Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.664
Filtrar
1.
Ecol Lett ; 23(3): 518-526, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884729

RESUMO

The origin of eusociality in the Hymenoptera is a question of major interest. Theory has tended to focus on genetic relatedness, but ecology can be just as important a determinant of whether eusociality evolves. Using the model of Fu et al. (2015), we show how ecological assumptions critically affect the conclusions drawn. Fu et al. inferred that eusociality rarely evolves because it faces a fundamental 'risk-return tradeoff'. The intuitive logic was that worker production represents an opportunity cost because it delays realising a reproductive payoff. However, making empirically justified assumptions that (1) workers take over egg-laying following queen death and (2) productivity increases gradually with each additional worker, we find that the risk-return tradeoff disappears. We then survey Hymenoptera with more specialised morphological castes, and show how the interaction between two common features of eusociality - saturating birth rates and group size-dependent helping decisions - can determine whether eusociality outperforms other strategies.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Himenópteros , Animais , Ecologia , Seleção Genética , Comportamento Social
2.
Zootaxa ; 4612(3): zootaxa.4612.3.7, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717056

RESUMO

New additions to the knowledge of the subfamily Eumeninae in Russia are provided. Leptochilus (Lionotulus) leleji Fateryga, sp. nov. is described from Altai Republic. Males of Ancistrocerus hangaicus Kurzenko, 1977 and Jucancistrocerus (Eremodynerus) minutepunctatus Giordani Soika, 1970 are described for the first time; the latter species is transferred from the nominotypical subgenus to the subgenus Eremodynerus Blüthgen, 1939. The genus Tachyancistrocerus Giordani Soika, 1952 and six species of eumenine wasps are reported from Russia for the first time: Discoelius pictus Kostylev, 1940a, Euodynerus (Euodynerus) curictensis Blüthgen, 1940, E. (E.) hellenicus Blüthgen, 1942, E. (E.) rufinus Blüthgen, 1942, Eustenancistrocerus (Eustenancistrocerus) jerichoensis (von Schulthess, 1928), and Tachyancistrocerus schmidti (Kokujev, 1913); E. hellenicus is also reported from Georgia and Azerbaijan. New regional records for nine species are reported. Three species are excluded from the fauna of Russia: Eustenancistrocerus (Eustenancistrocerus) tegularis (Morawitz, 1885), Odynerus (Odynerus) tristis (Blüthgen, 1939), and Stenodynerus aequisculptus (Kostylev, 1940b). The known fauna of Russia now numbers 34 genera and 162 species of eumenine wasps.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Vespas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Azerbaijão , Georgia , Masculino , Federação Russa
3.
Zootaxa ; 4612(2): zootaxa.4612.2.2, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717064

RESUMO

Taxonomic status of the widely spread xiphydriid woodwasp Xiphydria camelus (Linné, 1758) was revised by examining morphology of 964 specimens and by molecular analysis using COI barcode sequences. Both morphological and molecular approaches indicated existence of three separate species masquerading in X. camelus of authors in East Asia. The three species were finally determined as X. camelus, X. eborata Konow, 1899, and a new species, X. albopicta. Xiphydria eborata is revived from synonymy with X. camelus and X. albopicta is described as a new species from Russia (Primorskij Kraj), China (Heilongjiang) and Japan (Hokkaido). Collection records are given for all the specimens examined.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Animais , Ásia , Camelus , China , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Extremo Oriente , Japão , Federação Russa
4.
Zootaxa ; 4612(2): zootaxa.4612.2.8, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717070

RESUMO

The Oriental genus Kudakrumia Krombein, 1979 is newly reported from India with two species: K. mirabilis Krombein, 1979 (Kerala) and K. rangnekari Girish Kumar Lelej, sp. nov. (Goa, Kerala). A key to the Oriental genera and species of tribe Kudakrumiini is given.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Animais , Índia
5.
Zootaxa ; 4609(3): zootaxa.4609.3.12, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717102

