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1.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271726, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917339

RESUMO

A healthy and a dignified life experience requires adequate water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) coverage. However, inadequate WaSH resources remain a significant public health challenge in many communities in Southern Africa. A systematic search of peer-reviewed journal articles from 2010 -May 2022 was undertaken on Medline, PubMed, EbscoHost and Google Scholar from 2010 to May 2022 was searched using combinations of predefined search terms with Boolean operators. Eighteen peer-reviewed articles from Southern Africa satisfied the inclusion criteria for this review. The general themes that emerged for both barriers and facilitators included geographical inequalities, climate change, investment in WaSH resources, low levels of knowledge on water borne-diseases and ineffective local community engagement. Key facilitators to improved WaSH practices included improved WaSH infrastructure, effective local community engagement, increased latrine ownership by individual households and the development of social capital. Water and sanitation are critical to ensuring a healthy lifestyle. However, many people and communities in Southern Africa still lack access to safe water and improved sanitation facilities. Rural areas are the most affected by barriers to improved WaSH facilities due to lack of WaSH infrastructure compared to urban settings. Our review has shown that, the current WaSH conditions in Southern Africa do not equate to the improved WaSH standards described in SDG 6 on ensuring access to water and sanitation for all. Key barriers to improved WaSH practices identified include rurality, climate change, low investments in WaSH infrastructure, inadequate knowledge on water-borne illnesses and lack of community engagement.


Assuntos
Saneamento , Água , África Austral , Humanos , Higiene , Abastecimento de Água
2.
Vet Rec ; 191(3): 132, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929701

RESUMO

A vet with all-round ability, focus and capacity for hard work. His involvement in meat hygiene led him to chair the BVA's public health committee and become its spokesman on related matters.


Assuntos
Carne , Saúde Pública , Animais , Higiene
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954994

RESUMO

(1) Background: This study aimed to investigate the existing water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) policy and practice of the study population and strengthen the evidence base by documenting changes in the WASH policy and practice over 3 years of the Rohingya refugee humanitarian crisis, Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh. (2) Methods: A cross-sectional surveillance design was followed; the sampling of the study population included the Rohingya refugee population and neighborhood host nationals who required hospitalization soon after seeking care and enrolled into the diarrheal disease surveillance in diarrhea-treatment centers. Throughout the study period of 3 years, a total of 4550 hospitalized individuals constituted the study participants. (3) Results: Among the hospitalized Rohingya refugee population; the use of public tap water increased significantly from 38.5% in year 1 to 91% in year 3. The use of deep tube well water significantly changed from 31.3% to 8.2%, and the use of shallow tube well water reduced significantly from 25.8% to 0.4%. Households using water seal latrine were 13.3% in year 1 and increased significantly to 31.7% in year 3. ORS consumption at home changed significantly from 61.5% in the first year to 82.1% in third year. Multivariable analysis demonstrated patients' age groups at 5 to 14 years, and 15 years and more, drinking non-tube well water, soap use after using toilet, use of non-sanitary toilet facility, father's and mother's lack of schooling, and some and severe dehydration were significantly associated with the Rohingya refugee population enrolled into the diarrheal disease surveillance. (4) Conclusion: The findings indicate significant advances in WASH service delivery as well as outreach activities by aid agencies for the Rohingya refugee population living in settlements.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Saneamento , Adolescente , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Higiene , Água
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 42: 65, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35949483

