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1.
J Water Health ; 17(6): 896-909, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850897

RESUMO

Sanitation planners make complex decisions in the delivery of sanitation services to achieve health outcomes. We present findings from a stakeholder engagement workshop held in Kampala, Uganda, to educate, interact with, and solicit feedback from participants on how the relevant scientific literature on pathogens can be made more accessible to practitioners to support decision-making. We targeted Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) practitioners involved in different levels of service delivery. Practitioners revealed that different sanitation planning tools are used to inform decision-making; however, most of these tools are not user-friendly or adapted to meet their needs. Most stakeholders (68%) expressed familiarity with pathogens, yet less than half (46%) understood that fecal coliforms were bacteria and used as indicators for fecal pollution. A number of stakeholders were unaware that fecal indicator bacteria do not behave and persist the same as helminths, protozoa, or viruses, making fecal indicator bacteria inadequate for assessing pathogen reductions for all pathogen groups. This suggests a need for awareness and capacity development around pathogens found in excreta. The findings underscore the importance to engage stakeholders in the development of support tools for sanitation planning and highlighted broader opportunities to bridge science with practice in the WASH sector.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Higiene , Saneamento/normas , Microbiologia da Água , Qualidade da Água/normas , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Animais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Uganda , Água
2.
West Afr J Med ; 36(3): 253-261, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of food vendors in food hygiene and safety is an important one which, if neglected, could lead to outbreaks of food borne illnesses, currently major causes of morbidity and mortality, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the food hygiene knowledge and practices of food vendors in Uyo, Nigeria. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Data were collected using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS version 20. RESULTS: A total of 125 respondents participated in the study. The mean age was 31.99 ± 10.51 years, with a male: female ratio of 1:1.04. Thirty-six (28.8%) respondents had good food hygiene knowledge (>75% of maximum scores) which was significantly associated with tertiary level of education and female sex (p<0.05). Only 11 (8.8%) however had good practice (>75% of maximum scores). Tertiary education, working less than 6 hours daily and food hygiene training were significantly associated with good practice scores (p<0.05). The relationship between food hygiene knowledge and practice was statistically significant (p=0.00). There were also statistically significant associations between having good knowledge of food hygiene and use of apron, hair covering, observing good sanitary conditions, water supply, waste disposal and protection of food from flies (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: A link existed between having good level of knowledge and the hygiene practices of the respondents. Food vendors should therefore be adequately trained to equip them to offer sufficiently hygienic services, thus ensuring food safety among the consumers.


Assuntos
Comércio , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Higiene , Adulto , Comércio/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Saneamento , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Water Health ; 17(5): 655-669, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638018

RESUMO

Child stunting is associated with poor water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), partly due to the effect of infection on intestinal nutrient absorption. WASH interventions, however, show little effect on growth. A hypothesis is that bacterial contamination of hands and floors from domestic animals and their faeces, and subsequent ingestion via infant hand-to-mouth behaviours, may explain this. This formative study used microbial testing and survey and observational data from 20 households in Ethiopia to characterise principle bacterial transmission pathways to infants, considering WASH facilities and practices, infant behaviours and animal exposure. Microbial swabbing showed the contamination of hands and floor surfaces from thermotolerant coliform bacteria. Animal husbandry practices, such as keeping animals inside, contributed significantly (all p < 0.005). There was no evidence that latrine facilities mitigated contamination across infant (p = 0.76) or maternal (p = 0.86) hands or floor surfaces (p = 0.36). This small study contributes to the evidence that animal faeces are an important source of domestic bacterial contamination. The results imply that interventions aiming to reduce pathogen transmission to infants should think beyond improving WASH and also consider the need to separate infants and animals in the home. Intervention studies will be required to determine whether this reduces infant infection and improves linear growth.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais Domésticos , Higiene , Saneamento , Animais , Criança , Etiópia , Humanos , Lactente , Toaletes
5.
Georgian Med News ; (292-293): 95-102, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560672