RESUMO

A new species of Limaytilla from Argentina is described and illustrated based on males, L. diaguita Torréns Fidalgo sp. nov.. Diagnoses for both sexes of the genus and an illustrated key for the Argentinian species are provided as well as new record data for L. pampa Casal and L. pehuenche Casal. Habitus photographs of all Argentinian species and L. orlandoi Cambra, Quintero Pagliano from Chile, are also provided.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Vespas , Animais , Argentina , Chile , Feminino , Masculino
6.
Zootaxa ; 4609(2): zootaxa.4609.2.1, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717104

RESUMO

Four species of velvet ants (Mutillidae) were reared from nests of solitary bees and wasps collected using trap nests in southwest Australia and identified using morphological and DNA barcoding approaches. All four species, Aglaotilla micra sp. nov., A. lathronymphos sp. nov., A. chalcea sp. nov. and A. schadophaga sp. nov., are described as new, the last three from both sexes. A. micra, A. lathronymphos and A. chalcea are parasitoids of wasps in the genera Pison and Aulacophilinus (Crabronidae), with A. chalcea also recorded from Paralastor (Vespidae). Aglaotilla schadophaga is a parasitoid of bees in the genus Megachile (Megachilidae). The biologies and known hosts of Australian Mutillidae are reviewed. Photographs are also provided of type material for Ephutomorpha aeneidorsis Turner, 1914 (=Aglaotilla discolor Brothers, 2018), Mutilla metallica Smith, 1855 and Ephutomorpha subelegans Rayment, 1933. The lectotype of E. subelegans is formally designated.


Assuntos
Formigas , Himenópteros , Vespas , Animais , Austrália , Abelhas , Biologia , Feminino , Masculino
7.
Zootaxa ; 4609(1): zootaxa.4609.1.6, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717122

RESUMO

A new species of the genus Cylloceria Schiødte, 1838 from Thailand and Myanmar, Cylloceria ebbae sp. nov. is described and illustrated. This is the second species of this genus described from the Oriental region.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Animais , Mianmar , Tailândia
8.
Zootaxa ; 4609(1): zootaxa.4609.1.7, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717123

RESUMO

Two female Thraxan sp. (Diptera: Bombyliidae: Anthracinae) emerged from parasitised Pison simillimum Smith (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) larvae found inside a Sceliphron formosum Smith (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) mud wasps nest. Thraxan sp. larvae are endoparasites of P. simillimum larvae. The endoparasite pupates inside the host larva, kills it, and emerges free of the host body. We describe and illustrate the pupal exuviae of the newly found species and two known species, T. luteus Yeates Lambkin and T. misatulus Yeates Lambkin, and we compare these pupal exuviae to those of Anthrax Scopoli.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Himenópteros , Parasitos , Vespas , Animais , Feminino , Larva , Pupa
9.
Zootaxa ; 4609(1): zootaxa.4609.1.9, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717125

RESUMO

 Some polysphinctine wasps of the genus Zatypota complete their life cycles upon theridiid host spiders. The host range of these wasps is usually species-specific, although in some less common associations more than one wasp species interacts with the same host spider. Here we describe and illustrate the polysphinctine wasps Zatypota baezae sp. n. and Zatypota mulunguensis sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), both koinobiont ectoparasitoids of the spider Anelosimus baeza (Theridiidae). The two parasitoid wasps show the same development time (12 days) which was longer when compared with other parasitoid wasps Z. anomala Holmgren and Z. riverai Gauld (nine days). As described for other species of Zatypota and Hymenoepimecis, the second larval instar remains attached to the spider by the remains of the chorion and also by a rigid brownish-semitransparent membrane called a saddle.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Aranhas , Vespas , Animais , Brasil , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Larva
10.
Zootaxa ; 4608(3): zootaxa.4608.3.6, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717135

RESUMO

Two previously unknown species of the genus Pseudapis Kirby, 1900 are described and illustrated: Pseudapis neumayeri Bossert Pauly, sp. nov. (♂, ♀, Kenya, Tanzania), and P. crassivertex Bossert Pauly, sp. nov. (♂, ♀, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal). We provide diagnoses for the new species and report all currently available records. Lastly, we present a revised identification key for the African species of the genus.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Abelhas , Quênia , Mauritânia , Senegal , Tanzânia
11.
Zootaxa ; 4608(3): zootaxa.4608.3.7, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717136

