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1.
Int Heart J ; 61(5): 872-878, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921669

RESUMO

In-stent restenosis (ISR) still exists after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation, even up to one year. The incidence and risk factors for neoatherosclerosis in patients with early ISR have not yet been elucidated. Here, we used optical coherence tomography (OCT) to evaluate the incidence and predictors of neoatherosclerosis in patients with early ISRs.OCT was performed on ISR lesions in 185 patients in order to detect neoatherosclerosis. The median follow-up was 180 days, and neoatherosclerosis was detected in 37% of early ISR lesions. According to the presence of neoatherosclerosis, patients with ISR were divided into two groups: neoatherosclerosis (group A, n = 69) and non-neoatherosclerosis (group B, n = 116) groups.The risk factors were similar, except for hypercholesterolemia. Moreover, the tissue characteristics were not significantly different between patients with and without neoatherosclerosis. Follow-up low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were divided into three grades (LDL < 70 mg/dL, 70 mg/dL≤ LDL < 100 mg/dL, and LDL ≥ 100 mg/dL). The incidence of neoatherosclerosis was significantly lower (23% versus 57%, P < 0.0001) in the LDL < 70 mg/dL group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of neoatherosclerosis in patients with lipid levels between 70 and 100 mg/dL (P = 0.53). However, neoatherosclerosis was significantly more common in patients with a follow-up LDL-C level > 100 mg/dL (45% versus 15%, P < 0.0001).In patients with early ISR lesions, the LDL-C levels may be related to the formation and progression of early neoatherosclerosis, and poor LDL-C control may be a risk factor for the occurrence of early-stage neoatherosclerosis following DES implantation.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Reestenose Coronária/epidemiologia , Stents Farmacológicos , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Neointima/epidemiologia , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Reestenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neointima/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
2.
PLoS Med ; 17(7): e1003121, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bempedoic acid is a first-in-class lipid-lowering drug recommended by guidelines for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Our objective was to estimate its average effect on plasma lipids in humans and its safety profile. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of phase II and III randomized controlled trials on bempedoic acid (PROSPERO: CRD42019129687). PubMed (Medline), Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases were searched, with no language restriction, from inception to 5 August 2019. We included 10 RCTs (n = 3,788) comprising 26 arms (active arm [n = 2,460]; control arm [n = 1,328]). Effect sizes for changes in lipids and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) serum concentration were expressed as mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For safety analyses, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel method. Bempedoic acid significantly reduced total cholesterol (MD -14.94%; 95% CI -17.31%, -12.57%; p < 0.001), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD -18.17%; 95% CI -21.14%, -15.19%; p < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD -22.94%; 95% CI -26.63%, -19.25%; p < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein particle number (MD -20.67%; 95% CI -23.84%, -17.48%; p < 0.001), apolipoprotein B (MD -15.18%; 95% CI -17.41%, -12.95%; p < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD -5.83%; 95% CI -6.14%, -5.52%; p < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein particle number (MD -3.21%; 95% CI -6.40%, -0.02%; p = 0.049), and hsCRP (MD -27.03%; 95% CI -31.42%, -22.64%; p < 0.001). Bempedoic acid did not significantly modify triglyceride level (MD -1.51%; 95% CI -3.75%, 0.74%; p = 0.189), very-low-density lipoprotein particle number (MD 3.79%; 95% CI -9.81%, 17.39%; p = 0.585), and apolipoprotein A-1 (MD -1.83%; 95% CI -5.23%, 1.56%; p = 0.290). Treatment with bempedoic acid was positively associated with an increased risk of discontinuation of treatment (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.06, 1.76; p = 0.015), elevated serum uric acid (OR 3.55; 95% CI 1.03, 12.27; p = 0.045), elevated liver enzymes (OR 4.28; 95% CI 1.34, 13.71; p = 0.014), and elevated creatine kinase (OR 3.79; 95% CI 1.06, 13.51; p = 0.04), though it was strongly associated with a decreased risk of new onset or worsening diabetes (OR 0.59; 95% CI 0.39, 0.90; p = 0.01). The main limitation of this meta-analysis is related to the relatively small number of individuals involved in the studies, which were often short or middle term in length. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that bempedoic acid has favorable effects on lipid profile and hsCRP levels and an acceptable safety profile. Further well-designed studies are needed to explore its longer-term safety.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos/uso terapêutico , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Apolipoproteínas B/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
3.
Am J Cardiol ; 128: 163-167, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650914