RESUMO

The article presents the results of the comprehensive hygienic studies of ambient air pollution (based on calculated and actual concentrations of main pollutants) in a zone of influence of modern filling stations (FS) of small and medium capacity, taking into account compliance with the fire-prevention requirements. Sanitary protection zones (SPZ) for filling stations were substantiated taking into account the capacity: for the filling stations of low and medium capacity - not less than 50 m, and for filling stations of large capacity - not less than 100 m at the equipping with the ecologically safe outfit, introduction of the effective air protection measures, and introduction of risk approach to sanitary-and-epidemiological assessment of the location of filling stations. Sanitary classification of the enterprises and industries was proved to require a revision and rationing of differentiated sanitary protection zones (minimum and maximum SPZ) for filling stations taking into account the capacity, implementation of the effective air protection measures and introduction of risk approach to sanitary- and-epidemiological assessment of the location of filling stations. A necessity of the introduction of the equipment to contain the carcinogenic fumes at vehicle refueling at existing and projected filling stations has been demonstrated, which will reduce air pollution in the working area for the filling stations workers and the environment of adjacent residential buildings, which will meet the EU directives (2008/50 / EC, 21.05, 2008; 2004/42 / EU, April 21, 2004; 1999/32 / EU, April 26, 1999; 98/70 / EU, May 21, 1998; 94/63 / EU, December 20, 1994) to the quality of gasoline, diesel fuel and control of the emissions from the filling stations, and the national legislation of Ukraine (SHR №173-96)..


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Monitoramento Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Higiene , Indústrias/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Veículos Automotores , Ucrânia
6.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 61: e48, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531626

RESUMO

School-age children are a social group in which blood collection for laboratory testing can be perceived as an invasive procedure, with low acceptance and tolerance of stakeholders. This problem could be circumvented by replacing serum samples with saliva. For this purpose, and to make the collection of saliva samples playful and instructive for children, educational activities on hygiene and toxoplasmosis transmission and prevention were performed using toys and audiovisual tools. The target audience consisted of 7-10 year-old children from low-income families who attended public schools in the city of São Paulo. Saliva samples were used in a previously described in-house Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) to detect anti- Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies and establish the immunological status of each of the participants. One year later, children's memory and fixation of concepts regarding hygiene habits, as well as transmission and prevention of toxoplasmosis were tested in the same schools, by means of a questionnaire application, using students who did not participate in the first intervention as controls. The prevalence of positive anti- T. gondii IgG among students was 50% (82/164). One year later, 45 children had more knowledge on toxoplasmosis (28/45 vs 29/147) and they drew the cat's involvement in the transmission of toxoplasmosis more often than controls (28/45 vs 29/147). Sorted according to the presence of specific IgG in saliva, recovered positive students presented worse memory of the above cited knowledge as did saliva-negative IgG students, but both groups had isolated higher frequency of fixed knowledge than non-intervened students. Our data show that there is a high prevalence of T. gondii infection in school-children from low-income areas; saliva is an alternative to blood for anti- T. gondii IgG detection; and a one-day educational intervention in school-children was effective in promoting knowledge fixation on hygiene and toxoplasmosis transmission and prevention after one year.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/análise , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Higiene , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Saliva/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Criança , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2019-09-23.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51563

