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1.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(1): 1-18, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724069

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Growing solid tumors mostly outstrip blood supply and become hypoxic (low oxygen supply). To survive under this pathological milieu, tumors overexpress a potent oncogenic factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). HIF-1α up-regulate HIF-1 signaling pathways and subsequently activate genes that promote cancer growth even under hypoxia. Also, HIF-1 pathway activation leads to aggressive tumor growth, metastasis, therapy resistance and ultimately poor patient prognosis as evidential by several clinical studies. Hence, targeting HIF-1 pathway is regarded as a promising strategy to treat cancer. To date, several synthetic HIF-1 pathway inhibitors have been developed to treat hypoxic tumors; however, they are clinically ineffective due to off-target effects, low potency and high toxicity. Hence, there is an urgent need to explore safe and promising drugs to combat hypoxic tumors. RESULTS: This article extensively reviews the therapeutic potential of various herbal nutraceuticals against wide varieties of hypoxic tumors. The inhibitory effects of each herbal nutraceutical on the pathological consequences of HIF-1 signaling pathway and also their ability to improve the response of hypoxic cancer cells to conventional cancer therapies are discussed. Furthermore, we have provided new directions to overcome challenges behind conducting in vivo and preclinical hypoxia research and developing herbal nutraceuticals into pharmaceuticals to treat cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The present review strongly suggests that herbal nutraceuticals are highly effective in combating the oncogenic effects of the HIF-1 pathway in wide varieties of tumors. However, more in vivo studies using zebrafish as a model system and extensive clinical studies in cancer patients with elevated tumor HIF-1α levels are highly warranted to ascertain the effective utilization of herbal nutraceuticals as adjunct/ alternative medicine in clinical practice to treat cancer.


Assuntos
Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
2.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 84(1): 134-142, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490096

RESUMO

Plumbagin (PLB), an alkaloid obtained from the roots of the plants of Plumbago genus, is an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4). This study aimed to investigate the beneficial effect of PLB against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGDR)-induced neuroinjury in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cultures. Our results showed that OGD/R stimulated NOX4 protein expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in SH-SY5Y cells, whereas increased 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and malondialdehyde (MDA) production, resulting in the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. And PLB pretreatment reduced the ROS production by regulating the expression of NOX4 and downregulated NF-κB signaling which was induced by OGDR. Furthermore, PLB inhibited OGDR induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation but not PARP1. Overall, PLB improved OGDR induced neuroinjury by inhibiting NOX4-derived ROS-activated NLRP3 inflammasome.


Assuntos
Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/deficiência , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidase 4/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/antagonistas & inibidores , Naftoquinonas/farmacologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Plumbaginaceae/química
3.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(12): e8834, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826181

RESUMO

Polydatin (PD), a monocrystalline polyphenolic drug mainly found in the roots of Polygonum cuspidatum, has various pharmacological activities. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 5 (DGCR5) was found to participate in the suppression of multiple cancers. Here, we proposed to study the effect of PD on myocardial infarction (MI) by inducing DGCR5. CCK-8 assay was performed to detect the viability of H9c2 cells. Flow cytometry was utilized to test apoptosis of H9c2 cells. These results determined the optimal concentration and effect time of hypoxia as well as PD. Si-DGCR5 was transfected into cells and the expression level was determined by qRT-PCR. Western blot was utilized to evaluate the expression of apoptosis-related proteins, Bcl-2, Bax, and cleaved-caspase-3, as well as autophagy-associated proteins including Beclin-1, p62, and LC3-II/LC3-I. As a result, PD efficiently attenuated hypoxia-induced apoptosis and autophagy in H9c2 cells. The expression of DGCR5 was down-regulated by hypoxia and up-regulated by PD. Besides, knocking-down the expression of DGCR5 inhibited the protection of PD in H9c2 cells. In addition, PD up-regulated the accumulation of DGCR5, DGCR5 decreased the expression of Bcl-2 and p62, raised the expression of Bax and cleaved-caspase-3, and the proportion of LC3-II/LC3-I. PD stimulated the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and MEK/ERK signaling pathways via up-regulating the expression of DGCR5. Our data demonstrated that PD reduced cell apoptosis and autophagy induced by hypoxia in cardiomyocytes. Moreover, PD activated PI3K/AKT/mTOR and MEK/ERK signaling pathways by up-regulating the expression of DGCR5.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Longo não Codificante/efeitos dos fármacos , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Citoproteção , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17067, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577699