RESUMO

Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors are novel drugs that provide striking lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) when added to maximum tolerated therapy in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Ceramides, novel cardiac risk markers, have been associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The Ceramide Risk Score (CRS) predicts the likelihood of adverse cardiovascular events within 1 to 3 years in patients with coronary artery disease. The effect of PCSK9 inhibition on plasma ceramides is not well known. The study examines the effect of PCSK9 inhibitors on plasma ceramides and CRS in patients with clinical indication for this therapy. Retrospective chart review of consecutive patients with hypercholesterolemia on PCSK9 inhibitors was conducted (n = 24; Mayo Clinic 2015 to 2018). Plasma ceramides were measured before the initiation of PCSK9 inhibitors and 2 to 12 months after treatment. CRS was calculated before and after therapy based on individual plasma concentrations of 4 ceramides. Treatment with PCSK9 inhibitors was associated with significant reduction in mean CRS and individual ceramides levels (p <0.0001). CRS significantly improved with PCSK9 therapy. PCSK9 inhibitors significantly decreased LDL-C levels by 63% (p <0.0001). The absolute reduction in CRS did not correlate with the absolute reduction in LDL-C (r = 0.31; confidence interval -0.10 to 0.64), indicating that CRS may evaluate a different pathway for risk reduction beyond LDL-C lowering. In conclusion, treatment with PCSK9 inhibitors is associated with significant reduction in CRS and distinct ceramide levels.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Ceramidas/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , 1-Alquil-2-acetilglicerofosfocolina Esterase/sangue , Idoso , Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Apolipoproteínas B/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/sangue , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/tratamento farmacológico , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 242, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lowering vascular risk is associated with a decrease in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and dementia. However, it is still unknown whether lowering of vascular risk with pharmacological treatment preserves cognitive performance in general. Therefore, we compared the change in cognitive performance in persons with and without treatment of vascular risk factors. METHODS: In this longitudinal observational study, 256 persons (mean age, 58 years) were treated for increased vascular risk during a mean follow-up period of 5.5 years (treatment group), whereas 1678 persons (mean age, 50 years) did not receive treatment (control group). Cognitive performance was three times measured during follow-up using the Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT) and Visual Association Test (VAT), and calculated as the average of standardized RFFT and VAT score per participant. Because treatment allocation was nonrandomized, additional analyses were performed in demographic and vascular risk-matched samples and adjusted for propensity scores. RESULTS: In the treatment group, mean (SD) cognitive performance changed from - 0.30 (0.80) to - 0.23 (0.80) to 0.02 (0.87), and in control group, from 0.08 (0.77) to 0.24 (0.79) to 0.49 (0.74) at the first, second and third measurement, respectively (ptrend < 0.001). After adjustment for demographics and vascular risk, the change in cognitive performance during follow-up was not statistically significantly different between the treatment and control group: mean estimated difference, - 0.10 (95%CI - 0.21 to 0.01; p = 0.08). Similar results were found in matched samples and after adjustment for propensity score. CONCLUSION: Change in cognitive performance during follow-up was similar in treated and untreated persons. This suggests that lowering vascular risk preserves cognitive performance.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Cognição , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Trombose/prevenção & controle
5.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 32(3): 101-110, mayo-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193354