RESUMO

[Introducción]. El clima y otros cambios ambientales son algunos de los principales factores que han concurrido para que aparecieran o reaparecieran enfermedades transmitidas por vectores (ETV). Estos factores pueden expandir la distribución geográfica de dichas enfermedades y extender la temporada de transmisión, con lo que influyen en la morbilidad y mortalidad de estas enfermedades. Las enfermedades infecciosas tienen una repercusión importante en la salud pública de la Región de las Américas. Por ejemplo, en 2017 se notificó a la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) que hubo un total de 483.208 casos de dengue y 253 muertes por esta causa. Ese mismo año también se notificaron más de 180.000 casos de chikunguña, y el número acumulado de casos presuntos o confirmados de zika en el período comprendido entre 1 de enero 2015 y el 4 de enero de 2018 fue de 583.451 y 223.477, respectivamente, con 20 muertes confirmadas y 3.720 casos confirmados de síndrome congénito por el virus de Zika. Considerando estos impactos, será necesario incorporar múltiples enfoques integrales y multisectoriales en las estrategias de vigilancia y control de vectores. En dichos enfoques se deberán tomar en cuenta iniciativas que promuevan entornos saludables, por ejemplo, mediante la mejora de la gestión de los residuos sólidos, la gestión segura del agua y el saneamiento a fin de garantizar la continuidad y la calidad de los servicios, y el manejo adecuado de los residuos químicos que se usan en el control de vectores, entre otros. En esta publicación se presentan algunas orientaciones clave para promover acciones de vigilancia y control de vectores que pongan énfasis en las intervenciones en materia de salud ambiental, utilizando enfoques interprogramáticos e intersectoriales.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Ecológicos e Ambientais , Doença Ambiental , Controle de Vetores , Saúde Ambiental , Saneamento , Higiene , Cidade Saudável , Vigilância Sanitária Ambiental
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1066, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth infection (STH) is one of the neglected tropical disease that affects approximately 2 billion people globally. School children represent the age group that is most commonly infected with STHs, resulting in poor school performance, impaired cognitive function, and many other detrimental effects. The transmission of STH is determined by many factors, such as hygiene and sanitation. Understanding the factors that influence disease transmission in a particular area is key to effective STH control. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of STH in North Sumatera and to identify the associated risk factors among school children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among primary school children in Suka village, Tigapanah subdistrict. Stool samples were processed using a single Kato-Katz method. The potential risk factors analyzed were parent education and occupation, hand washing habits, latrine usage, footwear usage and contact with soil. The Chi-square test was performed to identify an association between risk factors and parasitological results. Logistic regression analysis was used to measure the strength of association. RESULTS: We enrolled 468 school children between 6 and 12 years of age. Among those children, 268 children (57.24%) were positive for one or more STH infections. Approximately 62.39% of children played with soil/dirt every day, and only 50% regularly washed their hands after activities. Most of the children wore shoes/slippers when going outside (87.82%) and used a latrine for defecation (85.04%). Playing with soil/dirt have been shown to increase the risk of STH infections 7.53 times, while hand washing habits and latrine usage decreased the risk of STH infections 0.16 times each. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of STH infection in school children in Suka village, Tigapanah subdistrict is still high. Playing with soil/dirt increased the risk of infection, while hand washing habits and latrine usage decreased the risk of infection. The combined strategies of improving the personal hygiene of children and biannual deworming can reduce the risk of STH infection in school children in Suka village, Tigapanah subdistrict.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Solo/parasitologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Toaletes/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1039, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interventions in India to improve menstrual health and hygiene management (MHHM) have been implemented at the national, state, district and school level. However, evaluations of these interventions have been scarce. The objective of the study was to determine if a social and behavioral change communication (SBCC) intervention (GARIMA) had a relationship with knowledge, attitudes, interpersonal communication, restrictions and MHHM using a comparison group post-test only design among 2206 adolescent girls. METHODS: Intervention villages and adolescent girls were selected through stratified random sampling based on where GARIMA was implemented. Villages and adolescent girls in comparison villages were matched socio-demographically to intervention villages and adolescent girls. Multi-level logistic regressions assessed the relationship between the encoded exposure, mediators and MHHM. RESULTS: The results showed that the encoded exposure predicted all behaviors corresponding to MHHM. Additionally, adolescent girls in the high encoded exposure group had significantly higher knowledge about puberty and reproductive parts (AOR: 2.03 (95% CI: 1.31 - 3.15)), positive attitudes towards gender (AOR: 1.48 (95% CI: 1.02 - 2.16)) and higher levels of some discussion and dialogue (AOR: 1.41 (95% CI: 1.04 - 1.92)). CONCLUSIONS: Future programs should use SBCC to improve MHHM behavior but involve families, peers and community members to a greater extent in order to improve attitudes towards menstruation, attitudes towards restrictions, attitudes towards absorbent use and reduce restrictions within the community.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Higiene/normas , Menstruação/psicologia , Mudança Social , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465673

RESUMO

The article describes and analyzes the second day of the Constituent Session of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences held on December 21, 1944, during which the elections of academic - secretaries and members of the bureau of branches took place at three parallel meetings. I. P. Razenkov was elected the academician-secretary of the department of biomedical sciences (OMBN), V. F. Zelenin - оf the Department of Clinical Medicine (OKM) , F. G. Krotkov - of the Department of Hygiene, Microbiology and Epidemiology (OGME). The surprise was the election of V. F. Zelenin as the OKM academician- secretary instead of N. I. Grashchenkov. Directors of 5 out of 8 OMBN institutes, 5 out of 10 OKM and 2 out of 7 OGME institutes were also approved. Total - 12 out of 25. The composition of the Presidium of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR was also discussed, the election of which was postponed to December 22. The question of by-election of full members (40 people) and corresponding members (200 members) was resolved and postponed to the next session of the General Assembly of the Academy (1945).


