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1.
Stomatologiia (Mosk) ; 99(5): 80-86, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034182

RESUMO

THE AIM OF THE STUDY: Was to study the dental status, control individual hygiene and assess the quality of life of patients with jaw defects in combination with medical osteonecrosis at the stages of orthopedic rehabilitation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 38 patients were examined, divided into two groups of 19 people aged 49 to 74 years (average age - 61.5±4.25 years). The main group was comprised of patients after resection of the jaws for malignant neoplasms. The comparison group consisted of patients with partial tooth loss who do not have a history of cancer. All participants used individual hygiene products in the form of parodontax Complete protection toothpaste and parodontax Extra 0.2% mouthwash, along with dental prosthetics, according to a certain scheme. The analysis was performed at the beginning of the study, after 7, 14 days and 2 months. The results of prosthetics and the quality of life of patients in both groups were evaluated using a questionnaire developed by us, which allows us to evaluate various parameters (pain, functions, sensations, social activity). RESULTS: The dynamics of the values of the hygiene index, bleeding gums and qualitative analysis of mixed saliva confirm the positive effect of regular use of recommended hygiene products on the oral tissue. There was an increase in the number of buccal epithelial cells with a low degree of destruction, which indicates the restoration of the barrier properties of the epithelial layer. The orthopedic rehabilitation performed against the background of the use of personal hygiene products showed a positive dynamics of all the studied parameters. After applying prosthetics, patients in the control group noted the restoration of chewing and speech, improved appearance and mood. CONCLUSION: Orthopedic treatment of patients after jaw resection in combination with the complex use of PO and OP allows to solve the issue of their functional, cosmetic and social rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Osteonecrose , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Humanos , Higiene , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fala , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat ; 29(3): 115-122, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975297

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This questionnaire study evaluates dermatological complaints that may arise due to hygiene measures and anxiety among healthcare professionals (HCPs) during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: A total of 526 volunteers, consisting of doctors and nurses, participated. Demographic features, personal hygiene behavior, personal protective equipment (PPE) use, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety (HADS-A) parameters, and symptoms of various dermatological diseases (xerosis, eczema, acne, hair loss, palmar hyperhidrosis, xeromycteria, urticaria, aphthous stomatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis) were investigated. RESULTS: Although the frequency and severity of many dermatological complaints increased during the pandemic period, the most frequent increase was observed in the frequency of complaints suggesting xerosis and eczema. We found that complaints suggesting xerosis and eczema were seen on the hands 2.44 and 3.57 times, respectively, as a result of washing hands 10 times/day, and that handwashing times of 10 seconds or more significantly increased the risk of eczema (5.44 times). Another remarkable result was a fivefold increase in acne complaints among those using any mask. The severity of all complaints except hair loss and seborrheic dermatitis correlated significantly with HADS-A. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that the frequency and severity of some dermatological complaints increased in HCPs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Eczema/epidemiologia , Dermatoses da Mão/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Luvas Protetoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia
3.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 24(5): 358-364, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886632

RESUMO

When using ventilators in the management of the coronavirus disease 2019 patient, dense and abundant mucous secretions are formed, obstructing the endotracheal tube and making its aspiration difficult. This situation is worsened if in order to minimize the risk of infection of the medical personnel, the humidifier is disconnected. This circumstance forces the tube to be removed, cleaned, or changed, increasing the workload of the intensive care unit staff. Other therapies tested until now, like mesna, acetylcysteine, or hypertonic saline solution, are valid alternatives, although they have not shown great efficacy for this specific procedure in the past. The sanitary emergency forced the collaboration between a pharmacist and an otorhinolaryngologist to develop the cocamidopropyl betaine surfactant formula, after several tests with different concentrations of the surfactant. The objective of this compounding formula was to resolve a mechanical problem and avoid reintubation due to obstruction of the ventilator tube. The cocamidopropyl betaine surfactant solution 0.075% in saline 0.9% (physiological serum) solution demonstrated to be a well-tolerated formula, using inexpensive materials, was simple to prepare, and was easy to use in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Betaína/análogos & derivados , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Intubação Intratraqueal , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Tensoativos/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus , Betaína/farmacologia , Humanos , Higiene , Pandemias , Ventiladores Mecânicos
4.
Medwave ; 20(8): e8012, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956343