RESUMO

Introduction: adolescent in-schoolgirls often experience stigmatization, physical and psychological stress during their menstrual period that causes them to miss school. Menstruation-induced school absenteeism is preventable. The purpose of the study was to assess the factors associated with school absenteeism by both urban and rural school-going adolescent girls during their period. Methods: adolescent female students in Junior and Senior Secondary classes, who have attained menarche, participated in the study. A researcher designed, pretested and validated self-administered questionnaire, consisting of questions related to perception about menstruation and reasons for missing school during menstruation was used for data collection. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Descriptive data were presented using percentages, while the association between the variables of interest, were verified using Chi-Square test. Results: mean age of the girls was 14.4 (±1.8) years while mean age at menarche was 12.2 (±1.3) years. Although respondents identified several factors as responsible for school absenteeism, however, only fear of ridicule by other students (p ≤ 0.001) and unavailability of sanitary towels (p = 0.006) were significantly associated with missing school. Lack of sanitary towels was significantly associated with location (p = 0.012) and socio-economic status of mothers (0.006); while perception of menstruation as a disease was associated with feeling of tiredness and discomfort (p = 0.017). Conclusion: findings have shown that school absenteeism during menstruation is a serious problem among respondents capable of adversely affecting their academic performance. Access to sanitary towels and WASH facilities should be provided in schools to create an enabling environment to motivate school attendance by the adolescent girls.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Higiene , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Menstruação , Nigéria , Instituições Acadêmicas
5.
Soc Sci Med ; 308: 115191, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930847

RESUMO

Host to one billion people around the world, informal settlements are especially vulnerable to COVID-19 lockdown measures as they already lack basic services such as water, toilets, and secure housing. Additionally, many residents work in informal labor markets that have been affected by the lockdowns, resulting in further reductions in access to resources, including clean water. This study uses a cross-sectional design (n = 532) to examine the vulnerabilities of households to employment and business disruptions, water access and hygiene practices during the COVID-19 lockdowns between April and June 2020 in three informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. We used survey questions from the Household Water Insecurity Experience Scale (HWISE) to investigate the relationship between employment and business disruptions, water access, and hygiene practices (i.e., hand washing, body washing, clothes washing, and being able to use or drink clean water). Of the sampled households, 96% were forced to reduce work hours during the lockdowns, and these households had 92% lower odds of being able to afford water than households who did not experience a work hour reduction (OR = 0.08, p < .001). Household challenges in affording water were likely due to a combination of reduced household income, increased water prices, and pre-existing poverty, and were ultimately associated with lower hygiene scores (Beta = 1.9, p < .001). Our results highlight a compounding tragedy of reduced water access in informal settlements that were already facing water insecurities at a time when water is a fundamental requirement for following hygiene guidelines to reduce disease burden during an ongoing pandemic. These outcomes emphasize the need for targeted investments in permanent water supply infrastructures and improved hygiene behaviors as a public health priority among households in informal settlements.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Emprego , Humanos , Higiene , Quênia/epidemiologia , Saneamento , Água , Abastecimento de Água
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 913262, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35958860

RESUMO

Background: Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM) is a much-neglected issue in developing countries, including Ethiopia. Menstruating women and girls are forced into isolation, prevented from movement, dietary restrictions, and can be prevented from participating in daily routine activities. Furthermore, the way almost all previous studies conducted in Ethiopia measured the practice of MHM did not meet standard definition of safe MHM. This study aimed to assess safe management of menstrual hygiene practice and associated factors among female adolescent students in public high schools in central Ethiopia. Methods: A mixed-methods approach was employed in this study. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select 846 study participants. The collected data were entered through EPI INFO version 7 and exported to SPSS version 23 for cleaning and analysis. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to identify the association between MHM and independent variables. Finally, AOR, 95% CI, and p-value < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The qualitative data was analyzed by ATLAS.ti in order to extract the main themes and categories. Direct quotations were presented with a thick description of the findings. Results: The safe management of menstrual hygiene was 28.20%. Living with parents (AOR = 2.51, 95% CI:1.11-5.68), living with relatives (AOR = 7.41, 95% CI:2.55-21.54), having a merchant mother (AOR = 1.81, 95% CI:1.14-2.9), having a mother who has private work (AOR = 4.56, 95% CI:1.31-5.90), having a farmer father (AOR = 1.53, 95% CI:1.1-2.31), rural resident (AOR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.17-2.21) and realizing the absence of container for storing sanitary napkins in the toilet of the school latrine (AOR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.1-0.94) were factors associated with MHM. Findings from a qualitative study were discussed under four themes to explore barriers to menstrual hygiene management, and three themes emerged as enablers to menstrual hygiene management. Conclusions: The safe management of menstrual hygiene was low among adolescent girls. People with whom adolescent girls live, the occupational status of mother and father, residence, the availability of a container to dispose of sanitary napkins in school toilets were factors associated with menstrual hygiene management. Behavioral change communications must be provided to female students about menstrual hygiene.