RESUMO

Hypoxia is a well-recognized biological characteristic to therapy resistance and negative prognostic factor in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). This study aims to investigate the changes of hypoxia measured by F-fluoroerythronitroimidazole (FETNIM) uptake on integrated positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) during chemoradiotherapy and its prognostic value of clinical outcome in locoregionally advanced HNSCC.Thirty-two patients with locoregionally advanced HNSCC who received definitive treatment with concurrent chemoradiotherapy underwent FETNIM PET/CT scans before and after 5 weeks of treatment. The intensity of hypoxia using the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was evaluated both on primary lesion and metastatic lymph node (MLN). The pre-SUVmax and mid-SUVmax were defined as SUVmax on pre- and mid-FETNIM PET/CT. The local control (LC), regional control (RC), distant metastatic-free survival (DMFS), and overall survival (OS) were collected in patient follow-ups.Mid-SUVmax decreased significantly both in the primary tumor (t = 8.083, P < .001) and MLN (t = 6.808, P < .001) compared to pre-SUVmax. With a median follow-up of 54 months, the 5-year LC, RC, DMFS, and OS rates were 55%, 66.7%, 64.7%, and 55%, respectively, for all of the patients. On univariate analysis, patients with high pre-SUVmax in primary tumor had significantly worse LC (56.3% vs 87.5%, P = .046) and OS (43.8% vs 87.5%, P = .023) than other patients. Patients with high mid-SUVmax had significantly worse DMFS (50% vs 84.6%, P = .049) and OS (33.3% vs 73.1%, P = .028) than other patients. The tumor grade and mid-SUVmax were the significant predictors of OS on multivariate analysis.In this study, hypoxia in tumor significantly decreased during chemoradiotherapy. The persistent hypoxia predicted poor OS. The data provided evidence that FETNIM PET/CT could be used dynamically for selecting appropriate patients and optimal timing of hypoxia-adapted therapeutic regimens.


Assuntos
Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos da radiação , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nitroimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/administração & dosagem , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4541-4558, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417257

RESUMO

Background: Tumor metastasis is responsible for most cancer death worldwide, which lacks curative treatment. Purpose: The objective of this study was to eliminate tumor and control the development of tumor metastasis. Methods: Herein, we demonstrated a smart nano-enabled platform, in which 2-[2-[2-chloro-3-[(1,3-dihydro-3,3-dimethyl-1-propyl-2h-indol-2-ylidene)ethylidene]-1-cyclohexen-1-yl]ethenyl]-3,3-dimethyl-1-propylindolium iodide (IR780) and tirapazamine (TPZ) were co-loaded in poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PCL) to form versatile nanoparticles (PEG-PCL-IR780-TPZ NPs). Results: The intelligence of the system was reflected in the triggered and controlled engineering. Specially, PEG-PCL not only prolonged the circulation time of IR780 and TPZ but also promoted tumor accumulation of nanodrugs through enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Moreover, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by IR780 armed by an 808 nm laser irradiation evoked a cargo release. Meanwhile, IR780, as a mitochondria-targeting phototherapy agent exacerbated tumor hypoxic microenvironment and activated TPZ for accomplishing hypoxia-activated chemotherapy. Most significantly, IR780 was capable of triggering immunogenic cell death (ICD) during the synergic treatment. ICD biomarkers as a "danger signal" accelerated dendritic cells (DCs) maturation, and subsequently activated toxic T lymphocytes. Conclusion: Eventually, antitumor immune responses stimulated by combinational phototherapy and hypoxia-activated chemotherapy revolutionized the current landscape of cancer treatment, strikingly inhibiting tumor metastasis and providing a promising prospect in the clinical application.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/imunologia , Fototerapia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Lipossomos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Fotoquimioterapia , Fototerapia/métodos , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente , Tirapazamina/farmacologia , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 462(1-2): 85-96, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446614