RESUMO

ANTECEDENTES Y OBJETIVO: Los datos sobre la distribución de las dislipidemias en Colombia son limitados. El objetivo primario de este estudio fue describir la frecuencia de las dislipidemias; los objetivos secundarios fueron: la frecuencia de comorbilidades cardiovasculares, el uso de estatinas y otros hipolipemiantes, la frecuencia de intolerancia a estatinas, el porcentaje de pacientes en metas de c-LDL, y estimar la distribución del riesgo cardiovascular (RCV). MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal con recolección de datos retrospectiva que incluyó a 461 pacientes con diagnóstico de dislipidemia tratados en 17 centros cardiovasculares de alta complejidad en las 6 principales áreas geográficas y económicas de Colombia. RESULTADOS: La media (DE) de edad de los pacientes incluidos fue de 66,4 (±12,3) años. El 53,4% (246) eran mujeres. Las dislipidemias se distribuyeron así: dislipidemia mixta (51,4%), hipercolesterolemia (41,0%), hipertrigliceridemia (5,4%), hipercolesterolemia familiar (3,3%) y c-HDL bajo (0,7%). El medicamento más prescrito fue atorvastatina (75,7%), seguido de rosuvastatina (24,9%). El 55% del total de pacientes y el 28,6% de aquellos con enfermedad coronaria no estaban en metas de c-LDL a pesar del tratamiento. La frecuencia de intolerancia a estatinas fue del 2,6%. CONCLUSIONES: La dislipidemia mixta y la hipercolesterolemia son las dislipidemias más frecuentes. Un porcentaje considerable de pacientes en tratamiento, incluidos aquellos con enfermedad coronaria, no lograron sus objetivos de c-LDL. Este inadecuado control lipídico influye en el RCV y requiere un cambio en las estrategias terapéuticas, intensificando el tratamiento con estatinas o adicionando nuevos fármacos en los pacientes con mayor RCV


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Data is scarce on the distribution of different types of dyslipidaemia in Colombia. The primary objective was to describe the frequency of dyslipidaemias. The secondary objectives were: frequency of cardiovascular comorbidity, statins and other lipid-lowering drugs use, frequency of statins intolerance, percentage of patients achieving c-LDL goals, and distribution of cardiovascular risk (CVR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study with retrospective data collection from 461 patients diagnosed with dyslipidaemia and treated in 17 highly specialised centres distributed into six geographic and economic regions of Colombia. RESULTS: Mean (SD) age was 66.4 (±12.3) years and 53.4% (246) were women. Dyslipidaemias were distributed as follows in order of frequency: mixed dyslipidaemia (51.4%), hypercholesterolaemia (41.0%), hypertriglyceridaemia (5.4%), familial hypercholesterolaemia (3.3%), and low c-HDL (0.7%). The most prescribed drugs were atorvastatin (75.7%) followed by rosuvastatin (24.9%). As for lipid control, 55% of all patients, and 28.6% of those with coronary heart disease, did not achieve their personal c-LDL goal despite treatment. The frequency of statin intolerance was 2.6% in this study. CONCLUSIONS: Mixed dyslipidaemia and hypercholesterolaemia are the most frequent dyslipidaemias in Colombia. A notable percentage of patients under treatment with lipid-lowering drugs, including those with coronary heart disease, did not achieve specific c-LDL goals. This poor lipid control may worsen patient's CVR, so that therapeutic strategies need to be changed, either with statin intensification or addition of new drugs in patients with higher CVR


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dislipidemias/terapia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertrigliceridemia/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Am Heart J ; 225: 88-96, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485329