RESUMO

Objective: To generate recommendations on the management of radiotherapeutic treatments during the pandemic, adapted to a country with limited health resources. Methods: We did a rapid review of the literature, searching for papers that describe any measures to reduce the risk of COVID-19 infection, as well as management guidelines to reduce the workload, in radiotherapy units. The following conditions were included in the scope of this review: gynecological tumors, breast cancer, gastrointestinal tumors, genitourinary tumors, head and neck tumors, skin cancer, tumors of the central nervous system, and lymphomas. An expert group discussed online the extracted data and drafted the recommendations. Using a modified Delphi method, the consensus was reached among 14 certificated radio-oncologists. The quality of the evidence that supported the recommendations on treatment schedules was assessed. Results: A total of 57 documents were included. Of these, 25 provided strategies to reduce the risk of infection. Recommendations for each condiction were extracted from the remaining documents. The recommendations aim to establish specific parameters where treatments can be omitted, deferred, prioritized, and shortened. Treatment schemes are recommended for each condition, prioritizing hypo-fractionated schemes whenever possible. Conclusions: We propose strategies for the management of radiotherapy services to guarantee the continuity of high-quality treatments despite the health crisis caused by COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Consenso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga de Trabalho , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Técnica Delfos , Desinfecção/métodos , Física Sanitária , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Doenças Profissionais/veterinária , Cuidados Paliativos/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/organização & administração , Distância Social , Triagem/organização & administração
5.
Rev Prat ; 70(3): 305-309, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877066

RESUMO

Complications related to tattoo practice. Tattooing can result in a wide variety of complications, whose prevalence and incidence remain still unclear. Hypersensitivity reactions (or allergies) to tattoo pigments are currently the most common complication on a tattoo, however are not predictable. Infections are nowadays directly related to the lack of asepsis and hygiene during the tattooing procedure or during the healing phase. Patients with a known cutaneous disease should be warned of a potential risk of localization of their disease to the tattoo. Patients with chronic conditions and/or impaired immunity should discuss with their physician about the possibility and when to have a tattoo. Laser removal is the gold standard for tattoo removal and include Q-switched, picoseconds and CO2 lasers. However, a complete disappearance of the tattoo is not always possible.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Dermatopatias , Tatuagem , Humanos , Higiene , Tatuagem/efeitos adversos
6.
J Bras Nefrol ; 42(2 suppl 1): 32-35, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877496

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The impact of the new coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) and its worldwide clinical manifestations (COVID-19) imposed specific regional recommendations for populations in need of specialized care, such as children and adolescents with kidney diseases, particularly in renal replacement therapies (RRT). We present the recommendations of the Brazilian Society of Nephrology regarding the treatment of pediatric patients with kidney diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Articles and documents from medical societies and government agencies on specific recommendations for children on RRT in relation to COVID-19 as well as those focused on epidemiological aspects of this condition in Brazil Were evaluated and analyzed. RESULTS: We present recommendations on outpatient care, transportation to dialysis centers, peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, and kidney transplantation in children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. DISCUSSION: Despite initial observations of higher mortality rates in specific age groups (the elderly) and with comorbidities (obese, diabetics, and those with cardiovascular diseases), patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on RRT are particularly prone to develop COVID-19. Specific measures must be taken to reduce the risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 and developing COVID-19, especially during transport to dialysis facilities, as well as on arrival and in contact with other patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Nefropatias/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/normas , Adolescente , Assistência Ambulatorial , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Transplante de Rim , Máscaras , Nefrologia/normas , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Isolamento de Pacientes , Pediatria , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Terapia de Substituição Renal/métodos , Sociedades Médicas , Avaliação de Sintomas , Transporte de Pacientes
7.
Gastroenterol. hepatol. (Ed. impr.) ; 43(7): 408-413, ago.-sept. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-191020