RESUMO

Heat shock proteins (HSPs) may be induced by hypoxia and alleviate blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage. The neuroprotective effect of propofol has been reported. We aimed to identify whether propofol induced HSPs expression and protected BBB integrity. Mouse astrocytes and microglia cells were cultured and exposed to hypoxia and propofol. The expression of HSP27, HSP32, HSP70, and HSP90, and the translocation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and Nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were investigated. Mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells, astrocytes, and microglial cells were co-cultured to establish in vitro BBB model, and the effects of hypoxia and propofol as well as HSPs knockdown/overexpression on BBB integrity were measured. Hypoxia (5% O2, 5% CO2, 90% humidity) treatment for 6 h and 12 h induced HSP27, HSP32, and HSP70 expression. Propofol (25 µΜ) increased HSP27 and HSP32 expression, starting with exposure to hypoxia for 3 h. Propofol induced HSF1 translocation from cytoplasmic to nuclear compartment, and blockade of HSF1 inhibited HSP27 expression in mouse astrocytes when they were exposed to hypoxia for 3 h. Propofol induced Nrf2 translocation, and blockade of Nrf2 inhibited HSP32 expression in mouse microglial cells when they were exposed to hypoxia for 3 h. Propofol protected hypoxia-impaired BBB integrity, and the effects were abolished by blockade of HSF1 and Nrf2. Overexpression of HSP27 and HSP32 alleviated hypoxia-impaired BBB integrity, and blockade of HSP27 and HSP32 expression ameliorated propofol-mediated protection against BBB impairment. Propofol may protect hypoxia-mediated BBB impairment. The mechanisms may involve HSF1-mediated HSP27 expression and Nrf2-mediated HSP32 expression.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Propofol/farmacologia , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Permeabilidade , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia
8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 6103-6115, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447555

RESUMO

Purpose: Myocardial delivery of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) might produce iron overload-induced myocardial injury, and the oxidative stress was regarded as the main mechanism. Therefore, we speculated antioxidant modification might be a reasonable strategy to mitigate the toxicity of MNPs. Methods and results: Antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was loaded into magnetic mesoporous silica coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Neonatal rat hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) cardiomyocytes were incubated with nanoparticles for 24 hrs. NAC can effectively mitigate iron-induced oxidative injury of cardiomyocytes, evidenced by reduced production of MDA, 8-iso-PGF2α, and 8-OHDG and maintained concentrations of SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, and GSH in ELISA and biochemical tests; downregulated expression of CHOP, GRP78, p62, and LC3-II proteins in Western Blot, and less cardiomyocytes apoptosis in flow cytometric analysis. Conclusions: NAC modifying could suppress the toxic effects of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in H/R cardiomyocytes model in vitro, indicating a promising strategy to improve the safety of iron oxide nanoparticles.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Férricos/toxicidade , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/toxicidade , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Oxigênio/farmacologia , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/ultraestrutura , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Porosidade , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Dióxido de Silício/toxicidade
9.
Anticancer Res ; 39(8): 4479-4483, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The stereo-configuration (R-, S-configuration) of chiral-2-nitroimidazole derivatives alters their radiosensitizing activity. This study aimed at examining the molecular features of these enantiomers by molecular simulation techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A series of 2-nitroimidazole-based radiosensitizer TX-2036 molecules were synthesized, and their profiles were examined using molecular structural analysis such as conformation analysis, molecular orbital analysis, and electrostatic potential analysis. RESULTS: R-configured TXs (TX-2043, -2030, -2036) had a weaker radiosensitizing activity than S-configured TXs (TX-2044, -2031, -2037), and R-compounds had a small minus electrostatic potential (ESP) field in the cyclopentene-1,3-dione region. S-configured TX-2046 had weaker radiosensitizing activity than R-configured TX-2045, and TX-2046 had a small minus ESP field as well as R-configured TX-2043, -2030, - 2036. CONCLUSION: The cyclopentene-1,3-dione involved in the small minus ESP field affected the radiosensitizing activity of the TX-2036 series of molecules.