RESUMO

Intensive lipid management is critical to reduce cardiovascular (CV) risk for patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: We performed an observational study of 7628 patients with (n = 2943) and without DM (n = 4685), enrolled in the Provider Assessment of Lipid Management (PALM) registry and treated at 140 outpatient clinics across the United States in 2015. Patient self-estimated CV risk, patient-perceived statin benefit and risk, observed statin therapy use and dosing were assessed. RESULTS: Patients with DM were more likely to believe that their CV risk was elevated compared with patients without DM (39.1% vs 29.3%, P < .001). Patients with DM were more likely to receive a statin (74.2% vs 63.5%, P < .001) but less likely to be treated with guideline-recommended statin intensity (36.5% vs 46.9%, P < .001), driven by the low proportion (16.5%) of high risk (ASCVD risk ≥7.5%) primary prevention DM patients treated with a high intensity statin. Patients with DM treated with guideline-recommended statin intensity were more likely to believe they were at high CV risk (44.9% vs 38.4%, P = .005) and that statins can reduce this risk (41.1% vs 35.6%, P = .02), compared with patients treated with lower than guideline-recommended statin intensity. Compared with patients with an elevated HgbA1c, patients with well-controlled DM were no more likely to be on a statin (77.9% vs 79.3%, P = .43). CONCLUSIONS: In this nationwide study, the majority of patients with DM were treated with lower than guideline-recommended statin intensity. Patient education and engagement may help providers improve lipid therapy for these high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Complicações do Diabetes/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
9.
Clin Immunol ; 215: 108450, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-172295

RESUMO

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a devastating clinical manifestation of COVID-19 pneumonia and is mainly based on an immune-driven pathology. Mounting evidence suggests that COVID-19 is fueled by a maladaptive host inflammatory response that involves excessive activation of innate immune pathways. While a "cytokine storm" involving IL-6 and other cytokines has been documented, complement C3 activation has been implicated as an initial effector mechanism that exacerbates lung injury in preclinical models of SARS-CoV infection. C3-targeted intervention may provide broader therapeutic control of complement-mediated inflammatory damage in COVID-19 patients. Herein, we report the clinical course of a patient with severe ARDS due to COVID-19 pneumonia who was safely and successfully treated with the compstatin-based complement C3 inhibitor AMY-101.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação do Complemento/efeitos dos fármacos , Complemento C3/antagonistas & inibidores , Inativadores do Complemento/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Cíclicos/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/imunologia , Fibrilação Atrial/patologia , Fibrilação Atrial/virologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipercolesterolemia/imunologia , Hipercolesterolemia/patologia , Hipercolesterolemia/virologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/imunologia , Hipertensão/patologia , Hipertensão/virologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Life Sci ; 254: 117756, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389832

RESUMO

Polydatin (PD) is a monocrystalline metabolite from the underground parts of Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc., a member of the Polygonaceae family, which has been traditionally used in Asian countries as both foodstuffs and medicine. PD, also reckoned as pieceid, 3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene-3-ß-D-glucoside, (E)-piceid, (E)-polydatin, and trans-polydatin. It possesses potent biological activities i.e. analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anticancer, and anti-atherosclerotic properties. The initial part of this report specifically explains distinct sequential mechanisms underlying the initiation and development of atherosclerotic plaques and later part deals with the pharmacological efficacy of PD in the management of major cardiac event i.e. atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD) via modulation of a set of molecular mechanisms i.e. antioxidant potential, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism including total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, ß-hydroxy-ß-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-R) expression and functionality, SIRT signalling, LDL-receptor (LDL-R), LDL oxidation status (Ox-LDL), effects on endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), macrophage, foam cell formation and plaque stabilization, inflammatory signalling pathways and hypertension. In contrast, one of the major insight into the potential cardioprotective molecular mechanism is the PD-mediated targeting of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9 (PCSK-9) and LDL-R pathway, both at transcriptional and protein functional level, which makes it a better alternative therapeutic medicinal candidate to treat hypercholesterolemia, especially for the patients facing inadequate lipid lowering with classical HMG-R inhibitors (statins) and statin intolerance. Finally, to sum up the whole, we concluded that PD may be promoted from alternative to mainstream medicine in targeting risk factors mediated ASCVD.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Fallopia japonica/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Lipoproteínas LDL , Placa Aterosclerótica/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Estilbenos/uso terapêutico
11.
Clin Immunol ; 215: 108450, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360516