Assuntos
Higiene , Menstruação , Adolescente , Etiópia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Higiene/educação , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
7.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 5(8): 3991-3998, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35912797

RESUMO

Biofilm is a microbiome complex comprising different bacterial colonies that typically adhere to device surfaces in water, which causes serious medical issues such as indwelling infections and outbreaks. Here, we developed a non-nanoparticle, flexible anti-biofilm hygiene coating consisting of lithocholic acid (LCA), zinc pyrithione (Zn), and cinnamaldehyde (Cn) (named as LCA-Zn-Cn) that largely prevents the bacteria adhesion to various water device surfaces such as stainless steel and glass through a synergistic mechanism. The existing chelated groups on LCA and Cn attract plenty of bacteria via hydrophobic interaction. Both the bactericidal reaction by grafting biocidal groups from both LCA and Cn and the bacteriostatic reaction by inhibiting cell division via zinc ions (Zn) lead to a largely improved bacteria/biofilm prevention. The antibacterial performance was assessed by using the JIS Z 2801/ISO 22196 method. The designed LCA-Zn-Cn coating displayed log10 reduction of 4.23 (99.9% reduction) of E. coli and log10 reduction of 3.51 (99.8% reduction) of E. faecalis on stainless steel, which are much higher than the control samples, demonstrating a promising colonization inhibition. In parallel, the polysulfone encapsulated beads also showed >99% reduction efficiency in batch and >97-98% reduction efficiency in continuous column tests using the Lake Michigan water. Due to the strong cross-linked configuration, the coating still showed >90.9% bacterial reduction after 3000 abrasion cycles and over 99.9% bacteria reduction after a high flow velocity of 1.99 m/s test, which confirmed the enhanced mechanical durability. By applying either spray or dip-coating, the designed polymer composite can be coated on a variety of irregular water devices with mass production using an auto-controlled robot arm.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana , Aço Inoxidável , Antibacterianos/química , Bactérias , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Escherichia coli , Higiene , Aço Inoxidável/química , Água
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897275

RESUMO

Disease risk associated with contaminated water, poor sanitation, and hygiene in informal settlement environments is conceptually well understood. From an analytical perspective, collecting data at a suitably fine scale spatial and temporal granularity is challenging. Novel mobile methodologies, such as spatial video (SV), can complement more traditional epidemiological field work to address this gap. However, this work then poses additional challenges in terms of analytical visualizations that can be used to both understand sub-neighborhood patterns of risk, and even provide an early warning system. In this paper, we use bespoke spatial programming to create a framework for flexible, fine-scale exploratory investigations of simultaneously-collected water quality and environmental surveys in three different informal settlements of Port-au-Prince, Haiti. We dynamically mine these spatio-temporal epidemiological and environmental data to provide insights not easily achievable using more traditional spatial software, such as Geographic Information System (GIS). The results include sub-neighborhood maps of localized risk that vary monthly. Most interestingly, some of these epidemiological variations might have previously been erroneously explained because of proximate environmental factors and/or meteorological conditions.