Assuntos
Desenho de Drogas , Nitroimidazóis/química , Tolerância a Radiação/efeitos dos fármacos , Radiossensibilizantes/química , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclopentanos/síntese química , Ciclopentanos/química , Humanos , Nitroimidazóis/síntese química , Radiossensibilizantes/síntese química , Eletricidade Estática , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 7587451, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380437

RESUMO

Nowadays, the prevention of severe myocardium injury resulting from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R) has been recognized as an important subject in the field of ischemic heart disease. In this study, H9c2 cardiomyocytes were exposed to cycles of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) to mimic myocardial I/R injury. Western blot analysis and qRT-PCR were performed to detect the expression of Cox-2, Akt and p-Akt. Cell viability, LDH release and activity of Caspase-3 were assessed to determine the protective effect of propofol. The results proved that the protective effect of propofol for H/R challenged cardiomyocytes was associated with Akt phosphorylation. We also revealed that treatment of propofol suppressed the expression of Cox-2 in cardiomyocytes which was up-regulated after H/R treatment. Conversely, the over-expression of Cox-2 inhibited Akt phosphorylation while enhancing cardiomyocytes apoptosis. Interestingly, Akt activator exhibited similar protective effect with propofol and could diminish the influences brought by over-expression of Cox-2. Thus, it could be concluded that Cox-2 negatively affects the protective effect of propofol against hypoxia/reoxygenation induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by suppressing Akt phosphorylation.


Assuntos
Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Proteína Oncogênica v-akt/genética , Propofol/farmacologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Miocárdica/genética , Isquemia Miocárdica/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Ratos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/genética , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Molecules ; 24(14)2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295864

RESUMO

Extracellular acidification is an important feature of tumor microenvironments but has yet to be successfully exploited in cancer therapy. The reversal of the pH gradient across the plasma membrane in cells that regulate intracellular pH (pHi) has potential to drive the selective uptake of weak acids at low extracellular pH (pHe). Here, we investigate the dual targeting of low pHe and hypoxia, another key feature of tumor microenvironments. We prepared eight bioreductive prodrugs based on the benzotriazine di-oxide (BTO) nucleus by appending alkanoic or aminoalkanoic acid sidechains. The BTO acids showed modest selectivity for both low pHe (pH 6.5 versus 7.4, ratios 2 to 5-fold) and anoxia (ratios 2 to 8-fold) in SiHa and FaDu cell cultures. Related neutral BTOs were not selective for acidosis, but had greater cytotoxic potency and hypoxic selectivity than the BTO acids. Investigation of the uptake and metabolism of representative BTO acids confirmed enhanced uptake at low pHe, but lower intracellular concentrations than expected for passive diffusion. Further, the modulation of intracellular reductase activity and competition by the cell-excluded electron acceptor WST-1 suggests that the majority of metabolic reductions of BTO acids occur at the cell surface, compromising the engagement of the resulting free radicals with intracellular targets. Thus, the present study provides support for designing bioreductive prodrugs that exploit pH-dependent partitioning, suggesting, however, that that the approach should be applied to prodrugs with obligate intracellular activation.


Assuntos
Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Pró-Fármacos , Triazinas/química , Triazinas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Fenômenos Químicos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Desenho de Drogas , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxidos
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 6595437, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317035

RESUMO

Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is an essential mechanism in myocardial fibrosis (MF). Tongxinluo (TXL) has been confirmed to protect the endothelium against reperfusion injury after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, whether TXL can inhibit MF after AMI via inhibiting EndMT remained unknown. This study aims to identify the role of EndMT in MF after AMI as well as the protective effects and underlying mechanisms of TXL on MF. The AMI model was established in rats by ligating left anterior descending coronary artery. Then, rats were administered with high- (0.8 g·kg-1·d-1), mid- (0.4 g·kg-1·d-1), and low- (0.2 g·kg-1·d-1) dose Tongxinluo and benazepril for 4 weeks, respectively. Cardiac function, infarct size, MF, and related indicators of EndMT were measured. In vitro, human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (HCMECs) were pretreated with TXL for 4 h and then incubated in hypoxia conditions for 3 days to induce EndMT. Under this hypoxic condition, neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) siRNA were further applied to silence NRG-1 expression. Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to assess expression of endothelial marker of vWF and fibrotic marker of Vimentin. Related factors of EndMT were determined by Western blot analysis. TXL treatment significantly improved cardiac function, ameliorated MF, reduced collagen of fibrosis area (types I and III collagen) and limited excessive extracellular matrix deposition (mmp2 and mmp9). In addition, TXL inhibited EndMT in cardiac tissue and hypoxia-induced HCMECs. In hypoxia-induced HCMECs, TXL increased the expression of endothelial markers, whereas decreasing the expression of fibrotic markers, partially through enhanced expressions of NRG-1, phosphorylation of ErbB2, ErbB4, AKT, and downregulated expressions of hypoxia inducible factor-1a and transcription factor snail. After NRG-1 knockdown, the protective effect of TXL on HCMEC was partially abolished. In conclusion, TXL attenuates MF after AMI by inhibiting EndMT and through activating the NRG-1/ErbB- PI3K/AKT signalling cascade.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Fibrose/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasos Coronários/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasos Coronários/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio/metabolismo , Fibrose/metabolismo , Fibrose/patologia , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos
13.
Biofabrication ; 11(4): 045012, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315098