RESUMO

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a devastating clinical manifestation of COVID-19 pneumonia and is mainly based on an immune-driven pathology. Mounting evidence suggests that COVID-19 is fueled by a maladaptive host inflammatory response that involves excessive activation of innate immune pathways. While a "cytokine storm" involving IL-6 and other cytokines has been documented, complement C3 activation has been implicated as an initial effector mechanism that exacerbates lung injury in preclinical models of SARS-CoV infection. C3-targeted intervention may provide broader therapeutic control of complement-mediated inflammatory damage in COVID-19 patients. Herein, we report the clinical course of a patient with severe ARDS due to COVID-19 pneumonia who was safely and successfully treated with the compstatin-based complement C3 inhibitor AMY-101.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação do Complemento/efeitos dos fármacos , Complemento C3/antagonistas & inibidores , Inativadores do Complemento/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Cíclicos/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/imunologia , Fibrilação Atrial/patologia , Fibrilação Atrial/virologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipercolesterolemia/imunologia , Hipercolesterolemia/patologia , Hipercolesterolemia/virologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/imunologia , Hipertensão/patologia , Hipertensão/virologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Rev Med Liege ; 75(4): 260-264, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267116

RESUMO

LDL cholesterol targets are increasingly strict in recent international guidelines, especially in patients at very high or high cardiovascular risk. To reach these targets, it is recommended to use a potent statin, with a titration up to the maximal tolerated dose and, if not sufficient, to combine ezetimibe, a medication that blocks the intestinal absorption of cholesterol. This association allows reduce the dose of statin, while keeping an excellent cholesterol-lowering efficacy and favouring a good tolerance profile. This article describes the characteristics of a fixed-dose combination of rosuvastatin, the most potent statin, and ezetimibe, commercialized in Belgium under the trade name Myrosor®.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes , Ezetimiba , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Hipercolesterolemia , Rosuvastatina Cálcica , Anticolesterolemiantes/administração & dosagem , Bélgica , LDL-Colesterol , Quimioterapia Combinada , Ezetimiba/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Stroke ; 51(5): 1546-1554, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312223

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- The PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9) monoclonal antibody evolocumab lowered LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol by 59% to 0.8 (0.5-1.2) mmol/L and significantly reduced major vascular events in the FOURIER trial (Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects with Elevated Risk). Herein, we report the results of a prespecified analysis of cerebrovascular events in the overall trial population and in patients stratified by prior stroke. Methods- FOURIER was a randomized, double-blind trial comparing evolocumab versus placebo in patients with established atherosclerosis, additional risk factors, and LDL cholesterol levels ≥1.8 (or non-HDL [high-density lipoprotein] ≥2.6 mmol/L) on statin therapy. The median follow-up was 2.2 years. We analyzed the efficacy of evolocumab to reduce overall stroke and stroke subtypes, as well as the primary cardiovascular composite end point by subgroups according to a history of stroke. Results- Among the 27 564 patients, 469 (1.7%) experienced a total of 503 strokes of which 421 (84%) were ischemic. Prior ischemic stroke, diabetes mellitus, elevated CRP (C-reactive protein), history of heart failure, older age, nonwhite race, peripheral arterial disease, and renal insufficiency were independent predictors of stroke. Evolocumab significantly reduced all stroke (1.5% versus 1.9%; hazard ratio, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.66-0.95]; P=0.01) and ischemic stroke (1.2% versus 1.6%; hazard ratio, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.62-0.92]; P=0.005), with no difference in hemorrhagic stroke (0.21% versus 0.18%; hazard ratio, 1.16 [95% CI, 0.68-1.98]; P=0.59). These findings were consistent across subgroups, including among the 5337 patients (19%) with prior ischemic stroke in whom the hazard ratios (95% CIs) were 0.85 (0.72-1.00) for the cardiovascular composite, 0.90 (0.68-1.19) for all stroke, and 0.92 (0.68-1.25) for ischemic stroke (P interactions, 0.91, 0.22, and 0.09, respectively, compared with patients without a prior ischemic stroke). Conclusions- Inhibition of PCSK9 with evolocumab added to statin in patients with established atherosclerosis reduced ischemic stroke and cardiovascular events in the total population and in key subgroups, including those with prior ischemic stroke. Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01764633.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
15.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(4 Suppl 1): 3S-21S, 2020 04.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202541