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which was described in China in late 2019. There are currently more than three million diagnosed cases, constituting a pandemic which has caused a worldwide crisis. The devastating effects of this infection are due to its highly contagious nature and although mild forms predominate, in absolute values, the rates for severe forms and mortality are very high. The information on the characteristics of the infection in inflammatory bowel disease is of special interest, as these patients have higher attendance at health centres, which may increase their risk of infection. Furthermore, the treatments used to control the inflammatory activity may modify the disease course of COVID-19. The Spanish Working Group on Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis and the Spanish Nurses Working Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease have prepared this document as a practical response to some common questions about the treatment of these patients


La COVID-19 es un síndrome respiratorio agudo grave producido por el coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 que se describió en China a finales de 2019. Actualmente hay más de tres millones de casos diagnosticados, constituyendo una situación de pandemia que ha ocasionado una crisis a nivel mundial. El efecto devastador de esta infección se debe a su alta contagiosidad y, aunque predominan las formas leves, los casos graves y la mortalidad en valores absolutos son muy elevados. La información sobre las características de la infección en la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal tiene especial interés, y esto es debido a que estos pacientes tienen una mayor frecuentación de centros sanitarios, lo que puede incrementar el riesgo de contagio. Además, los tratamientos que se administran para el control de la actividad inflamatoria podrían modificar la evolución de la COVID-19. El Grupo Español de Trabajo en Enfermedad de Crohn y Colitis Ulcerosa, en colaboración con el Grupo Enfermero de Trabajo en EII, ha elaborado este documento que tiene como objetivo responder de forma práctica algunas dudas frecuentes en el tratamiento de estos pacientes


Assuntos
Humanos , Consenso , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comorbidade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Higiene/normas , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Prognóstico , Tempo de Internação , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenterologia/normas , Betacoronavirus
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 682, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enterobacter cloacae species is responsible for nosocomial outbreaks in vulnerable patients in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). The environment can constitute the reservoir and source of infection in NICUs. Herein we report the impact of preventive measures implemented after an Enterobacter cloacae outbreak inside a NICU. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in one level 3 NICU in Lyon, France, over a 6 year-period (2012-2018). After an outbreak of Enterobacter cloacae infections in hospitalized neonates in 2013, several measures were implemented including intensive biocleaning and education of medical staff. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of infected patients and evolution of colonization/infection with Enterobacter spp. in this NICU were retrieved. Moreover, whole genome sequencing was performed on 6 outbreak strains. RESULTS: Enterobacter spp. was isolated in 469 patients and 30 patients developed an infection including 2 meningitis and 12 fatal cases. Preventive measures and education of medical staff were not associated with a significant decrease in patient colonisation but led to a persistent decreased use of cephalosporin in the NICU. Infection strains were genetically diverse, supporting the hypothesis of multiple hygiene defects rather than the diffusion of a single clone. CONCLUSIONS: Grouped cases of infections inside one setting are not necessarily related to a single-clone outbreak and could reveal other environmental and organisational problematics. The fight against implementation and transmission of Enterobacter spp. in NICUs remains a major challenge.


Assuntos
Enterobacter cloacae/patogenicidade , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Enterobacter cloacae/genética , Enterobacter cloacae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , França , Humanos , Higiene , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Sepse Neonatal/epidemiologia , Sepse Neonatal/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
9.
Cuad Bioet ; 31(102): 223-229, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910673

RESUMO

With the arrival of the COVID-19 pandemic, the risk of a possible lack of care for the elderly in nursing homes became evident. We summarize the experience of a multidisciplinary team with volunteer professionals from different specialties who carried out support for healthcare professionals in nursing homes. This team was implemented from both Primary and Specialty Care managements. Its work paradigm was proposed by our home hospitalization team, which included direct care of the most complex patients and general counselling on isolation, hygiene and preventive measures within the nursing homes. Thanks to this support, the elderly population placed there, with suspected or diagnosed COVID-19, received adequate care from an interdisciplinary team, which led part of the pressure to be released from their professional workers, and many family members were aware that there was no neglect of the elderly. Commitment from various levels of care in a coordinated effort has prevented a vulnerable population from being left unattended during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Casas de Saúde/ética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Idoso , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Higiene , Controle de Infecções , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Cuidados Paliativos/ética , Pandemias/ética , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Isolamento de Pacientes , Transferência de Pacientes/ética , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Relações Profissional-Família , Qualidade de Vida , Avaliação de Sintomas , Populações Vulneráveis
11.
Ig Sanita Pubbl ; 76(2): 119-129, 2020.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877396