Assuntos
Meios de Comunicação , Áreas de Pobreza , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Higiene , Saneamento
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897510

RESUMO

The hygiene area is one of the most important facilities in a space station. If its environmental lighting is appropriately designed, it can significantly reduce the psychological pressure on astronauts. This study investigates the effect of correlated colour temperature (CCT) on heart rate, galvanic skin response, emotion and satisfaction in the hygiene area of a space station. Forty subjects participated in experiments in a hygiene area simulator with a controlled lighting environment. The lighting conditions included 2700 K, 3300 K, 3600 K, 5000 K and 6300 K; physiological responses (heart rate, galvanic skin response), as well as emotion and satisfaction, were recorded. The results showed that CCT significantly influenced the participants' physiological and subjective responses in the space station hygiene area. 6300 K led to the best emotion and satisfaction levels, the highest galvanic skin response and the lowest heart rate. The opposite was true for 2700 K.


Assuntos
Emoções , Satisfação Pessoal , Cor , Emoções/fisiologia , Humanos , Higiene , Temperatura
10.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271275, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35852998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women in rural settings particularly in schools suffer more from stigma and lack of services and facilities during menstruation. However, the issue has not received proper attention from school water sanitation and hygiene programs. And this study was aimed to identify knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene, and associated factors. METHOD: Institution based cross-sectional study was employed among 441 school girls in Mekidela city. EpiData Version 4.6 and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 25.0 were used for data entry and analysis, respectively. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression was employed to identify factors associated with the outcome variables. Variables with a p-value<0.25 in the bivariable analysis were a candidate for multivariable logistic regression and p-value<0.05 in the multivariable analysis was used to declare significant association. RESULTS: Of the respondents, 64.9% reported good knowledge of menstrual hygiene management. In multivariable analysis; grade level (grade 11 & 12) [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.23, 95% C.I (1.19-4.16)], age ≥ 19 years [AOR = 3.45, 95% C.I (1.78-6.69)], residence [AOR = 1.90, 95% C.I: (1.12-3.23)], know sanitary pads [AOR = 2.67, 95% CI: (1.19-6.00)] and learned about menstrual hygiene [AOR = 1.71, 95% CI: (1.02-2.87)] found to be associated with knowledge. About 62.4% have good menstrual hygiene practices. Knowledge on menstrual hygiene [AOR = 1.73, 95% C.I (1.07-2.80)], know about reproductive tract/sexually transmitted infections [AOR = 2.46, 95% CI: (1.37-4.43)], having private shower [AOR = 2.04, 95% C.I 2.04(1.24-3.37)] and residence [AOR = 3.76, 95% C.I:(2.18-6.51)] were factors associated with practice. CONCLUSION: Overall nearly two-third of respondents had good knowledge and good practice of menstrual hygiene management. Factors significantly associated with their knowledge included age, grade level, residence, learning on menstrual hygiene, and knowledge of sanitary pads. Residence, knowledge on menstrual hygiene, know about sexually transmitted infections and having a private shower were found to be associated with practice of menstrual hygiene management. In general, our finding indicates that menstrual hygiene was unsatisfactory among adolescent school girls and more should be done on the factors identified.


Assuntos
Menstruação , Infecções do Sistema Genital , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Higiene , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
11.
Br Dent J ; 233(1): 20-26, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35804119