Assuntos
Academias e Institutos , Medicina , Medicina Clínica , Higiene , U.R.S.S.
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1028, 2019 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7-Days (CHoBI7) is a handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention program delivered by a health promoter bedside in a health facility and through home visits to diarrhea patients and their household members during the 7 days after admission to a health facility. In a randomized controlled trial among cholera patient households in Bangladesh, the 7-day CHoBI7 program resulted in a significant reduction in cholera among household members of cholera patients and sustained improvements in drinking water quality and handwashing with soap practices 12 months post-intervention. In an effort to take this intervention to scale across Bangladesh in partnership with the Bangladesh Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, this study evaluates the feasibility and acceptability of mobile health (mHealth) programs as a low-cost, scalable approach for CHoBI7 program delivery. METHODS: Formative research for the development of the CHoBI7 mHealth intervention included 40 semi-structured interviews, 4 mHealth workshops, 2 group discussions, and a pilot study of 52 households to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the developed mHealth program. Thematic analysis of the interviews and group discussions was conducted by two individuals separately based on emergent themes, and then themes were compared and discussed. RESULTS: A theory- and evidence-based approach using qualitative research methods was implemented to design the CHoBI7 mHealth program. Semi-structured interviews with government stakeholders identified perceptions and preferences for scaling the CHoBI7 mHealth program. Group discussions and semi-structured interviews with diarrhea patients and their family members identified beneficiary perceptions of mHealth and preferences for CHoBI7 mHealth program delivery. mHealth workshops were conducted as an interactive approach to draft and refine mobile message content based on stakeholder preferences. The pilot findings indicate that the CHoBI7 mHealth program has high user acceptability and is feasible to deliver to diarrhea patients that present at health facilities for treatment in Bangladesh. Both text and voice messages were recommended for program delivery. Dr. Chobi, the sender of mHealth messages, was viewed as a credible source of information that could be shared with others. CONCLUSION: This study presents a theory- and evidence-based approach that can be implemented for the development of future water, sanitation, and hygiene mHealth programs in low-resource settings.


Assuntos
Cólera/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/terapia , Higiene/normas , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Saneamento/normas , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Qualidade da Água/normas , Bangladesh , Características da Família , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Projetos de Pesquisa , Sabões
13.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(4): 499-504, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344213

RESUMO

Eloísa Díaz Insunza, the first Latin American female physician, completed her studies in Medicine and Surgery at the University of Chile in 1887 and worked a large part of her life as Medical Inspector of Public Schools of Santiago, Chile. In this article, the focus is placed on her "Test Memorandum" (1886) and her first Reports to the Ministry of Public Education (1899-1905), to appreciate the hygienist perspective that characterizes her proposals. We describe her intervention project that sought to integrate medical practice with psychology and education, to solve a social problem such as the degeneration of the Chilean race.


Assuntos
Educação/história , História da Medicina , Higiene/história , Psicologia/história , Chile , Feminino , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 458, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of cholera outbreak remains high in Cameroon. This is because of the persistent cholera outbreaks in neighboring countries coupled with the poor hygiene and sanitation conditions in Cameroon. The objective of this study was to assess the readiness of health facilities to respond to cholera outbreak in four cholera-prone districts in Cameroon. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted targeting all health facilities in four health districts, labeled as cholera hotspots in Cameroon in August 2016. Data collection was done by interview with a questionnaire and by observation regarding the availability of resources and materials for surveillance and case management, access to water, hygiene, and sanitation. Data analysis was descriptive with STATA 11. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 134 health facilities were evaluated, most of which (108/134[81%]) were urban facilities. The preparedness regarding surveillance was limited with 13 (50%) health facilities in the Far North and 22(20%) in the Littoral having cholera case definition guide. ORS for Case management was present in 8(31%) health facilities in the Far North and in 94(87%) facilities in the littoral. Less than half of the health facilities had a hand washing protocol and 7(5.1%) did not have any source of drinking water or relied on unimproved sources like lake. A total of 4(3.0%) health facilities, all in the Far North region, did not have a toilet. CONCLUSIONS: The level of preparedness of health facilities in Cameroon for cholera outbreak response presents a lot of weaknesses. These are present in terms of lack of basic surveillance and case management materials and resources, low access to WaSH. If not addressed now, these facilities might not be able to play their role in case there is an outbreak and might even turn to be transmission milieus.


