in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and spread all over the world leading to declaration of a pandemic by World Health Organization (WHO) on 11th March 2020. Most countries around the world have been on lockdown in an effort to halt the spread of virus. People around the world have been pushed into uncharted waters of uncertainty, fear, anxiety, stress and depression due to economic crash down, job losses and fear for their own health and that of their loved ones. There is a known association between anxiety/stress and sleep disturbances and vice versa. The most vulnerable population in this isolation like condition, in this lockdown, are the chief earning member of the family, women, young ones, and people with psychiatric illness.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Higiene do Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/prevenção & controle , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia
10.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 39: 101121, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: and purpose: Inadequate sleep is highly prevalent among socioeconomically disadvantaged and racial/ethnic minority communities and is often related to maladaptive sleep behaviors and stress. There is scant research investigating the delivery of these interventions in underserved communities. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the feasibility and acceptability of a sleep education and yoga intervention for socioeconomically disadvantaged and racial/ethnic diverse adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present quantitative and qualitative data from a single-arm sleep education and yoga pilot study (n = 17) conducted in two affordable housing communities, and the multi-modal process we employed to refine the intervention for a future trial. RESULTS: Participants were age 43.6 years on average (±19.3 years) and 88.2% were female. Nearly 56% identified as non-Hispanic Black and 19% as Hispanic/Latino. Results showed significant pre/post-intervention improvements in sleep duration (5.4 ± 1.2 h/night vs 6.9 ± 1.7 h/night; p < 0.01), sleep-related impairment (-8.15; p < 0.01), sleep disturbance (-5.95; p < 0.01), and sleep hygiene behaviors (-5.50; p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: This study indicates intervention acceptability and improvements in sleep and sleep hygiene. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to assess efficacy.


Assuntos
Higiene do Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/terapia , Ioga , Adulto , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários , Projetos Piloto , Sono/fisiologia , Populações Vulneráveis , Adulto Jovem
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(5): e205246, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442289

RESUMO

Importance: Single self-reported measures of sleep duration are associated with adverse health outcomes; however, long-term patterns of self-reported sleep duration and their association with cardiovascular events (CVEs) and all-cause mortality remain unknown. Objective: To determine whether trajectories of long-term vs single-measure sleep duration are associated with subsequent risk of CVEs and all-cause mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Kailuan study is a prospective, population-based cohort study that began in 2006. The present cohort included 52 599 Chinese adults without atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, stroke, or cancer to 2010. Trajectories in sleep duration from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2010, were identified to investigate the association with risk of CVEs and all-cause mortality from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2017. Data analysis was conducted from July 1 to October 31, 2019. Exposures: Habitual self-reported nocturnal sleep durations were collected in 2006, 2008, and 2010. Trajectories in sleep duration for 4 years were identified by latent mixture modeling. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause mortality and first incident CVEs (atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, and stroke) from 2010 to 2017 were confirmed by medical records. Based on the baseline sleep duration and patterns over time, 4 trajectories were categorized (normal stable, normal decreasing, low increasing, and low stable). Results: Of the 52 599 adults included in the study (mean [SD] age at baseline, 52.5 [11.8] years), 40 087 (76.2%) were male and 12 512 (23.8%) were female. Four distinct 4-year sleep duration trajectory patterns were identified: normal stable (range, 7.4 to 7.5 hours [n = 40 262]), normal decreasing (mean decrease from 7.0 to 5.5 hours [n = 8074]), low increasing (mean increase from 4.9 to 6.9 hours [n = 3384]), and low stable (range, 4.2 to 4.9 hours [n = 879]). During a mean (SD) follow-up of 6.7 (1.1) years, 2361 individuals died and 2406 had a CVE. Compared with the normal-stable pattern and adjusting for potential confounders, a low-increasing pattern was associated with increased risk of first CVEs (hazard ratio [HR], 1.22; 95% CI, 1.04-1.43), a normal-decreasing pattern was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.15-1.57), and the low-stable pattern was associated with the highest risk of CVEs (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.05-2.05) and death (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.07-2.10). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, sleep duration trajectories with lower or unstable patterns were significantly associated with increased risk of subsequent first CVEs and all-cause mortality. Longitudinal sleep duration patterns may assist in more precise identification of different at-risk groups for possible intervention. People reporting consistently sleeping less than 5 hours per night should be regarded as a population at higher risk for CVE and mortality.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Mortalidade , Privação do Sono/complicações , Higiene do Sono , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Privação do Sono/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(3): 957-965, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159665