RESUMO

Dentures are an excellent treatment modality for partial and edentate patients; however, improper denture care and hygiene can result in both decreased longevity of the prosthesis and increased risk of developing dental caries, periodontal disease and oral candidosis. Previously, it has been shown that patients and dental professionals are unaware of the different materials and methods available for optimum denture care and hygiene. This article provides an overview of the key legislation and main commercially available methods for denture cleanliness and hygiene, and serves as a basis for providing tailored denture hygiene for denture wearers.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Doenças Periodontais , Dentaduras , Humanos , Higiene
12.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0269341, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The menstrual needs of girls and women are important to health, education, and well-being. Unmet need and harm from poor menstrual health in low-and- middle-income countries have been documented, but with little empirical research undertaken in high income countries. Continuing austerity in the UK suggests menstruators are likely more vulnerable to 'period poverty' than previously, with the COVID-19 pandemic assumed to exacerbate the situation. AIM: To explore the menstrual experiences and perceptions of women in the UK who are living under circumstances of deprivation, alongside views of staff working in organisations supporting these women, to understand whether women's menstrual needs are met. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in an inner-city in NW England. Three focus group discussions and 14 in-depth interviews were conducted across three study sites supporting impoverished women. Data was analysed thematically. RESULTS: Themes were: reflections on menstruation; affordability of products; access to public facilities; organisational support; potential solutions. Many women perceived menstruation as a burden in three aspects: physical discomfort and pain; psychological anxiety; and shame and stigma. Managing menstruation was difficult due to cost relative to low incomes, with food, heating and lighting prioritised, leaving women improvising with materials or wearing products for longer than desired. Most suggested that products should be free, often remarking if men required similar items this would happen. Most women were unaware supporting organisations provided free products. Staff felt the small range of products offered did not meet client needs and were ill-prepared to have conversations on products and clients' menstrual needs. CONCLUSION: Impoverished women lack the necessary resources to manage their menses well which negatively impacts their health and brings stress, embarrassment, and shame. Support, including access to free products, is needed at both local and national level to help impoverished women manage their menstrual hygiene.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Menstruação , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Menstruação/psicologia , Pandemias , Pobreza
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11361, 2022 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35851044

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has led people to wear face masks daily in public. Although the effectiveness of face masks against viral transmission has been extensively studied, there have been few reports on potential hygiene issues due to bacteria and fungi attached to the face masks. We aimed to (1) quantify and identify the bacteria and fungi attaching to the masks, and (2) investigate whether the mask-attached microbes could be associated with the types and usage of the masks and individual lifestyles. We surveyed 109 volunteers on their mask usage and lifestyles, and cultured bacteria and fungi from either the face-side or outer-side of their masks. The bacterial colony numbers were greater on the face-side than the outer-side; the fungal colony numbers were fewer on the face-side than the outer-side. A longer mask usage significantly increased the fungal colony numbers but not the bacterial colony numbers. Although most identified microbes were non-pathogenic in humans; Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Cladosporium, we found several pathogenic microbes; Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Aspergillus, and Microsporum. We also found no associations of mask-attached microbes with the transportation methods or gargling. We propose that immunocompromised people should avoid repeated use of masks to prevent microbial infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Bactérias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Higiene , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
14.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 558, 2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35850715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite their importance to current and future patient care, medical students' hygiene behaviors and acquisition of practical skills have rarely been studied in previous observational study. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on medical student's hygiene and practical skills. METHODS: This case-control study assessed the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on hygiene behavior by contrasting the practical skills and hygiene adherence of 371 medical students post the pandemic associated lockdown in March 2020 with that of 355 medical students prior to the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. Students' skills were assessed using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Their skills were then compared based on their results in hygienic venipuncture and the total OSCE score. RESULTS: During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, medical students demonstrated an increased level of compliance regarding hand hygiene before (prior COVID-19: 83.7%; during COVID-19: 94.9%; p < 0.001) and after patient contact (prior COVID-19: 19.4%; during COVID-19: 57.2%; p = 0.000) as well as disinfecting the puncture site correctly (prior COVID-19: 83.4%; during COVID-19: 92.7%; p < 0.001). Prior to the pandemic, students were more proficient in practical skills, such as initial venipuncture (prior COVID-19: 47.6%; during COVID-19: 38%; p < 0.041), patient communication (prior COVID-19: 85.9%; during COVID-19: 74.1%; p < 0.001) and structuring their work process (prior COVID-19: 74.4%; during COVID-19: 67.4%; p < 0.024). CONCLUSION: Overall, the COVID-19 pandemic sensitized medical students' attention and adherence to hygiene requirements, while simultaneously reducing the amount of practice opportunities, thus negatively affecting their practical skills. The latter development may have to be addressed by providing additional practice opportunities for students as soon as the pandemic situation allows.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudantes de Medicina , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Competência Clínica , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Higiene , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Flebotomia , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Water Health ; 20(7): 1091-1101, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35902991