RESUMO

High levels of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) represent a causal factor for cardiovascular diseases on an atherosclerotic basis, with a direct correlation between these and mortality or cardiovascular events, such that the reduction of both is associated proportionally and linearly with the reduction of LDL-C.Statins and ezetimibe are used for LDL-C lowering but may not be sufficient to achieve the targets defined by the ESC/EAS guidelines, which recommend use of PCSK9 inhibitors for further LDL-C reduction in patients not at goal.This project submitted 86 clinical scenarios to a group of experts, cardiologists, internists and lipidologists, collecting their opinion on the appropriateness of different behaviors and decisions. We used the RAND/UCLA method of assessing the appropriateness of clinical interventions, validated to combine the best scientific evidence available with expert judgment. To this end, the benefit-risk ratio was evaluated in the proposed clinical scenarios. Each indication was classified as "appropriate", "uncertain" or "inappropriate" based on the average score given by the participants.This document presents the results of a consensus process that led to the development of recommendations for the management of clinical scenarios on the treatment of patients with dyslipidemia, which cannot always be solved with scientific evidence alone.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , LDL-Colesterol , Consenso , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Itália , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
16.
Hipertens. riesgo vasc ; 37(1): 42-44, ene.-mar. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188673

RESUMO

Planteamos un paciente de 62 años que precisa tratamiento hipolipemiante con inhibidor de la proproteína convertasa subtilisina/kexina tipo9 (PCSK9) en el que empíricamente decidimos cambiar un fármaco a otro de los dos disponibles en la actualidad, obteniendo diferente respuesta. Nuestro objetivo es transmitir nuestra experiencia y reflexionar sobre una posible opción terapéutica en los pacientes en los que excepcionalmente esto pudiera ocurrir


The case is presented of a 62-year-old patient who required lipid-lowering therapy with proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type9 (PCSK9). It was empirically decided to change one drug to another of the two currently available, obtaining a different response. Our objective is to present our experience and to consider a possible therapeutic option in patients in whom, exceptionally, this could happen


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/administração & dosagem , Pró-Proteína Convertases/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Pró-Proteína Convertases/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Lipoproteínas LDL/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
N Engl J Med ; 382(16): 1507-1519, 2020 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inclisiran inhibits hepatic synthesis of proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9. Previous studies suggest that inclisiran might provide sustained reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels with infrequent dosing. METHODS: We enrolled patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ORION-10 trial) and patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or an atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk equivalent (ORION-11 trial) who had elevated LDL cholesterol levels despite receiving statin therapy at the maximum tolerated dose. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either inclisiran (284 mg) or placebo, administered by subcutaneous injection on day 1, day 90, and every 6 months thereafter over a period of 540 days. The coprimary end points in each trial were the placebo-corrected percentage change in LDL cholesterol level from baseline to day 510 and the time-adjusted percentage change in LDL cholesterol level from baseline after day 90 and up to day 540. RESULTS: A total of 1561 and 1617 patients underwent randomization in the ORION-10 and ORION-11 trials, respectively. Mean (±SD) LDL cholesterol levels at baseline were 104.7±38.3 mg per deciliter (2.71±0.99 mmol per liter) and 105.5±39.1 mg per deciliter (2.73±1.01 mmol per liter), respectively. At day 510, inclisiran reduced LDL cholesterol levels by 52.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 48.8 to 55.7) in the ORION-10 trial and by 49.9% (95% CI, 46.6 to 53.1) in the ORION-11 trial, with corresponding time-adjusted reductions of 53.8% (95% CI, 51.3 to 56.2) and 49.2% (95% CI, 46.8 to 51.6) (P<0.001 for all comparisons vs. placebo). Adverse events were generally similar in the inclisiran and placebo groups in each trial, although injection-site adverse events were more frequent with inclisiran than with placebo (2.6% vs. 0.9% in the ORION-10 trial and 4.7% vs. 0.5% in the ORION-11 trial); such reactions were generally mild, and none were severe or persistent. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in LDL cholesterol levels of approximately 50% were obtained with inclisiran, administered subcutaneously every 6 months. More injection-site adverse events occurred with inclisiran than with placebo. (Funded by the Medicines Company; ORION-10 and ORION-11 ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT03399370 and NCT03400800.).