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to verify sleep hours and associated factors among Brazilian and Spanish students. A cross-sectional study with students aged 11 to 16 years-old was carried out in Paranavaí, Brasil (n = 264) and Cáceres, Spain (n = 233) between 2013 and 2015. Sleeping hours were verified regarding time in minutes, sleep in weekdays, weekends and after lunch/Siesta. All data were checked for normality by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-square test (X2) and Odds Ratio estimates were used (p < 0.05). High prevalence in both groups of sleeping 8 hours or more a night at the weekend. The prevalence of sleeping on weekdays, > 8 hours, 6 to 8 hours and < 6 hours among Spanish and Brazilian students, respectively. Nearly a quarter of each group responded that makes the siesta. Spanish students had 3 times higher chance to sleep < 8 hours a night in weekdays, among students from 14 to 16 years old and among the underactive. At the weekends the chance of sleeping < 8 hours is 2 times greater among the Spanish students. Simple guidelines could help so that sleep habits do not affect school development, such as practicing physical activity regularly, sleeping at least 8 hours a night, avoid excessive access to technology at night.


Assuntos
Assunção de Riscos , Higiene do Sono , Adolescente , Brasil , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Pediatr Ann ; 49(3): e101-e105, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155274

RESUMO

Adequate sleep in infancy and beyond is important for development; however, many children are not sleeping the recommended amount. During the first few years of childhood, infants are frequently seen in the pediatric office for well-visits and a myriad of other concerns, including sleep difficulties. As such, pediatricians should be adequately prepared to address these concerns. This article aims to provide clinicians with a basic knowledge of sleep physiology, sleep patterns and development, and current guidelines and options available for parents to address these issues. [Pediatr Ann. 2020;49(3):e101-e105.].


Assuntos
Higiene do Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Sono , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pais , Sono/fisiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/terapia
14.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(5): 743-748, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of advising sleep health optimization on anthropomorphic variables following 10 weeks resistance exercise training. METHODS: Thirty untrained healthy men were recruited for the study and 23 were included in the final analysis. Participants were randomly assigned to exercise and sleep optimization: ExS (N.=10) or exercise only: Ex (N.=12). Both groups performed a whole-body resistance exercise program twice a week for 10 weeks. The ExS group received sleep health (SH) education on how to improve both sleep quantity and quality. RESULTS: After 10 weeks of training both groups had increased lean body mass by a similar amount. The ExS group experienced an increase of 1.7±1.1 kg while the Ex group experienced an increase of 1.3±0.8 kg (P=0.29 for difference between groups). The men in the ExS group reduced fat mass significantly (-1.8±0.8 kg) while the Ex group did not (0.8±1.0 kg). P value was 0.02 for difference between groups. CONCLUSIONS: This randomized controlled trial suggests that combining regular resistance exercise training with optimization of sleep health provide significant added benefits to body composition. This optimization provides a simple and cheap tool, applicable to the general healthy population.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Higiene do Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto
15.
Psychol Health Med ; 25(4): 497-518, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204604