RESUMO

Water quality improvement, sanitation, and hygiene have been demonstrated to have positive impacts on health, social, and economic development. However, global understanding of water quality, sanitation, and hygiene is limited. The study extracted data from the Joint Monitoring Programme (WHO/UNICEF) and the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) to estimate global water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) levels. Statistical tools of univariate and multivariate analyses were used to process global access to WASH. Results show that men (53%) had access to safe water compared to women. Women (67%), on the other hand, demonstrated better hygiene practices than men (33%). In addition, adults had access to safe water compared to children, the elderly, and strangers. Globally, there is low water quality in landlock developing countries compared to small island developing states. The categorisation of countries into economic states of low, upper-middle, and high-income countries directly affects water quality, sanitation, and hygiene. Continentally, Africa recorded the least water quality, sanitation, and hygiene levels. Thus, African countries must learn from the best practice in governmental policies and management systems from other continents regarding water improvement, sanitation, and hygiene.


Assuntos
Saneamento , Abastecimento de Água , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Higiene , Renda , Masculino , Qualidade da Água
16.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1345, 2022 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35836162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Benin, access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) remains an issue. This study aims to provide an overview of household access to basic WASH services based on nationally representative data. METHOD: Secondary analyses were run using the 'HOUSEHOLD' dataset of the fifth Demographic and Health Survey 2017-2018. The dependent variables were household access to individual and combined basic WASH services. The characteristics of the household head and those related to the composition, wealth and environment of the household were independent variables. After a descriptive analysis of all study variables, multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of outcome variables. RESULTS: The study included 14,156 households. Of these, 63.98% (95% CI = 61.63-66.26), 13.28% (95% CI = 12.10-14.57) and 10.11% (95% CI = 9.19-11.11) had access to individual basic water, sanitation and hygiene facilities, respectively. Also, 3% (95% CI = 2.53-3.56) of households had access to combined basic WASH services. Overall, the richest households and few, and those headed by people aged 30 and over, female and with higher levels of education, were the most likely to have access to individual and combined basic WASH services. In addition, disparities based on the department of residence were observed. CONCLUSION: The authors suggest a multifactorial approach that addresses the identified determinants.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Saneamento , Adulto , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Higiene , Água , Abastecimento de Água
17.
HNO ; 70(8): 618-626, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35821425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, all essential treatment must adhere to strict health and hygiene protocols. New measures have been introduced in CI treatment centres in order to safely accommodate families and continue to provide effective follow-up CI therapy for children implanted with CIs. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to document, over the course of the pandemic, how patients' parents viewed the likelihood and danger of infection and how necessary they thought the newly implemented protocols were. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All parents of children implanted with CIs who participated in therapy at the CIC treatment centre between August and November 2020 (N = 255) were requested to fill out a questionnaire anonymously following their stay. RESULTS: 255 questionnaires were distributed, 83 (32.5%) of which were filled out. During the course of the study, there was an increase in the parents' perceived risk of infection. Simultaneously, fewer parents felt well protected at the CIC. According to parents, the new hygiene protocols at the CIC did not negatively affect treatment. However, many parents noted that their interactions with other patient families had been better prior to introduction of the hygiene protocols. CONCLUSIONS: The CIC`s hygiene protocols were well received. However, data analysis over the course of the study suggests that hygiene protocols were not sufficient to prevent fear of infection in light of increasing rate of infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Humanos , Higiene , Pacientes Internados , Pandemias , Pais , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e061032, 2022 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35790334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is a lack of research on experiences of WASH-related violence. This study aims to quantify the association between experience or worry of violence when using the toilet or collecting water and depressive symptoms among a cohort of young women in South Africa. METHODS: Data are from visit 3 of the HPTN 068 cohort of adolescent girls in rural Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Participants (n=1798) included in this analysis were aged 13-21 at baseline. Lifetime experience of violence or fear of violence when using the toilet and collecting water was collected by self-report; depressive symptoms in the past week were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). We used G-computation to calculate the prevalence difference (PD) and prevalence ratio of depression (CES-D score >15) associated with each domain of violence, controlling for baseline covariates. FINDINGS: A total of 15.1% of respondents reported experiencing violence when using the toilet; 17.1% reported experiencing violence when collecting water and 26.7% reported depression. In adjusted models, those who reported experiencing violence when using the toilet had an 18.1% higher prevalence of depression (95% CI: 11.6% to 24.4%) than those who did not experience violence when using the toilet. Adjusted prevalence of depression was also higher among those who reported violence when collecting water (PD 11.9%, 95% CI: 6.7% to 17.2%), and who worried about violence when using the toilet (PD 12.8%, 95% CI: 7.9% to 19.8%), as compared with those who did not report these experiences. Worrying about violence when collecting water was not associated with depression after adjusting for covariates. CONCLUSION: Experience of WASH-related violence is common among young women in rural South Africa, and experience or worry of experiencing violence is associated with higher prevalence of depressive symptoms. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01233531; Post-results.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Depressão , Violência , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Higiene , Prevalência , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Saneamento , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Toaletes , Violência/psicologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Água , Abastecimento de Água , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e059677, 2022 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793914