RESUMO

The Authors present the results of an experience carried out in a University General Hospital, for the assessment of the sanitation of surfaces and instruments in the context of hospital refection. A specific procedure has been quarterly implemented in order to verify the correct execution of the sanitization procedures. In the time-period September 2016 - March 2020 Petri dishes and tampons were used in order to determine the following microbiological parameters and indicators: total bacterial load at 30 degrees C, Coliforms, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and mycetic load. Only 7 out of 82 sanitized surfaces (8.5% of the total) were found to be not complying, only for total bacterial load at 30 degrees C, mycetic load and Coliforms. The systematic application of this procedure and the results of the survey conducted, comforting as a whole, confirm the attention reserved to the hygienic level of surfaces, tools, equipment and utensils, in the context of the centralized catering service of the hospital, in which the Health Department, sharing with the UOC Hospital Hygiene the specific hygienic procedure, has always been at the forefront of the proposal of interventions, considering the increased susceptibility and vulnerability of the hospitalized patients.


Assuntos
Hospitais Universitários/normas , Higiene/normas , Saneamento/normas , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD013057, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), sometimes referred to as chronic otitis media (COM), is a chronic inflammation and often polymicrobial infection (involving more than one micro-organism) of the middle ear and mastoid cavity, characterised by ear discharge (otorrhoea) through a perforated tympanic membrane. The predominant symptoms of CSOM are ear discharge and hearing loss. Aural toileting is a term describing a number of processes for manually cleaning the ear. Techniques used may include dry mopping (with cotton wool or tissue paper), suction clearance (typically under a microscope) or irrigation (using manual or automated syringing). Dry mopping may be effective in removing mucopurulent discharge. Compared to irrigation or microsuction it is less effective in removing epithelial debris or thick pus. Aural toileting can be used alone or in addition to other treatments for CSOM, such as antibiotics or topical antiseptics. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of aural toilet procedures for people with CSOM. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the Cochrane ENT Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL via the Cochrane Register of Studies); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid Embase; CINAHL; Web of Science; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 16 March 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with at least a one-week follow-up involving people (adults and children) who had chronic ear discharge of unknown cause or CSOM, where the ear discharge had continued for more than two weeks. We included any aural toileting method as the intervention, at any frequency and for any duration. The comparisons were aural toileting compared with a) placebo or no intervention, and b) any other aural toileting method. We analysed trials in which background treatments were used in both arms (e.g. topical antiseptics or topical antibiotics) separately. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard Cochrane methodological procedures. We used GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence for each outcome. Our primary outcomes were: resolution of ear discharge or 'dry ear' (whether otoscopically confirmed or not), measured at between one week and up to two weeks, two weeks to up to four weeks, and after four weeks; health-related quality of life using a validated instrument; and ear pain (otalgia) or discomfort or local irritation. Secondary outcomes were hearing, serious complications, and the adverse events of ear bleeding and dizziness/vertigo/balance problems. MAIN RESULTS: We included three studies with a total of 431 participants (465 ears), reporting on two comparisons. Two studies included only children with CSOM in the community (351 participants) and the other study (80 participants) included children and adults with chronic ear discharge for at least six weeks. None of the included studies reported the outcomes of health-related quality of life, ear pain or the adverse event of ear bleeding. Daily aural toileting (dry mopping) versus no treatment Two studies (351 children; 370 ears) compared daily dry mopping with no treatment. Neither study presented results for resolution of ear discharge at between one and up to two weeks or between two to four weeks. For resolution of ear discharge after four weeks, one study reported the results per person. We are very uncertain whether there is a difference at 16 weeks (risk ratio (RR) 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60 to 1.72; 1 study; 217 participants) because the certainty of the evidence is very low. No results were reported for the adverse events of dizziness, vertigo or balance problems. Only one study reported serious complications, but it was not clear which group these patients were from, or whether the complications occurred pre- or post-treatment. One study reported hearing, but the results were presented by treatment outcome rather than by treatment group so it is not possible to determine whether there is a difference between the two groups. Daily aural toileting versus single aural toileting on top of topical ciprofloxacin One study (80 participants; 95 ears) compared daily aural toileting (suction) with administration of topical antibiotic (ciprofloxacin) ear drops in a clinic, to a single aural toileting (suction) episode followed by daily self-administered topical antibiotic drops, in participants of all ages. We are unsure whether there is a difference in resolution of ear discharge at between one and up to two weeks (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.30; 1 study; 80 participants) because the certainty of the evidence is very low. There were no results reported for resolution of ear discharge at between two to four weeks. The results for resolution of ear discharge after four weeks were presented by ear, not person, and could not be adjusted to by person. One patient in the group with single aural toileting and self administration of topical antibiotic ear drops reported the adverse event of dizziness, which the authors attributed to the use of cold topical ciprofloxacin. It is very uncertain whether there is a difference between the groups (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.01 to 7.95; 1 study; 80 participants, very low-certainty). No results were reported for the other adverse events of vertigo or balance problems, or for serious complications. The authors only reported qualitatively that there was no difference between the two groups in hearing results (very low-certainty). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We are very uncertain whether or not treatment with aural toileting is effective in resolving ear discharge in people with CSOM, due to a lack of data and the poor quality of the available evidence. We also remain uncertain about other outcomes, including adverse events, as these were not well reported. Similarly, we are very uncertain whether daily suction clearance, followed by antibiotic ear drops administered at a clinic, is better than a single episode of suction clearance followed by self-administration of topical antibiotic ear drops.