RESUMO

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often accompanied by sleep problems in children. Sleep hygiene is defined as a set of behavioural, environmental, or cognitive modifications to improve sleep, and is routinely clinically utilised as first-line treatment for insomnia in ADHD. The objective of this systematic review of the literature is to evaluate the effectiveness of sleep hygiene interventions for sleep difficulties in children with ADHD. Sixteen relevant articles met the inclusion criteria, involving 1,469 participants, with a mean age of 9.6 years, across 6 countries. Fifteen studies found that sleep hygiene interventions were effective in improving sleep, while one did not show any significant improvement. Definite conclusions on the effectiveness of the interventions are difficult to draw due to the limited number of studies and a high risk of bias. There is growing evidence to support the use of sleep hygiene interventions to improve sleep quality in children with ADHD and sleep disturbance. However, well-conducted clinical trials are required to strengthen the evidence.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Higiene do Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/terapia , Criança , Humanos
17.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(3): 957-965, mar. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089476

RESUMO

Abstract The aim of this study was to verify sleep hours and associated factors among Brazilian and Spanish students. A cross-sectional study with students aged 11 to 16 years-old was carried out in Paranavaí, Brasil (n = 264) and Cáceres, Spain (n = 233) between 2013 and 2015. Sleeping hours were verified regarding time in minutes, sleep in weekdays, weekends and after lunch/Siesta. All data were checked for normality by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-square test (X2) and Odds Ratio estimates were used (p < 0.05). High prevalence in both groups of sleeping 8 hours or more a night at the weekend. The prevalence of sleeping on weekdays, > 8 hours, 6 to 8 hours and < 6 hours among Spanish and Brazilian students, respectively. Nearly a quarter of each group responded that makes the siesta. Spanish students had 3 times higher chance to sleep < 8 hours a night in weekdays, among students from 14 to 16 years old and among the underactive. At the weekends the chance of sleeping < 8 hours is 2 times greater among the Spanish students. Simple guidelines could help so that sleep habits do not affect school development, such as practicing physical activity regularly, sleeping at least 8 hours a night, avoid excessive access to technology at night.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar as horas de sono e fatores associados em estudantes brasileiros e espanhóis. Foi realizado um estudo transversal com estudantes de 11 a 16 anos de idade em Paranavaí, Brasil (n = 264) e Cáceres, Espanha (n = 233) entre 2013 e 2015. As horas de sono foram verificadas em relação ao tempo em minutos, dias da semana, fins de semana e Siesta. Todos os dados foram verificados quanto à normalidade pelo teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov. Os testes de Mann-Whitney, Qui-quadrado (X2) e a estimativa do Odds Ratio foram utilizados (p < 0,05). Entre os espanhóis e os brasileiros, as prevalências de dormir em dias de semana foram > 8 horas, 6 a 8 horas e < 6 horas, respectivamente. Quase um quarto em cada grupo respondeu fazer a Siesta. Os espanhóis apresentaram 3 vezes mais chance de dormir menos de 8 horas por noite durante a semana, entre os de 14 a 16 anos e pouco ativos. Aos finais de semana, a chance de dormir menos de 8 horas foi duas vezes maior entre os espanhóis. Orientações simples podem ajudar, para que os hábitos de sono não afetem o desenvolvimento escolar, como praticar atividade física regularmente, dormir pelo menos 8 horas por noite, evitar o acesso excessivo de tecnologia durante a noite.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Assunção de Riscos , Higiene do Sono , Espanha , Fatores de Tempo , Brasil , Estudos Transversais
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069991

