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1.
Medwave ; 20(2): e7841, 2020 03 18.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191681

RESUMO

This article investigates the emergence of two institutions for the control of public hygiene in Chile between 1879 and 1920: colleges of royal physicians and isolation hospitals using the case of smallpox in La Araucanía, a region located in the South of Chile. We cover the characteristics and context of these institutions that allowed the State of Chile to address the problems of public hygiene and to prompt health professionals to professionalize the practice of medicine. The liberal positivist state of the late nineteenth century understood that the issue of hygiene was not only a matter of individual responsibility but had a social, public, and environmental dimension. People practiced hygiene alongside the existence of hygienic and anti-hygienic environments. Therefore, hygiene, the royal colleges of physicians, health records, isolation hospitals, doctors, and vaccinators are studied. All of these components of the health care system of the time were in permanent tension with the central government authorities due to the insufficient resources provided by the state for the care of infected patients with smallpox. The study follows a qualitative methodology with a descriptive historiographic design. We used archival primary and secondary sources available in Chile and Germany. The results show that the presence of smallpox appeared ferociously in South-Central Chile in the second half of the 19th century and remained in La Araucanía until the first half of the 20th century. The extent to which smallpox spread, spawning fear and insecurity in people of different social classes, had as one of its leading causes the precarious conditions of health and hygiene of the population.


Assuntos
Higiene/história , Varíola , Chile/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Hospitais de Isolamento/história , Humanos , Varíola/epidemiologia , Varíola/prevenção & controle , Varíola/transmissão
3.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 75(1): 1-23, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714575

RESUMO

In the classical world, "official" rationalistic medicine made therapeutic use of excrement, urine and other substances that modern humans normally regard as repulsive (this was even true of Galen, the culminating authority); and popular medicine seems to have done so on a large scale. Such practices, which finally lost their professional though not their popular acceptability in the 18th century, have been studied to good purpose by other historians, but they have never been explained in a satisfactory fashion, partly because the relevant evidence is highly diverse. The present paper, by considering the long term (pre-Greek as well as Greek and Roman) and all the relevant contexts, including ancient feelings of disgust and the general state of ancient pharmacology, and by probing people's subconscious motives, attempts to establish a multi-factor explanation. This explanation balances traditions, beliefs about the inherent qualities, physical and magical, of natural substances, and the psychological needs of both healers and the sick.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/história , Fezes , Mundo Grego , Mundo Romano , História Antiga , Higiene/história , Filosofia Médica/história
6.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(Spec No3): 13-19, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368342

RESUMO

Introduction: In today's society has a much disposal information, -the people have never had access to as much information or as many ways and means of communication as we do now-, we take for granted what foods and drinks are good for our health thanks to the transmission of information over the centuries, which has been through observational data and, more recently, also through analytical data based on scientific-technical research, although in some cases opinions are still issued based on observational rather than analytical data, when the latter many times they correct the first ones. We must also locate in our environment and our customs and all this will provide us with a better knowledge about the influence of nutrition and eating habits and lifestyle in health, including more and more the behavioral model as a basic axis for nutrition and dietetic sciences. What premises can we use to analyze: how was this transmission of information and knowledge in food and eating habits in previous times? From what ways and forms was transmitted information about the characteristics of food some citizens to others? intuition or everything based on experiences and observational data? were there substantial changes in periods prior to this large distribution of food and beverages that exists today…?


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Disseminação de Informação , Bebidas/provisão & distribução , Culinária/história , Análise de Dados , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/história , Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Estilo de Vida Saudável , História do Século XV , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XX , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Higiene/história , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Observação , Pinturas/história
7.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(4): 499-504, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344213

RESUMO

Eloísa Díaz Insunza, the first Latin American female physician, completed her studies in Medicine and Surgery at the University of Chile in 1887 and worked a large part of her life as Medical Inspector of Public Schools of Santiago, Chile. In this article, the focus is placed on her "Test Memorandum" (1886) and her first Reports to the Ministry of Public Education (1899-1905), to appreciate the hygienist perspective that characterizes her proposals. We describe her intervention project that sought to integrate medical practice with psychology and education, to solve a social problem such as the degeneration of the Chilean race.