Assuntos
Higiene , Otite Média Supurativa/terapia , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Viés , Criança , Doença Crônica , Ciprofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sucção/métodos , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Ann Ig ; 32(5): 472-520, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744582

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The health emergency caused by the spread of SARS-COV-2 virus has required the adoption of passive measures against contagion, such as social distancing. The use of filtering masks, of the different types available on the market, such as surgical and facial filtering masks (FFP1, FFP2 and FFP3), is also recommended. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper, within the Italian and European regulatory reference framework, is to suggest a rational application of existing methodologies that enable to know and assess the features and/or make a face mask intended to be used by the community. In addition to this, the study aims to provide a correct regulatory framework and useful information for a correct use and disposal of face masks. Another purpose is the assessment of the hygienic, sanitary and regulatory aspects related to the use and disposal of face masks. METHODS: The analysis of filtering masks is based on the review of scientific literature, the state of art of technology and the filtering means/materials available. Reference is made to filtering mechanisms and devices, the testing methods, the technical, manufacturing and performance features, and to the Italian and European regulatory reference framework. Reference is also made to the hygienic, sanitary and regulatory aspects related to the use and disposal of face masks. RESULTS: Surgical masks or, alternatively, filtering masks with a filtration efficiency between 90% and 95% for 3-µm particles, are the most practicable choice with minor contraindications. The reusable type of mask is conceptually superior compared to single-use masks, but cleaning procedures to be followed are quite complex and not always described in a clear way. CONCLUSIONS: The definition of rigorous and repeatable tests on mask filtration capacity, breathability, wearability, duration of use, regeneration, as well as safe disposal methods, are the main way to provide users with correct selection and use criteria. The results must be disclosed and disseminated quickly.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Filtração/instrumentação , Higiene/normas , Máscaras/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Têxteis/normas , Desenho de Equipamento , Europa (Continente) , França , Humanos , Higiene/legislação & jurisprudência , Itália , Máscaras/classificação , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/normas
14.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(8)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764128