RESUMO

Objective: Hand washing and sleep hygiene are two important health behaviors. The purpose of the current study was to identify the motivational and volitional antecedents of college students' hand washing and sleep hygiene behaviors based on an integrated model of behavior that combined social-cognition constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Health Action Process Approach (HAPA). Methods: Using a prospective design, college students (N = 1106) completed a survey assessing the motivational constructs of action self-efficacy, attitudes, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, intentions, and behaviors of hand washing and sleep hygiene at Time 1. Demographic variables were also collected. One month later, at Time 2, college students (N = 524) self-reported on their volitional factors of maintenance self-efficacy, action planning, coping planning, and behaviors of hand washing and sleep hygiene. A further 2 months later, at Time 3, college students (N = 297) were asked to self-report on their hand washing and sleep hygiene behaviors over the past month. Findings: Data were analyzed using variance-based structural equation modelling. Results showed significant direct effects of attitudes, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control on intentions; significant direct effects of action self-efficacy on maintenance self-efficacy; and significant direct effects of maintenance self-efficacy on action planning and coping planning. Significant direct effects of intention on action planning (sleep hygiene only), and significant direct effects of intention, maintenance self-efficacy (hand washing only), action and coping planning on behavior were also observed. Action planning also moderated the intention-behavior relationship, but only for hand washing. There were also significant total indirect effects of action self-efficacy on behavior mediated by maintenance self-efficacy, action planning, and coping planning for both behaviors, and significant total indirect effects of subjective norm and perceived behavioral control on behavior mediated by intention for sleep hygiene. When past behavior was included in the integrated model predicting all the psychological variables and behavior, all of the structural relations were attenuated. Discussion: Current findings indicate that college students' hand washing and sleep hygiene behaviors are a function of both motivational and volitional factors. Findings also indicate that the TPB and HAPA pathways might differ for the two health behaviors. Implications of the current findings for future health interventions aimed at improving college students' hand washing and sleep hygiene are discussed.


Assuntos
Cognição , Desinfecção das Mãos , Higiene do Sono , Estudantes , Adolescente , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sleep Health ; 6(2): 205-213, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the high prevalence of inadequate sleep in racially/ethnically diverse, low-income adults, there is scant research targeting sleep health interventions among underserved populations. Sleep hygiene (SH) recommendations may help promote sleep health for the general population; however, they likely require tailoring to optimize uptake and effectiveness in the "real world" given socio-contextual factors. As an initial step to developing contextually appropriate and effective community-based SH interventions, we conducted qualitative research to understand SH behaviors, beliefs, and barriers in a low-income, ethnically diverse sample of adults. METHODS: We recruited 24 racially/ethnically diverse adults from an affordable housing community who self-reported sleeping ≤6 hours on average. Participants were invited to either an individual interview (n = 5) or a focus group (n = 3). A deductive, thematic-analysis approach was employed. Data collection and interpretation were informed by the Socio-Contextual Model of Behavior Change. RESULTS: There was evidence of high acceptability of SH and interest in improving sleep health. Barriers to implementing SH were multifaceted, including individual (knowledge, motivation, habits, medical issues, stress, trauma), interpersonal (caregiving), organizational (job strain), and environmental (noise) factors. CONCLUSIONS: Future strategies for adapting behavioral SH interventions should target knowledge, skill development, and behavioral change domains, such as motivation, social support, and self-efficacy. In addition, adapting SH beyond the clinical context for a high-need community population requires attention to multilevel sociocontextual factors that contribute to sleep health, particularly chronic stress, prior trauma, and adverse sleeping environments. Development of novel trauma-informed SH interventions may promote effective and safe implementation.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Pobreza/etnologia , Higiene do Sono , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 75(5): 782-792, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983503

RESUMO

Daytime sleepiness, also known as hypersomnolence, is common among patients receiving maintenance dialysis and following successful kidney transplantation. Sleepiness may be secondary to medical comorbid conditions, medication side effect, insufficient sleep syndrome, and sleep-disordered breathing or the result of a primary central disorder of hypersomnolence, such as narcolepsy. Unrecognized and untreated sleep disorders are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality among patients with end-stage kidney disease. Effective management of hypersomnolence can improve quality of life in patients with kidney disease. This review focuses on the principal causes of sleepiness in patients with end-stage kidney disease. Awareness of these disorders by treating nephrologists is crucial. This review provides a systematic approach to guide providers through the recognition, early diagnosis, and treatment of hypersomnolence, which is commonly encountered in this patient population. Areas of future research are also suggested.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Sono por Sonolência Excessiva/terapia , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Agendamento de Consultas , Dieta , Gerenciamento Clínico , Distúrbios do Sono por Sonolência Excessiva/etiologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Fadiga/etiologia , Fadiga/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Transplante de Rim , Estilo de Vida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Privação do Sono , Higiene do Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/terapia
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