RESUMO

Supplying oxygen to inner areas of cell constructs to support cell proliferation and metabolism is a major challenge in tissue engineering involving stem cells. Developing devices that incorporate oxygen release materials to increase the availability of the localized oxygen supply is therefore key to addressing this limitation. Herein, we designed and developed a 3D-printed oxygen-releasing device composed of an alginate hydrogel scaffold combined with an oxygen-generating biomaterial (calcium peroxide) to improve the oxygen supply of the microenvironment for culturing adipose tissue-derived stem cells. The results demonstrated that the 3D-printed oxygen-releasing device alleviated hypoxia, maintained oxygen availability, and ensured proliferation of the embedded cells, whilst also reducing hypoxia-induced apoptosis. The introduction of this 3D-printed oxygen-releasing device could enhance the survival of embedded stem cells.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Alginatos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/ultraestrutura , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxidos/farmacologia , Impressão Tridimensional , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reologia
14.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 47(1): 2909-2916, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307244

RESUMO

Hypoxia-caused cardiocytes insults are closely correlated with ectopic expression of genes, which might be modulated by microRNAs (miRs). Quercetin exhibits a profound protective function against hypoxic damages in cardiomyocytes. Here, we aimed to investigate a possible underpinning. H9c2 cells were pre-administrated using quercetin before hypoxia treatment. The damages were assessed using viability, apoptosis and alteration of proteins associated with apoptosis and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein (AMPK) pathway. Transfection was conducted to enforce overexpression of miR-199a or silence of sirtuin 1 (sirt1) which were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Sirt1 protein was quantified by immunoblotting. A luciferase reporter was exploited to confirm the target relationship between miR-199a and sirt1 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR). We found quercetin mitigated hypoxia-caused viability reduction and apoptosis with restoring apoptosis-associated protein and rescuing phosphorylation of AMPK. Quercetin flattened hypoxia-evoked overexpression of miR-199a. miR-199a abrogated the protective effects of quercetin against hypoxia-elicited damages. Quercetin elevated sirt1 which was repressed by hypoxia, while this effect was slight in miR-199a-overexpressed cells. miR-199a negatively mediated sirt1 expression through directly binding its 3'-UTR. Further, quercetin facilitated the phosphorylation of AMPK by up-regulating sirt1. Collectively, quercetin participated in repressing miR-199a which negatively modulated sirt1. Mechanically, through activating AMPK, quercetin protected cardiomyocytes cells against hypoxia-caused insults. Highlights Quercetin ameliorates hypoxia-evoked apoptosis and blockage of AMPK phosphorylation; The elevated miR-199a level is eased by quercetin, which might be a protective mechanism; Quercetin restores sirt1 level by repressing miR-199a expression; By mediating miR-199a and sirt1, AMPK phosphorylation is fortified by quercetin.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/genética , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Quercetina/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animais , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo
15.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 47(1): 2746-2753, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282213