RESUMO

The Xiphydria palaeanarctica group is defined to include the following three black northeast Asian Xiphydria woodwasp species with white-marked abdomen, and the females with white-marked antennae: X. ogasawarai Matsumura, 1927, X. palaeanarctica Semenov-Tian-Shanskij, 1921, and X. nagasei Shinohara, sp. nov. Based on the examination of the type material, the synonymy of X. jezoensis Matsumura, 1927, with X. palaeanarctica is confirmed and X. alnivora Matsumura, 1927, is synonymized with X. ogasawarai. Xiphydria nagasei is described from Japan (Honshu). Collection records are given for all 203 specimens examined.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Animais , Cor , Feminino , Japão
12.
Zootaxa ; 4608(1): zootaxa.4608.1.1, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717158

RESUMO

Traumatomutilla is a diverse genus of Neotropical velvet ants (Mutillidae). Here we revise the T. americana species group, recognizing three species. Mutilla dubia Fabricius, 1804, M. simulans Smith, 1855, M. albata Smith, 1879, and M. obsoleta (Klug, 1821) are proposed as junior synonyms of Traumatomutilla americana (Linnaeus, 1758). Traumatomutilla maula Casal, 1969, Ephuta punctosignata André, 1906, Mutilla latevittata Cresson, 1902, and M. oculifera Smith, 1855 are proposed as junior synonyms of Traumatomutilla quadrum (Klug, 1821). Mutilla acara Cresson, 1902, M. polita Smith, 1855, M. gemina Gerstaecker, 1874, M. trinacria Gerstaecker, 1874, M. lasiogastra Burmeister, 1875, and M. cuyana Burmeister, 1875 are proposed as junior synonyms of Traumatomutilla ocellaris (Klug, 1821). Traumatomutilla bellifera (Gerstaecker, 1874) is transferred to the T. trochanterata species-group; T. lunigera (Gerstaecker, 1874) and T. compar (André, 1898) are transferred to the T. inermis species-group. Both sexes are redescribed for all species. Notes on the biology and host association for T. ocellaris are provided. Finally, identification keys to the species and color forms of the T. americana group are provided.


Assuntos
Formigas , Drosophilidae , Himenópteros , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
13.
Zootaxa ; 4606(1): zootaxa.4606.1.1, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717173

RESUMO

The species of Colletes Latreille from Brazil, Paraguay and/or Uruguay are revised through an integrative approach to taxonomy combining morphological and molecular data to delineate species. Herein, the following 19 species are recognized and illustrated, eight of them described as new: C. altimontanus Ferrari Silveira, C. argentinus Friese, C. chicoi n. sp., C. cyaneus Holmberg, C. ferenudus n. sp., C. flagellaris n. sp., C. furfuraceus Holmberg, C. hawkingi n. sp., C. imbricatus n. sp., C. kerri Moure, C. meridionalis Schrottky, C. michenerianus Moure, C. ornatus Schrottky, C. pampeanus n. sp., C. petropolitanus Dalla Torre, C. rufipes Smith, C. rugicollis Friese, C. sertanicola n. sp., and C. sexangulus n. sp. To facilitate their recognition, diagnoses, detailed descriptions and redescriptions, and a fully-illustrated key for all species are provided.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Abelhas , Brasil , Paraguai , Uruguai
14.
Zootaxa ; 4604(3): zootaxa.4604.3.13, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717187

RESUMO

The genera Bitomoides van Achterberg, 2004, Neopius Gahan, 1917 and Sternaulopius Fischer, 1965 of the subfamily Opiinae are newly discovered in China and one new species of each genus are described and illustrated, viz. Bitomoides platyaulicis Sheng Chen sp. n., Neopius citrinus Sheng Chen, sp. n. and Sternaulopius macrophthalmos Sheng Chen sp. n. The status of the genus Neopius Gahan is discussed.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Animais , China
15.
Zootaxa ; 4604(2): zootaxa.4604.2.8, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717195