Assuntos
Educação/história , História da Medicina , Higiene/história , Psicologia/história , Chile , Feminino , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos
8.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 70(2): 111-117, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215204

RESUMO

The article presents the genesis of the foundation and development of 'Roczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny' [Annals of the National Institute of Hygiene] since 1950 to 2019, scientific peer-reviewed journal devoted to research studies on the food and water safety, nutrition, environmental hygiene, toxicology and health risk assessment, and public health. It also shows the difficulties that this journal had initially to struggle with, and its achievements in recent years, aiming to improve its international position. The article discusses the stages of journal's development and activity in terms of scientific, editorial and publishing.


Assuntos
Higiene/história , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/história , Saúde Pública/história , Sociedades Médicas/história , Academias e Institutos , Aniversários e Eventos Especiais , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos
9.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(4): 981-987, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244321

RESUMO

Introduction: Alexandre Frias was born in Reus, the city where he developed most of his professional activity. Medical doctor and childcare pediatrician, he worked tirelessly in order to improve children's health. He created the first Instituto de Puericultura Integral (Integral Institute of Childcare) in Spain in 1919, which remained in operation until his death. The Institute's activities began with a clinic for breastfeeding children, breastfeeding service and a biochemical analysis laboratory, later expanding with prenatal childcare services, a refectory for pregnant women and general women, a pediatric office with a vaccination service and, as a complement, a home health care service and medical obstetrics. Convinced that breastfeeding and hygiene were fundamental for the prevention of diseases, he carried out an enormous educational work among mothers, doctors, governors and society in general. Forerunner of numerous initiatives for curative and preventive purposes, he established health education for mothers and professionals, school colonies, medical-school inspection, home delivery of scales for weight control and incubators for premature children and even a hygienic dress model for newborns. He made numerous publications as books form, such as the one entitled "Lo que deben saber las madres", booklets and newspapers articles. He founded and directed the scientific journal Puericultura (child care), published in Reus and distributed throughout the country until 1936. Its incessant activity in favor of the fight against infant mortality drastically reduced infant/children mortality in Reus and influenced the health and demographic improvement of all of Spain.


Assuntos
Academias e Institutos/história , Aleitamento Materno/história , Cuidado da Criança/história , Saúde da Criança/história , Pediatras/história , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Educação em Saúde/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Higiene/história , Recém-Nascido , Mães/educação , Obstetrícia/história , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/história , Espanha
12.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 3989-3997, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140448

RESUMO

The present Interdepartmental Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine in Gdynia of the Medical University of Gdansk was formally established in 1939 by the Order of June 5, 1939, of the Minister of Social Welfare, Marian Zyndram-Koscialkowski. However, the Branch of the National Institute of Hygiene in Gdynia was founded 2 years earlier, in 1937 (the first head was Dr. Med. Jerzy Jakóbkiewicz [1892-1953]), and its fruitful activity was ennobled 2 years later by increasing its rank and adding the name "Marine and Tropical Hygiene Institute". These facts are very little known, and therefore worth presenting in the jubilee years of the 80th anniversary of the institution.


Assuntos
Higiene/história , Medicina Tropical/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Polônia/epidemiologia
13.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 42(10): 1255-1256, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989613

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To find endocrinological disturbances in impressionism. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Analysis of "La Toilette" painting of Frederice Bazille. RESULTS: We present a masterpiece work of Frederic Bazille "La Toilette" where a large goiter is visible. Short description of Bazille's life and painting is included. CONCLUSION: Despite of unique painting technique, thyroid disorders are visible even in impressionism.


Assuntos
Bócio/patologia , Medicina nas Artes , Pinturas , Médicos , Endocrinologia/história , Pessoas Famosas , França , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Higiene/história , Medicina nas Artes/história , Pinturas/história , Médicos/história
18.
Med Hist ; 63(1): 82-94, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30556518

RESUMO

For decades, people have viewed narcotics as a devil impeding the modernisation of China, but they have recently been faced with the challenge of declaring that narcotics are harmless in some instances. A deeper understanding of this issue requires historical approaches which show that the demonisation of narcotics has mainly been a political pursuit. In re-examining the drug problem and its correlation to political and socio-economic issues, data statistics based on substantial archives in modern China play a crucial role. Discovered in 2007 in Longquan, a city in southeast China, Judicial Records of Longquan remains the largest judicial record in modern China by far. Data analysis reveals government efforts regarding drug control were not in line with the peak periods of drug-related cases in Longquan. Drawing on previously unexamined documents, it can be shown that anti-drug mobilisation and hygienic conditions have been overstated to legitimise the authority of governments in modern China. However, the knowledge of local residents regarding medicine and health was indirectly promoted in this agenda. Compared with the negative image of drugs constructed under the biopower of government, the role of narcotics was a positive vehicle for accelerating health mobilization during the Republic of China.