RESUMO

Puerarin has been reported to be useful in protection against hypoxia-induced injury. In our current study, we attempted to explore the protective effects of puerarin against hypoxia-caused damages in neural stem cells (NSCs). Additionally, the relative molecular underpinning studies preliminarily proceeded. NSCs were pre-incubated with puerarin before the hypoxic stimulus. MicroRNA-214 (miR-214) inhibitor was transfected into NSCs. Subsequently, the viability of NSCs was assessed by CCK-8 assay. Flow cytometry was employed to detect apoptotic cells after staining. qRT-PCR was performed to quantify miR-214. Western blot was applied for analyzing the expression of apoptosis-relative proteins and regulators. We found that puerarin alleviated hypoxia-induced apoptosis and maintained cell viability. Hypoxia-evoked up-regulation of miR-214 was further enhanced by puerarin. By contrast, miR-214-deficient NSCs showed the reduction in cell viability and the facilitation in apoptosis progress after pre-treatment with puerarin and stimulation in a hypoxia circumstance. Additionally, puerarin restored the phosphorylation of relative regulators, which was originally blunted by hypoxia. However, puerarin did not evidently restore the phosphorylation for response to hypoxia in miR-214-silenced NSCs. In conclusion, puerarin might be applied as a novel agent to ameliorate hypoxia-evoked damages in NSCs. Molecularly, miR-214 might be implicated in the protective roles of puerarin.


Assuntos
Isoflavonas/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipóxia Celular/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Citoproteção/genética , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética
16.
Life Sci ; 232: 116611, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260683

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To observe the effect of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on mitochondrial apoptosis of hippocampal neurons in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) brain injury in developing rats, and to investigate its regulatory mechanism on HIF-1α/p53 signaling pathway. METHODS: Hypoxia/reoxygenation model was used in this study. TUNEL assay was performed to detect cell apoptosis. Immunohistochemical analysis and Western-blotting analysis were conducted to detect Cytochrome-C (Cyt-c), APAF-1, Caspase-3, Neuroglobin (Ngb), HIF-1α and p53 expression. After 28 days, Morris water maze (MWM) was performed. RESULTS: 50 µg/kg DEX improved H/R-induced brain injury and inhibited mitochondrial apoptosis in rats. Western-blotting and Immunohistochemical results demonstrated that DEX could up-regulate Ngb through α2 receptor to inhibit H/R-induced mitochondrial apoptosis. In addition, by adding inhibitors yohimbine and 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2), we found that DEX could activate HIF-1α/p53 signaling pathway. MWM test showed that DEX could enhance long-term learning and memory of H/R brain injury rats. CONCLUSION: DEX alleviates H/R-induced brain injury and mitochondrial apoptosis in developing rats through α2 receptor, which may be related to activation of HIF-1α/p53 signaling pathway to up-regulate the expression of Ngb.


Assuntos
Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/fisiologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Molecules ; 24(13)2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262066

RESUMO

Grafting a bioactive peptide onto a disulfide-rich scaffold is a promising approach to improve its structure and metabolic stability. The ginkgo plant-derived ß-ginkgotide ß-gB1 is a highly unusual molecule: Small, hyperdisulfide, and found only in selected ancient plants. It also contains a conserved 16-amino-acid core with three interlocking disulfides, as well as a six-amino-acid inter-cysteine loop 2 suitable for grafting peptide epitopes. However, very little is known about this recently-discovered family of molecules. Here, we report the biophysical and functional characterizations of the ß-ginkgotide ß-gB1 from G. biloba. A circular dichroism spectroscopy analysis at 90 °C and proteolytic treatments of ß-gB1 supported that it is hyperstable. Data mining revealed that the ß-gB1 loop 2 contains the canonical LC3 interacting region (LIR) motif crucial for selective autophagy. Cell-based assays and pull-down experiments showed that ß-gB1 is an adaptogen, able to maintain cellular homeostasis through induced autophagosomes formation and to protect cells by targeting intracellular proteins from stress-mediated damage against hypoxia and the hypoxia-reoxygenation of induced cell death. This is the first report of an LIR-containing peptide natural product. Together, our results suggest that the plant-derived ß-ginkgotide is cytoprotective, capable of targeting intracellular proteins, and holds promise as a hyperdisulfide scaffold for engineering peptidyl therapeutics with enhanced structural and metabolic stability.