RESUMO

Chaenotetrastichus neotropicalis sp. nov. from the Atlantic Forest, Brazil, is described and illustrated. This new species is associated with a species of the pompilid wasp Auplopus Spinola (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) and it represents the first record of the genus for the Neotropics. A key for the extant species of the genus Chaenotetrastichus Graham is also presented.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Vespas , Animais , Biologia , Brasil
16.
Zootaxa ; 4604(2): zootaxa.4604.2.10, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717197

RESUMO

A new genus, Cerritulus gen. nov., with type species, C. forticrura sp. nov., are described from French Guiana based on a single specimen that is considerably distinct morphologically from all known Neotropical genera. The new genus is only partially similar to the enigmatic, monotypic Asian genera Ceylonspathius Belokobylskij and Termitospathius Beloko-bylskij, whose species were collected inside termite nests. We provide colour pictures for the type species of the above three genera.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Isópteros , Vespas , Animais , Guiana Francesa
17.
Zootaxa ; 4603(2): zootaxa.4603.2.7, 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717231

RESUMO

Four new genera and five new species of anaxyelids are described from the Cretaceous of Asia: Mangus magnus gen. et sp. nov. from the Aptian of Mongolia (Bon-Tsagan), Urosyntexis undosa sp. nov., Parasyntexis khasurtensis gen. et sp. nov., both from the Early Cretaceous of Transbaikalia (Khasurty), Dolichosyntexis transbaikalicus gen. et sp. nov. from the Hauterivian-Barremian of Transbaikalia (Baissa), and Curiosyntexis magadanicus gen. et sp. nov. from the mid-Upper Cretaceous of NE Siberia (Obeshchayushchiy). Early Cretaceous is the time of the highest diversity of Anaxyelidae. In this epoch these sawflies are represented with all four subfamilies comprising the group. In Late Cretaceous anaxyelid diversity and abundance rapidly decrease and they are represented with the only subfamily Syntexinae. The anaxyelid collection of Palaeontological Institute (Moscow), the most representative collection of fossil anaxyelids in the world, has been completely revised, identified and described. The list of identifications is provided.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Animais , Ásia , Fósseis , Mongólia , Moscou , Sibéria
18.
Zootaxa ; 4602(1): zootaxa.4602.1.1, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717248

RESUMO

A review of female mutillids in southern Thailand is presented, based on literature, loaned material, and two field expeditions. Thirty-three species in 23 genera have been previously recorded from Thailand (Lelej 2005; Lelej et al. 2016, 2017; Okayasu et al. 2018). In March and April 2017, 337 female specimens were collected in the provinces of Krabi, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Phatthalung, Songkhla, and Trang. In May 2018, 255 female specimens were collected in the provinces of Kanchanaburi, Phetchaburi, and Surat Thani. These collected specimens were sorted into 38 morphospecies: 13 already known from Thailand, nine previously described species newly recorded from Thailand, and 16 new to science and described here. Based on loaned material, three more described species were newly recorded from southern Thailand and one more undescribed species was found. Keys to females of the 31 mutillid genera found in southeast Asia and 42 mutillid species studied from southern Thailand are provided. Illustrations and diagnoses are provided for each species studied in southern Thailand, including the following 17 new species: Bischoffitilla tokay Williams, Bischoffitilla cambrai Williams, Mickelomyrme puttasoki Williams, Mickelomyrme kinguri Williams, Nordeniella maleeae Williams, Smicromyrme helarctos Williams, Smicromyrme borkenti Williams, Smicromyrme thaochani Williams, Krombeinidia agricola Williams, Krombeinidia chang Williams, Krombeinidia baanmaka Williams, Orientidia manleyi Williams, Orientidia thoawanae Williams, Petersenidia modkhong Williams, Petersenidia leleji Williams, Trogaspidia pittsi Williams, and Trogaspidia wilsoni Williams. Three new synonyms and one new combination are recognized: Bischoffitilla lamellata (Mickel, 1933) = Squamulotilla arundinacea Pagden, 1934, syn. nov., Mickelomyrme pusillaeformis (Hammer, 1962), comb. nov. = Mickelomyrme yunnanensis Lelej, 1996, syn. nov., Trogaspidia pagdeni (Mickel, 1933) = Timulla (Trogaspidia) pagdeni nodoa Mickel, 1933, syn. nov. Finally, two other taxa are raised to full species from subspecies status, Eotrogaspidia oryzae (Pagden, 1934), status resurr., and Trogaspidia lingnani (Mickel, 1933), status nov. New combination is also proposed for Krombeinidia meeungensis (Cockerell, 1928), comb. nov. Twenty-three new country records are presented: 12 from Thailand, four from Vietnam, four from Laos, two from Cambodia, and one from Indonesia.