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Shiftworkers routinely obtain inadequate sleep, which has major health consequences. Sleep hygiene describes a range of behaviours, lifestyle and environmental factors that can improve sleep. To date, limited research has examined sleep hygiene in shiftworkers. This study aimed to assess the sociodemographic and behavioural correlates of sleep hygiene knowledge and engagement with sleep hygiene practices in Australian shiftworkers. STUDY DESIGN: An online, cross-sectional survey. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Australian adults from across multiple industries (n=588) who work shift work. MEASURES: The online survey included questions regarding sleep hygiene knowledge and questions from modified versions of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Sleep Hygiene Index. RESULTS: Of the 588 participants, 52.9% reported having heard of 'sleep hygiene'. Of these participants, 77.5% reported understanding the term moderately, extremely or very well. Engagement with each sleep hygiene practice was varied. Common sleep hygiene practices were controlling the bedroom environment (eg, a cool, dark and quiet bedroom). Less common practices were avoiding light as bedtime approaches. Logistic regressions revealed that shiftworkers who had heard of sleep hygiene were more likely to engage in sleep hygiene practices and had better sleep quality compared with those who had not heard of sleep hygiene. Increased engagement in sleep hygiene practices did not predict the likelihood of individuals reporting better sleep quality. CONCLUSIONS: Shiftworkers demonstrated varied knowledge, understanding and engagement with individual sleep hygiene practices. Future research should focus on the development of sleep hygiene interventions that accommodate the unique challenges of shift work to optimise sleep.


Assuntos
Higiene , Sono , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805802

RESUMO

Food waste in households is a consequence of the accumulation of improper practices employed by consumers when dealing with food. The survey estimated the impact of practices of Polish respondents, in the context of selected food safety and hygiene issues, on throwing away food due to spoilage. The survey was conducted in 2019, in a random quota-based, nationwide sample of 1115 respondents 18 years old and older. Synthetic indicators (SI) were created to assess the knowledge and practices of Polish adult respondents concerning selected areas of food management and the frequency of throwing food away. Most food products were not thrown away at all or were thrown away occasionally. Regression analysis revealed that the frequency of throwing food away was to the greatest extent related to food spoilage (ß = 0.223). Among the five areas of Polish respondents' practices covered by the analysis, the most conducive to wasting food due to spoilage were improper proceedings with food after bringing it home (ß = 0.135; p = 0.000), a failure to ensure proper food storage conditions (ß = 0.066; p = 0.030), or inappropriate proceedings with uneaten meals, excluding the food plate (ß = 0.066; p = 0.029). To reduce food waste in Polish households, drawing the attention of consumers to the conditions of food storage at home seems appropriate. It is also vital to convince them to use freezing of uneaten food as an effective method of extending the life of food products.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Características da Família , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Higiene
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