Assuntos
Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginkgo biloba/química , Peptídeos , Proteínas de Plantas , Animais , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Ratos
18.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 47(1): 2678-2687, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257935

RESUMO

Emodin (EMO) possesses extensive pharmacological activities, which has been proven to exert the protective impact in diverse nervous system diseases. Nonetheless, whether EMO emerges a neuro-protective activity in hypoxic-evoked ischemic brain injury is still further probed. The intention of the research is to disclose whether EMO emerges neuro-protective activity in hypoxic-evoked ischemic brain injury. PC-12 received hypoxia administration, and then cell viability, apoptosis and autophagy were estimated. After EMO disposition, the above-involved cellular processes were evaluated again. MiR-25 functions in EMO-affected cells were also estimated. The interrelation between miR-25 and neurofilament light-chain polypeptide gene (NEFL) and the conceivable roles of NEFL in hypoxia-disposed cells were investigated. The latent mechanism was uncovered by mTOR and Notch pathways determination. Hypoxia triumphantly triggered apoptosis and autophagy, but EMO repressed these functions in PC-12 cells. Increased miR-25 was induced by EMO, and inhibited miR-25 abated the impacts of EMO on hypoxia-disposed PC-12 cells. NEFL as a neoteric target gene of miR-25 was predicated, and overexpressed NEFL annulled the functions of EMO in hypoxia-injured cells. EMO activated mTOR and Notch pathways through repressing NEFL. The investigations corroborated that EMO weakened hypoxia-triggered injury via elevating miR-25 by targeting NEFL in PC-12 cells.


Assuntos
Emodina/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/genética , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipóxia Celular/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos/genética , Células PC12 , Ratos , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética
19.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 47(1): 2492-2499, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208217

RESUMO

Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia is a troublesome disease. Angelica polysaccharide (AP) is proved to have antioxidant effects. Our study was performed to confirm the effects of AP in hypoxia-exposed neural stem cells (NSCs). NSCs were pre-treated with AP and then stimulated with hypoxia. Viability of NSCs was examined by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Hypoxia-introduced apoptosis was observed by flow cytometry. Essential regulators of mTOR and Notch signalling pathways were examined by Western blot. mRNA expression was accessed using qRT-PCR. Bcl2/adenovirus EIB 19kD-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3) was altered by transfection. We noticed that NSCs were sensitive to hypoxia-induced apoptosis and showed decreased viability. Moreover, Beclin and light chain 3-II was upregulated while p62 was downregulated. However, AP reversed all these results. Similarly, hypoxia decreased the phosphorylation of mTOR and p70S6K and Notch1 expression while AP increased the phosphorylation of mTOR and p70S6K as well as the expression of Notch1. BNIP3 was upregulated by hypoxia while downregulated by AP. Further experiments demonstrated that overexpression of BNIP3 broken all the effects induced by AP shown in cell viability, apoptosis, autophagy and signalling pathways. Collectively, AP alleviated hypoxia-introduced NSCs damages by maintaining cell viability, blocking apoptosis and autophagy via downregulation of BNIP3 with the activation of mTOR and Notch signalling pathways.


Assuntos
Angelica/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Ratos , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 47(1): 2179-2187, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159591

RESUMO

Ghrelin has been widely recognized as a key peptide in the cardiovascular system. This study detected the potential of ghrelin in MI management and tried to decode one of the possible underlying mechanisms. H9c2 cells were pretreated with ghrelin and were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). CCK-8, flow cytometry, Western blot and LDH analysis were conducted to assess the changes in cell survival. LY294002 and Compound C were used to treat H9c2 cells for blocking PI3K/AKT and AMPK pathways, respectively. Ghrelin expression in H9c2 cells was suppressed by siRNA-mediated silencing to see the effects of endogenous ghrelin. We found that, following H/R, H9c2 cells viability was decreased, CyclinD1 and CDK4 were down-regulated, apoptosis was induced, the release of LDH was enhanced, and the expression levels of Cox-2 and iNOS were up-regulated. Ghrelin protected H9c2 cells against H/R induced these alterations. Besides, ghrelin activated PI3K/AKT and AMPK pathways even in H/R-stimulated cells. The protective effects of ghrelin against H/R-induced cell damage were all attenuated by the addition of LY294002 or Compound C. Moreover, endogenous inhibition of ghrelin significantly induced cell death of H9c2 cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that ghrelin pretreatment protected H9c2 cells against H/R-induced cell damage, possibly via PI3K/AKT and AMPK pathways.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Grelina/farmacologia , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
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