Assuntos
Higiene/história , Entorpecentes/história , China , Cidades/história , História do Século XX , Humanos
19.
São Paulo; s.n; 2019. 190 p.
Tese em Português | LILACS, BDS | ID: biblio-987478

RESUMO

Esta pesquisa mostra o caminho percorrido pelo Instituto de Higiene de São Paulo para a sua consolidação no campo científico e político, entre 1916 e 1951. O personagem principal é o seu 3º diretor: o farmacêutico e médico Geraldo Horácio de Paula Souza, que teve destacada atuação nas negociações com a Fundação Rockefeller para a concretização do Instituto e, no gerenciamento daquele que se transformaria na Faculdade de Higiene e Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo em 1945. A periodização é delimitada pelos primeiros acordos entre a Fundação Rockefeller e a Faculdade de Medicina e Cirurgia de São Paulo (1916) para a instalação do laboratório de higiene e a morte precoce de Paula Souza (1951), encerrando seus quase trinta anos à frente do antigo Instituto de Higiene. Esta consolidação se deu em três frentes de atuação: o ensino da higiene, a pesquisa científica na área e o atendimento à população, campos que deixaram legados para a saúde pública brasileira.


This research depicts the path taken by Instituto de Higiene de São Paulo, between 1916 and 1951, to consolidate itself in the scientific and political field. Our main character is the Institute's third director: Geraldo Horácio de Paula Souza. Being a pharmacist and a doctor, he played a major role negotiating with the Rockefeller Foundation for the consolidation of the Institute in Brazil, and also in the management of what would become the Faculdade de Higiene e Saúde Pública of the Universidade de São Paulo, in 1945. The timeline of our research is defined by the first agreements between the Rockefeller Foundation and the Faculdade de Medicina e Cirurgia de São Paulo (1916), for the creation of the laboratory of hygiene, and Paula Souzas's early death (1951) after leading the former Instituto de Higiene for almost thirty years. Such consolidation had three main areas of action: the teaching of hygiene, the scientific research on this field and providing healthcare for the population. Those three main areas left important legacies for the Brazilian public health.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública/história , Educação Superior , Instituições de Ensino Superior , Higiene/educação , Higiene/história
20.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 138(17)2018 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30378403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The interwar period was a time of comprehensive preventive health programmes in Norway. Physical exercise, nutritious diets, strict sleep regimens and better hygiene were at the centre of these efforts. A massive mobilisation of volunteers and professionals took place. The publication of House Maxims for Mothers and Children was part of this large-scale mobilisation, and consisted of ten posters with pithy health advice for hanging on the wall. Mothers were an important target group for health promotion. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The posters have previously received little attention in medical literature, but they can elucidate some features of life and the health propaganda of their time. We have used databases that provide access to newspapers, books and medical literature: Retriever, bokhylla.no, Oria, PubMed and Web of Science. RESULTS: It is hard to quantify the effect of this popular movement when compared to political measures to improve living conditions. In any case, mortality rates fell, life expectancy increased and the dreaded communicable diseases were largely defeated. Special efforts were targeted at children, also with good results. Infant mortality fell and schoolchildren became healthier, stronger, taller and cleaner. INTERPRETATION: The line between social hygiene and general disciplining is blurred, for example the boundary between a healthy diet and bourgeois norms. The education of mothers and children also included a normative aspect that concerned good manners and control.


Assuntos
Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/história , Educação em Saúde/história , Promoção da Saúde/história , Pôsteres como Assunto , Criança , Saúde da Criança/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Higiene/história , Mães/educação , Mães/história , Noruega , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/história , Saúde Pública/história
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