Assuntos
Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Instalações de Saúde/normas , Camarões/epidemiologia , Administração de Caso , Estudos Transversais , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Observação , Saneamento/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Abastecimento de Água/normas
15.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 44, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental disorders, particularly depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, are common long-term psychological outcomes in emergency contexts arising from conflicts, natural disasters, and other challenging environmental conditions. In emergencies, people suffer not only from the lack of external resources such as drinking water and food but also from poor mental health. Mental disorders can substantially impair daily activities in vulnerable individuals. However, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) behaviors are daily activities that require effort, time, and strong internal motivation. Therefore, questions arise: whether there is a relationship between mental health and safe water behaviors, and if so, whether the motivational drivers of these behaviors are affected by mental health. METHODS: Our cross-sectional study conducted face-to-face interviews with 638 households in rural Malawi. We used a quantitative questionnaire based on the risks, attitudes, norms, abilities, and self-regulation (RANAS) approach to measure motivational psychosocial factors. Mental health was assessed using the validated Chichewa version of the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). RESULTS: Almost a third of the respondents reported poor mental health. We found significant negative association between mental health and self-reported safe water collection (p = .01, r = -.104) but not between safe water transportation and storage behavior. The moderation analysis revealed significant interaction effects of mental health with some psychosocial factors and therefore on WASH behaviors. Poor mental health changed the influence of three psychosocial factors-perceived others' behavior, commitment, and remembering-on safe drinking water collection behavior. The influence on water transportation and storage behavior of the perceived severity of contracting a disease, the belief that transporting and storing water requires substantial effort, and others' approval depended on the mental health condition of the respondent. CONCLUSIONS: These results imply that populations with a significant proportion of individuals with poor mental health will benefit from interventions to mitigate mental health before or parallel to behavioral change interventions for WASH. Specific population-level interventions have been shown to have a positive effect on mental well-being, and they have been successfully applied at scale. This research is especially relevant in emergency contexts, as it indicates that mental health measures before any WASH interventions will make them more effective.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Saúde Mental , Populações Vulneráveis , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Higiene , Malaui , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural , Saneamento , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Br J Nurs ; 28(13): 890-891, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303049

RESUMO

Emeritus Professor Alan Glasper, University of Southampton, discusses strategies used to keep patients in hospital safe from infection.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Segurança do Paciente , Inglaterra , Armazenamento de Alimentos/normas , Serviço Hospitalar de Limpeza/normas , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Medicina Estatal
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 7640-7654, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255272

RESUMO

Automatic milking systems (AMS), first introduced on dairy farms in the 1990s, rapidly spread across many countries. This technology is based on the voluntary milking of dairy cattle in a completely automated process, which relies on computer management, with a substantial average increase in milking frequency. Compared with conventional milking, AMS significantly alters herd management, with important implications on economic, technical, and social aspects of farming, on animal physiology, health, and well-being. These aspects are explored in an extensive body of research. In contrast, the effects of AMS adoption on milk quality are often overlooked. This review draws together both positive and negative effects of AMS on the milk production chain, particularly emphasizing the variations of hygienic and compositive characteristics of raw milk and their interplay, as compared with milk obtained with conventional milking. Scattered and sometimes conflicting literature exists on whether and how these variations may influence quality and yield of the derived dairy products. Current scientific knowledge on these crucial aspects is thus reviewed, with particular focus on milk technological suitability for being processed into dairy products having the target characteristics in terms of taste, structure, on-storage stability, and sustainability. Provided the managing conditions are optimized, AMS allow increased milk production, mostly due to more frequent milking, without compromising the milk characteristics that are crucial to food industry for processing. Nevertheless, specific biochemical aspects related to the changed milking interval, which determines the duration of enzyme activities and bacterial growth in milk, need further research.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Higiene , Leite/química , Robótica/métodos , Animais , Laticínios/análise , Indústria de Laticínios/instrumentação , Feminino , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Lactação , Leite/microbiologia , Tecnologia
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 8352-8366, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255273

RESUMO

Calf preweaning morbidity and mortality risks have been reported as high in several countries, with average values approximating 35 and 7%, respectively. However, limited data are available for calf morbidity and mortality risks on Australian dairy farms. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate current calf management practices on dairy farms in Australia and their association with herd-level morbidity and mortality using a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study; and (2) to estimate the prevalence of common enteropathogens causing diarrhea, the failure of passive transfer of immunity, and poor colostrum quality in a sample of Australian dairy farms. We analyzed 106 completed questionnaires and samples from 23 farms (202 fecal, 253 calf serum, and 221 colostrum samples). Morbidity and mortality risks reported by farmers in preweaned heifers were 23.8 and 5.6%, respectively. These risks were above the Australian dairy industry targets in 75.5 and 66.7% of respondents. The zoonotic pathogens Cryptosporidium spp. and Salmonella spp. were the most prevalent enteropathogens, with a true prevalence of 40.9 and 25.2%, respectively. Salmonella O-group D was present in 67.9% of Salmonella-positive samples, followed by O-groups B (17.9%) and C (10.7%). Failure of transfer of passive immunity (IgG <10 g/L) was observed in 41.9% of calves (mean herd-level prevalence of 36.2%), and only 19.5% of colostrum samples met the standards for immunoglobulin content and microbiological quality. Collectively, these data indicate that there is still considerable room for improvement in calf-rearing practices on Australian dairy farms, particularly with regard to colostrum management and feeding hygiene.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Colostro , Indústria de Laticínios , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Austrália , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Colostro/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/imunologia , Fazendeiros , Fazendas , Fezes , Feminino , Higiene , Gravidez , Prevalência
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(10): 9548-9557, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326172