RESUMO

While large-scale changes in population behaviour are required to reduce the transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus, the emergency context is not conducive to the sort of careful communications planning that would normally be required to meet such a task. Rapid strategic communications planning in a pandemic by governments is, however, possible and necessary. Steps include setting up a dedicated communications task force, mobilising partners and resources, developing a creative brief and theory of change and overseeing the creation, testing, roll out and revision of content. In this short guide, we argue that a minimum of strategic planning can be undertaken rapidly, and that good use can be made of simple principles of behaviour change, even during pandemics. Our aim here is to provide a blueprint that governments and their partners, especially in low-income settings, can follow to design, coordinate and resource national communications efforts to combat the COVID-19 pandemic immediately and for the longer term.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Higiene , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 607, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During an evolving outbreak or pandemic, non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) including physical distancing, isolation, and mask use may flatten the peak in communities. However, these strategies rely on community understanding and motivation to engage to ensure appropriate compliance and impact. To support current activities for COVID-19, the objectives of this narrative review was to identify the key determinants impacting on engagement. METHODS: An integrative narrative literature review focused on NPIs. We aimed to identify published peer-reviewed articles that focused on the general community (excluding healthcare workers), NPIs (including school closure, quarantine, isolation, physical distancing and hygiene behaviours), and factors/characteristics (including social, physical, psychological, capacity, motivation, economic and demographic) that impact on engagement. RESULTS: The results revealed that there are a range of demographic, social and psychological factors underpinning engagement with quarantine, school closures, and personal protective behaviours. Aside from the factors impacting on acceptance and compliance, there are several key community concerns about their use that need to be addressed including the potential for economic consequences. CONCLUSION: It is important that we acknowledge that these strategies will have an impact on an individual and the community. By understanding the barriers, we can identify what strategies need to be adopted to motivate individuals and improve community compliance. Using a behavioural framework to plan interventions based on these key barriers, will also ensure countries implement appropriate and targeted responses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Higiene , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/métodos , Isolamento Social , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas
16.
Rev Infirm ; 69(262): 39-41, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838866

RESUMO

In the current context of the health crisis brought about by the Covid-19 epidemic, the implementation of good practices in terms of preventing contagion and the respect of good hygiene practices is vital. The hospital hygiene teams must be involved in raising awareness of these good practices. They rely notably on hygiene resource paramedical practitioners to share these practices with the nursing teams, notably in the area of the prevention of care-related infections and the spread of emerging highly drug-resistant bacteria. A focus group study conducted in 2019 in a military health facility in Brittany provides interesting insight into their practice.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Higiene , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Equipe de Enfermagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0233325, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756562

RESUMO

Antibiotics discovery was a significant breakthrough in the field of therapeutic medicines, but the over (mis)use of such antibiotics (in parallel) caused the increasing number of resistant bacterial species at an ever-higher rate. This study was thus devised to assess the multi-drug resistant bacteria present in sanitation-related facilities in human workplaces. In this regard, samples were collected from different gender, location, and source-based facilities, and subsequent antibiotic sensitivity testing was performed on isolated bacterial strains. Four classes of the most commonly used antibiotics i.e., ß-lactam, Aminoglycosides, Macrolides, and Sulphonamides, were evaluated against the isolated bacteria. The antibiotic resistance profile of different (70) bacterial strains showed that the antibiotic resistance-based clusters also followed the grouping based on their isolation sources, mainly the gender. Twenty-three bacterial strains were further selected for their 16s rRNA gene based molecular identification and for phylogenetic analysis to evaluate the taxonomic evolution of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB). Moreover, the bacterial resistance to Sulphonamides and beta lactam was observed to be the most and to Aminoglycosides and macrolides as the least. Plasmid curing was also performed for multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial strains, which significantly abolished the resistance potential of bacterial strains for different antibiotics. These curing results suggested that the antibiotic resistance determinants in these purified bacterial strains are present on respective plasmids. Altogether, the data suggested that the human workplaces are the hotspot for the prevalence of MDR bacteria and thus may serve as the source of horizontal gene transfer and further transmission to other environments.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Toaletes , Local de Trabalho , Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Microbiologia Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional , Paquistão , Filogenia , Plasmídeos , Prevalência , Fatores R , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Saneamento
20.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 17: E82, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790606

RESUMO

Populations disproportionately affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are also at higher risk for oral diseases and experience oral health and oral health care disparities at higher rates. COVID-19 has led to closure and reduced hours of dental practices except for emergency and urgent services, limiting routine care and prevention. Dental care includes aerosol-generating procedures that can increase viral transmission. The pandemic offers an opportunity for the dental profession to shift more toward nonaerosolizing, prevention-centric approaches to care and away from surgical interventions. Regulatory barrier changes to oral health care access during the pandemic could have a favorable impact if sustained into the future.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Higiene/normas , Saúde Bucal/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
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