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Interferente Pequeno/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacocinética , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , Injeções Subcutâneas/efeitos adversos , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Interferente Pequeno/efeitos adversos , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacocinética , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 143(1): 45-51, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169433

RESUMO

The leaves of Lindera aggregate (Sims) Kosterm. are traditionally used as healthy tea for the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia in Chinese. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic effects and potential mechanisms of the aqueous extracts from L. aggregate leaves (AqLA-L) on normal and hypercholesterolemic (HCL) mice. HCL mice were induced by high fat diet (HFD) and orally administrated with or without AqLA-L for ten days. The results showed that AqLA-L (0.3, 0.6, 1.2 g/kg) significantly reduced serum TG, ALT, but elevated fecal TG in normal mice. AqLA-L (0.3, 0.6, 1.2 g/kg) also remarkably lowered serum TC, TG, LDL, N-HDL, ALT, GLU, APOB, hepatic GLU and increased serum HDL, APOA-I, fecal TG levels in HCL mice. These results revealed that AqLA-L treatment regulated the disorders of the serum lipid and liver function, reduced hepatic GLU contents both in normal and HCL mice. The potential mechanisms for cholesterol-lowering effects of AqLA-L might be up-regulation of cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), as well as down-regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR). The data indicated that AqLA-L has potential therapeutic value in treatment of hyperlipidemia with great application security.


Assuntos
Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Lindera/química , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/sangue , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/metabolismo , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipercolesterolemia/fisiopatologia , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Água
20.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 21(5): 531-539, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036729

RESUMO

Introduction: Although statin therapy is a powerful lipid-lowering strategy, only one-fifth of statin users currently reach their lipid goals. In addition, statin treatment alone has relatively low efficacy in reducing other lipid fractions than low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). In such cases, most guidelines recommend adding the cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe.Areas covered: This paper summarizes the main pharmacological characteristics of rosuvastatin and ezetimibe (mechanism of action, metabolism), their lipid-lowering and pleiotropic effects, with particular attention to the clinical effects of the combined drugs in hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslipidemia patients (such as the ones affected by diabetes mellitus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)).Expert opinion: The additive effect of rosuvastatin and ezetimibe helps to reach lipid goals in a large number of high-risk patients, while avoiding some safety issues related to high dosages of intensive statin therapy. Patients with diabetes receive additional benefits from ezetimibe as they seem to absorb cholesterol more effectively than non-diabetic ones, because of increased NPC1L1 gene expression. Ezetimibe augments rosuvastatin triglyceride-lowering and anti-inflammatory effects, as well. Taking into account its excellent safety profile and lack of clinically relevant drug-drug interactions, the rosuvastatin/ezetimibe association is a valuable alternative to statin dose uptitration.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Ezetimiba/uso terapêutico , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/uso terapêutico , Anticolesterolemiantes/administração & dosagem , Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Ezetimiba/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/sangue
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