RESUMO

Recommended milking practices (RMP) are protective against mastitis. However, many producers do not adopt, or only partially adopt, these measures. This study aimed to explore the attitudes and perceptions of Ontario dairy farmers toward barriers to implementation of RMP and to investigate what motivates behavior change in relation to milking hygiene. Four focus groups with Ontario dairy producers were conducted, and verbatim transcripts were analyzed thematically. The main barriers to adoption of RMP were identified and categorized into 2 groups: intrinsic barriers and physical barriers. Intrinsic barriers included personal habits and convenience, not perceiving udder health as a priority on their farm, and lack of information. Physical barriers included employee training and compliance, convenience of implementing RMP, and time, money, and labor barriers. Producers used their bulk tank somatic cell count (SCC) as a measure of perceived severity of udder health problems on farm. Those with lower SCC were less likely to prioritize udder health compared with peers experiencing elevations in SCC. Lack of udder health problems translated for some producers into non-adoption of certain RMP, as they felt these practices were not needed unless a problem arose. Others felt motivated to implement more practices and work toward better udder health if such efforts translated into rewards for better-quality milk. Some producers perceived RMP as not meaningful or useful, seemingly due to a lack of education about the reasons behind RMP implementation. Understanding the importance of these practices is one key to implementing them. To overcome some of the intrinsic barriers, increased efforts in knowledge translation are needed, including efforts in retraining current practices, as well as in establishing best practices.


Assuntos
Atitude , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Higiene , Mastite Bovina/prevenção & controle , Leite/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Contagem de Células/veterinária , Fazendas , Feminino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais , Motivação , Ontário
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 8273-8289, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326179

RESUMO

The occurrence of Paenibacillus and Clostridium spores in silage is of great concern for dairy producers because their spores can contaminate milk and damage processed milk and semi-hard cheeses. Spoiled silage is considered to be the main contamination source of the total mixed ration (TMR), feces of dairy cows, and consequently bulk tank milk via the contamination of cow teats by dirt during milking. The presence of an anaerobic and facultative anaerobic sporeformer population in different matrices (soil, corn silage, other feeds, TMR, feces, and milk) and its transmission pathway has been studied on 49 dairy farms by coupling plate count data with 16S-DNA identification. The different matrices have shown a high variability in the anaerobic and facultative anaerobic spore count, with the highest values being found in the aerobically deteriorated areas of corn silages. Clostridium tyrobutyricum, Paenibacillus macerans, and Paenibacillus thermophilus were detected in all the matrices. The TMR spore count was influenced by the amount of spoiled corn silage in the TMR and by the care taken when cleaning the spoiled silage before feed-out. Most of the farms that prevent the presence of visible moldy silage in the silo and carefully clean to remove molded spots were able to maintain their TMR spore counts below 4.0 log spores/g. When a level of 4.5 log spores/g of TMR was exceeded, the feces presented a greater contamination than 3.0 log spores/g. Moreover, the higher the number of spores in the feces was, the higher the number of spores in the milk. Most of the farms that presented a feces contamination greater than 5.0 log spores/g had a higher milk spore contamination than 1,000 spores/L. Careful animal cleaning and good milking practices have been found to be essential to maintain low levels of contamination in bulk tank milk, but it has emerged that only by coupling these practices with a correct silage management and cleaning during TMR preparation can the contamination of milk by spores be kept at a low level. It has been found that aerobically deteriorated silage has a great capacity to contaminate TMR and consequently to increase the risk of milk spore contamination, even when routine milking practices are adopted correctly.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Leite/microbiologia , Paenibacillus/isolamento & purificação , Esporos Bacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Clostridium tyrobutyricum/isolamento & purificação , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana/veterinária , Fazendas , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Higiene , Glândulas Mamárias Animais , Fatores de Risco , Silagem
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