Assuntos
Formigas , Himenópteros , Animais , Camboja , Feminino , Indonésia , Laos , Tailândia , Vietnã
19.
Zootaxa ; 4695(2): zootaxa.4695.2.9, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719360

RESUMO

Metanteon poirieri sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae: Anteoninae) is described from New Caledonia. The genus Metanteon Olmi, 1984, was known only from the southern region of Argentina and Chile. The unique species attributed previously to this genus is M. aerias (Walker, 1839), collected in Chile by Charles Darwin during his famous trip on the HMS Beagle. M. aerias is associated only with leafhoppers feeding on Southern Beeches (Nothofagus spp.), a genus of Nothofagaceae including species of trees and shrubs native to the southern Hemisphere in southern South America (Argentina, Chile) and Australasia (east and southeast Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea and New Caledonia). Like Nothofagus, Metanteon is a transantarctic organism.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Vespas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Argentina , Australásia , Austrália , Chile , Nova Caledônia , Nova Guiné , Nova Zelândia
20.
Zootaxa ; 4685(1): zootaxa.4685.1.1, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719371

RESUMO

A taxonomic revision of the tribe Ceroptresini (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) is conducted for the first time. Prior to this study, the total number of valid species of Ceroptres, the only genus within Ceroptresini to date, was 23. As a result of this revision, 15 Ceroptres species are retained as valid and one species, Amblynotus ensiger Walsh, 1864, is desynonymized from Ceroptres petiolicola (Osten-Sacken, 1861), being considered here as a valid Ceroptres species: C. ensiger (Walsh, 1864) status verified and comb. nov. An additional five new species are described from Mexico: Ceroptres junquerasi Lobato-Vila Pujade-Villar sp. nov.; C. lenis Lobato-Vila Pujade-Villar sp. nov.; C. mexicanus Lobato-Vila Pujade-Villar sp. nov.; C. nigricrus Lobato-Vila Pujade-Villar sp. nov.; C. quadratifacies Lobato-Vila Pujade-Villar sp. nov., increasing the total number of valid Ceroptres species to 21. Ceroptres masudai Abe, 1997 is synonymized with C. kovalevi Belizin, 1973. Ceroptres niger Fullaway, 1911 is transferred to Andricus (Andricus confusus Lobato-Vila Pujade-Villar comb. nov. and nom. nov.). Five species (Amblynotus inermis Walsh, 1864; Cynips quercusarbos Fitch, 1859; Cynips querficus Fitch, 1859; Cynips quercuspisum Fitch, 1859; and Cynips quercustuber Fitch, 1859) are not considered as valid Ceroptres. The status of Ceroptres quereicola (Shinji, 1938), previously classified as an unplaced species, is commented on. In addition, a Nearctic species from the USA, Ceroptres politus Ashmead, 1896, is here proposed as the type species of a new genus within Ceroptresini: Buffingtonella Lobato-Vila Pujade-Villar gen. nov. Redescriptions, biological and distribution data, illustrations and keys to genera and species within Ceroptresini are provided. The diagnostic morphological traits of Ceroptresini, Ceroptres and the new genus are discussed.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Boraginaceae , Himenópteros , Animais , México , Fenótipo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA