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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e211060, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1254621

RESUMO

Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of ultrasonic bath and traditional brushing in the hygiene of complete dentures of dependent residents in long-term care institutions (LTCIs). Methods: A randomized cross-over clinical study was conducted in 17 maxillary complete denture wearers living in LTCIs. Cleaning protocols were brushing or ultrasonic bath, both applied with neutral liquid soap. Biofilm biomass were estimated by MTT reduction assay and specific microbial load (CFU) of Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Candida spp. were quantified by selective and differential culture media. Results: Ultrasound method showed higher percentage reduction of biofilm biomass and specific microbial loads of Streptococcus spp. compared to brushing (p<0.01). Reduction of microbial loads of the other microorganisms were not different between cleaning methods (p>0.05). Conclusions: The ultrasonic bath proved to be a feasible alternative method for the mechanical cleaning of complete dentures in LTCIs


Assuntos
Idoso , Higiene , Dentaduras , Biofilmes , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos
2.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74Suppl 2(Suppl 2): e20200890, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231779

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to build and validate an educational booklet for bathing and hygiene of elders at home. METHODS: a methodological study, developed through data collection in literature and situational diagnosis, booklet construction, material qualification through validation by expert judges (11 nurses) and target audience (30 caregivers). Data were analyzed descriptively. The minimum content validity index of 0.80 was considered. RESULTS: in content and appearance validation, experts assigned Content Validity Index global of 0.92, while for assessment of the material's suitability, the booklet was classified as "superior", with an average of 90%. In the validation of caregivers, the overall Content Validity Index was 1.0. CONCLUSION: the booklet was successfully validated and can be considered in the context of health education and collaborate with an adequate and safe practice of bathing and hygiene of elders at home.


Assuntos
Folhetos , Autocuidado , Idoso , Tecnologia Educacional , Humanos , Higiene , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 63(1): e1-e3, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212751

RESUMO

In the wake of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the links between poor hygiene, unclean environments and human health cannot be overemphasised, particularly in South Africa with its high incidence of infectious diseases and overburdened health system. One very controllable factor that is often overlooked is the poor disposal of litter and waste management and its adverse effects on public health. By wearing masks, regular handwashing and sanitising, as well as making sure that neighbourhoods and public spaces are clean and safe, the spread of COVID-19 and other diseases can be prevented.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Saúde Ambiental/organização & administração , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Saúde Pública/métodos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Condições Sociais , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , África do Sul/epidemiologia
4.
Rev Infirm ; 70(272): 25-26, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238491

RESUMO

Microorganisms are invisible to the naked eye. Hospital hygiene practices are therefore based on the representation that caregivers have of them. This difficulty can generate irrational behavior and fear of blame. Conversely, a better knowledge of the specificities of this invisible living world favors a rationalization of care practices. To do this, caregivers will be able to appropriate the major concepts of microbiology, particularly microbial ecology.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Ecossistema , Humanos , Higiene
5.
Ann Ig ; 33(5): 513-517, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224553

RESUMO

Abstract: Starting from the minimum requirements indicated by Lombardy Region, a validation checklist has been developed by experts in design, healthcare layout planning, hygiene and public health, planning and compliance, in order to provide managers of COVID-19 massive vaccination centers with a useful and easy-to-use tool to ensure quality, safety and efficiency of the different activities performed.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Centros Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Vacinação em Massa/organização & administração , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos de Validação como Assunto , Vacinas contra COVID-19/provisão & distribuição , Lista de Checagem , Centros Comunitários de Saúde/normas , Eficiência Organizacional , Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde , Humanos , Higiene , Itália , Segurança do Paciente , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde
6.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 62(3): 79-84, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219100

RESUMO

Boiled noodles are considered to be one of the most perishable foods due to their high moisture content and high water activity. Thus, the hygiene control measures based on HACCP manuals has been recommended in the noodle manufacturing industry. However, there were several cases in which post-packaged products manufactured at the Boiled noodles factory of small-to-medium size company detected a viable cell count higher than their voluntary standards. To identify the source of microbial contamination, an investigation based on the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle was conducted. The results showed that the bacteria causing the contamination were environmental bacteria. Secondary contamination occurred during the cooling process after sterilization. Airborne environmental bacteria and oxygen may have been introduced into the rinsing and cooling water tank by the strong water flow during the rinsing and cooling process, inducing growth of microorganisms in the cooling water and contaminating the final product. This is a new finding, as such occurrence was not listed in the HACCP manual and should be contributed to plan HACCP system.


Assuntos
Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle , Higiene , Bactérias
7.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066852

RESUMO

Inadequate macro- and micronutrient nutrition and its consequences, such as anaemia, iron and vitamin deficiency, and growth retardation, could particularly affect children of small-scale farmers. In the present cross-sectional study, 666 school children aged 5-10 years from villages of Chamwino and Kilosa districts were studied for associations between nutritional and micronutrient status and dietary intake. The overall prevalence of stunting, underweight, and overweight was 28.1, 14.4, and 5%, while that of anaemia and deficiency of iron (ID), vitamin A (VAD), and zinc (ZnD) was 42.9, 29.3, 24.9, and 26.4%, respectively. Dietary recalls (24h) revealed that, except of iron (74%), only small proportions of children reached the recommended daily micronutrient intakes: 4% for zinc, 19% for vitamin A, and 14-46% for B vitamins. Stunting was highly associated with wasting in both districts and with VAD in Chamwino. Anaemia was predicted by ID, VAD, and ZnD in Chamwino and by elevated infection markers, C-reactive protein (CRP) and α-1 glycoprotein (AGP), in Kilosa. Overall, elevated CRP and/or AGP increased the risk while higher serum carotenoids indicating a diet of more fruit and vegetables reduced the risk of VAD. The significantly lower prevalence of anaemia and ID in Chamwino was related to higher iron and vitamin A intake and the consumption of mainly bulrush millet with dark green leafy vegetables compared to maize or rice with legumes in Kilosa. Nutrition and hygiene education integrated with home and school garden programmes could reduce the multiple burdens of anaemia; micronutrient deficiencies and infections; and, in the long term, the prevalence of stunting.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Anemia/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
10.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1920315, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190034

RESUMO

There is increasing global attention to the importance of menstrual health and hygiene (MHH) for the lives of those who menstruate and gender equality. Yet, the global development community, which focuses on issues ranging from gender to climate change to health, is overdue to draw attention to how addressing MHH may enable progress in attaining the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). To address this gap, we undertook a collective exercise to hypothesize the linkages between MHH and the 17 SDGs, and to identify how MHH contributes to priority outcome measures within key sectoral areas of relevance to menstruating girls in low- and middle-income countries. These areas included Education, Gender, Health (Sexual and Reproductive Health; Psychosocial Wellbeing), and Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH). These efforts were undertaken from February - March 2019 by global monitoring experts, together with select representatives from research institutions, non-governmental organizations, and governments (n = 26 measures task force members). Through this paper we highlight the findings of our activities. First, we outline the existing or potential linkages between MHH and all of the SDGs. Second, we report the identified priority outcomes related to MHH for key sectors to monitor. By identifying the potential contribution of MHH towards achieving the SDGs and highlighting the ways in which MHH can be monitored within these goals, we aim to advance recognition of the fundamental role of MHH in the development efforts of countries around the world.


Assuntos
Menstruação , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Feminino , Objetivos , Humanos , Higiene , Saneamento
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 601, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted important needs in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services and standard practices for infection prevention and control in sub-Saharan Africa. We assessed the availability of WASH and standard precautions for infection prevention in health facilities across 18 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as inequalities by location (rural/urban) and managing authority (public/private). Data from health facility surveys conducted between 2013 and 2018 in 18 sub-Saharan African countries were used to estimate the access to an improved water source within 500 m, an improved toilet, soap and running water or alcohol-based hand rub, and standard precautions for infection prevention at health facilities. Rural-urban differences and public-private differences in access to services were calculated. We also compared population level access to health facility access to services. RESULT: Overall, 16,456 health facilities from 18 countries were included. Across countries, an estimated 88 % had an improved water source, 94 % had an improved toilet, 74 % had soap and running water or alcohol-based hand rub, and 17 % had standard precautions for infection prevention available. There was wide variability in access to water, sanitation and hygiene services between rural and urban health facilities and between public and private facilities, with consistently lower access in both rural and public facilities. In both rural and urban areas, access to water, sanitation and hygiene services was ubiquitously better at health facilities than households. CONCLUSIONS: Availability of WASH services in health facilities in sub-Saharan Africa has improved but remains below the global target of 80 % in many countries. Ensuring adequate access to WASH services and enforcing adherence to safety and hygiene practices in health facilities will be essential to minimize the risk of COVID-19 transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saneamento , África ao Sul do Saara , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Higiene , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Água , Abastecimento de Água
12.
J Nucl Med Technol ; 49(2): 126-131, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278346

RESUMO

Infection prevention and control practices represent a vital behavioral skill set, especially in the era of COVID-19. Standard precautions, correct use of personal protective equipment, proper hand hygiene, and appropriate cleaning and disinfecting are necessary to prevent health-care-acquired infections in care facilities.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Teste para COVID-19 , Atenção à Saúde , Luvas Protetoras , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Higiene , Máscaras , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244012

RESUMO

The availability of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services is a key prerequisite for quality care and infection prevention and control in health care facilities (HCFs). In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the importance and urgency of enhancing WASH coverage to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission and other healthcare-associated infections. As a part of COVID-19 preparedness and response interventions, the Government of Zimbabwe, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and civil society organizations conducted WASH assessments in 50 HCFs designated as COVID-19 isolation facilities. Assessments were based on the Water and Sanitation for Health Facility Improvement Tool (WASH FIT), a multi-step framework to inform the continuous monitoring and improvement of WASH services. The WASH FIT assessments revealed that one in four HCFs did not have adequate services across the domains of water, sanitation, health care waste, hand hygiene, facility environment, cleanliness and disinfection, and management. The sanitation domain had the largest proportion of health care facilities with poor service coverage (42%). Some of the recommendations from this assessment include the provision of sufficient water for all users, Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM)- and disability-friendly sanitation facilities, handwashing facilities, waste collection services, energy for incineration or waste treatment facilities, cleaning supplies, and financial resources for HCFs. WASH FIT may be a useful tool to inform WASH interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saneamento , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Desinfecção das Mãos , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Higiene , Menstruação , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Água , Abastecimento de Água , Zimbábue
14.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(6): e386-e394, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265901

RESUMO

Wet markets have been implicated in multiple zoonotic outbreaks, including COVID-19. They are also a conduit for legal and illegal trade in wildlife, which threatens thousands of species. Yet wet markets supply food to millions of people around the world, and differ drastically in their physical composition, the goods they sell, and the subsequent risks they pose. As such, policy makers need to know how to target their actions to efficiently safeguard human health and biodiversity without depriving people of ready access to food. Here, we propose a taxonomy of wet markets, oriented around the presence of live or dead animals, and whether those animals are domesticated or wild (either captive-reared or wild-caught). We assess the dimensions and levels of risk that different types of wet markets pose to people and to biodiversity. We identify six key risk factors of wet markets that can affect human health: (1) presence of high disease-risk animal taxa, (2) presence of live animals, (3) hygiene conditions, (4) market size, (5) animal density and interspecies mixing, and (6) the length and breadth of animal supply chains. We also identify key factors informing risk to biodiversity. Finally, we recommend targeted, risk-adjusted policies to more efficiently and humanely address the dangers posed by wet markets.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Carne , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Ásia , Biodiversidade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Comércio , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Higiene , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 293, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257124

RESUMO

Introduction: following the global COVID-19 outbreak, the government of Benin implemented preventive measures to stall viral transmission. We sought to evaluate adherence of the Beninese people to these preventive measures, in order to identify predictors of poor adherence and adapt the national response to COVID-19. Methods: two consecutive online surveys were conducted between May and August 2020. Four hundred and sixty two and 507 adult participants aged 18 years and above responded to the first and second survey respectively, with >70% being males. Results: more than 98% of respondents reported wearing face masks. A five-point adherence score was constituted by scoring observance to key preventive measures (mask use, physical distancing, hand hygiene, coughing hygiene and avoiding to touch one´s face). We observed that the mean adherence scores were fairly stable over time, respectively 4.08 and 4.03 during the first and second survey (p=0.439). Increasing age (aOR=1.043, 95% CI: 1.026 - 1.061; p<0.001) and obtaining COVID-19 information from official sources (aOR=1.628, 95% CI: 1.275 - 2.081; p<0.001) were significantly associated with higher adherence scores in a multivariable model. Conclusion: these findings suggest that a wide dissemination of adequate information about COVID-19 would increase adherence, and that targeted efforts should be directed towards increasing the compliance to preventive measures among the younger age groups.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Saúde Pública , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Benin/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Disseminação de Informação , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070423

RESUMO

The availability of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services is a key prerequisite for quality care and infection prevention and control in health care facilities (HCFs). In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the importance and urgency of enhancing WASH coverage to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission and other healthcare-associated infections. As a part of COVID-19 preparedness and response interventions, the Government of Zimbabwe, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and civil society organizations conducted WASH assessments in 50 HCFs designated as COVID-19 isolation facilities. Assessments were based on the Water and Sanitation for Health Facility Improvement Tool (WASH FIT), a multi-step framework to inform the continuous monitoring and improvement of WASH services. The WASH FIT assessments revealed that one in four HCFs did not have adequate services across the domains of water, sanitation, health care waste, hand hygiene, facility environment, cleanliness and disinfection, and management. The sanitation domain had the largest proportion of health care facilities with poor service coverage (42%). Some of the recommendations from this assessment include the provision of sufficient water for all users, Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM)- and disability-friendly sanitation facilities, handwashing facilities, waste collection services, energy for incineration or waste treatment facilities, cleaning supplies, and financial resources for HCFs. WASH FIT may be a useful tool to inform WASH interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saneamento , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Desinfecção das Mãos , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Higiene , Menstruação , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Água , Abastecimento de Água , Zimbábue
18.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253930, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Australia in March 2020 a national public health directive required that non-essential workers stay at home, except for essential activities. These restrictions began easing in May 2020 as community transmission slowed. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated changes in COVID prevention behaviours from April-July 2020, and psychosocial predictors of these behaviours. METHODS: An Australia-wide (national) survey was conducted in April, with monthly follow-up over four months. Participants who were adults (18+ years), currently residing in Australia and who could read and understand English were eligible. Recruitment was via online social media. Analysis sample included those who provided responses to the baseline survey (April) and at least one subsequent follow-up survey (N = 1834 out of a possible 3216 who completed the April survey). 71.7% of the sample was female (n = 1,322). Principal components analysis (PCA) combined self-reported adherence across seven prevention behaviours. PCA identified two behaviour types: 'distancing' (e.g. staying 1.5m away) and 'hygiene' (e.g. washing hands), explaining 28.3% and 24.2% of variance, respectively. Distancing and hygiene behaviours were analysed individually using multivariable regression models. RESULTS: On average, participants agreed with statements of adherence for all behaviours (means all above 4 out of 7). Distancing behaviours declined each month (p's < .001), whereas hygiene behaviours remained relatively stable. For distancing, stronger perceptions of societal risk, self-efficacy to maintain distancing, and greater perceived social obligation at baseline were associated with adherence in June and July (p's<0.05). For hygiene, the only significant correlate of adherence in June and July was belief that one's actions could prevent infection of family members (p < .001). CONCLUSION: High adherence to COVID prevention behaviours were reported in this social media sample; however, distancing behaviours tended to decrease over time. Belief in social responsibility may be an important aspect to consider in encouraging distancing behaviours. These findings have implications for managing a shift from government-imposed restrictions to individual responsibility.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distanciamento Físico , Análise de Componente Principal , SARS-CoV-2 , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 34(5): 372-378, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059174

RESUMO

Objective: To develop a preliminary subjective evaluation scale for assessing the built environments of China's Hygienic City Initiative and to evaluate its reliability and validity. Methods: The initial items of the scale were determined based on a review of policy documents and consultations with experts. The final items of the scale were confirmed through individual interviews with residents combined with the discretetrend method, critical ratio method, correlation coefficient method, and factor analysis method. Then, the dimensions of the scale were determined using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The Cronbach's α coefficient, split-half reliability coefficient, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to assess the reliability and validity of the scale. Results: A scale containing five dimensions with 22 items was established, including urban lifestyle, governance, basic functions, environmental sanitation, and amenities. The Cronbach's α coefficient of the scale was 0.876, and the split-half reliability coefficient was 0.796. The CFA results indicate that each inspection level was within the standard limit. Conclusion: The preliminarily subjective evaluation scale for assessing the built environments of China's Hygienic City Initiative demonstrates a high level of reliability and validity. Additional empirical studies should be carried out to further verify the value of the scale in terms of practical application.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído/psicologia , Política de Saúde , Higiene , Satisfação Pessoal , Saúde da População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Nucl Med Technol ; 49(2): 126-131, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083454

RESUMO

Infection prevention and control practices represent a vital behavioral skill set, especially in the era of COVID-19. Standard precautions, correct use of personal protective equipment, proper hand hygiene, and appropriate cleaning and disinfecting are necessary to prevent health-care-acquired infections in care facilities.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Teste para COVID-19 , Atenção à Saúde , Luvas Protetoras , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Higiene , Máscaras , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
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