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1.
BMC Res Notes ; 15(1): 284, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064624

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There are conflicting data regarding the relationship between Parkinson's disease (PD) and the atherosclerotic process. This study aimed to compare endothelial function in patients with PD and matched controls. In PD subjects, we searched for factors contributing to endothelial dysfunction as well. Traditional vascular risk factors, PD characteristics, and PD medication were considered. RESULTS: We prospectively enrolled 41 patients with PD and 41 controls matched for age, sex, body mass index, and vascular risk factors. Endothelial function (EF) was assessed using peripheral arterial tonometry (EndoPAT 2000 device) and expressed as reperfusion hyperemia index (RHI). Clinical characteristics including PD medication were recorded. RHI was non-significantly lower in the PD group than in controls (1.8 ± 0.5 vs. 1.9 ± 0.5, p = 0.478). In PD patients, in linear regression analysis, smoking (beta = -0.453, p = 0.008) and use of dopamine agonists (beta = -0.365, p = 0.030) were significant contributors in a model predicting RHI. Despite non-significant differences in endothelial dysfunction between PD patients and controls, our results suggest an association between smoking, dopamine agonists, and impaired EF in PD patients. The small sample size, as well as the absence of an extended search for traditional and non-traditional vascular risk factors, are the most important factors limiting the interpretation of the current results.


Assuntos
Hiperemia , Doença de Parkinson , Agonistas de Dopamina , Endotélio Vascular , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco
2.
JACC Heart Fail ; 10(9): 623-632, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congestion is the main driver behind symptoms of heart failure (HF), but pathophysiology related to congestion remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: Using pathway and differential expression analyses, the authors aim to identify biological processes and biomarkers associated with congestion in HF. METHODS: A congestion score (sum of jugular venous pressure, orthopnea, and peripheral edema) was calculated in 1,245 BIOSTAT-CHF patients with acute or worsening HF. Patients with a score ranking in the bottom or top categories of congestion were deemed noncongested (n = 408) and severely congested (n = 142), respectively. Plasma concentrations of 363 unique proteins (Olink Proteomics Multiplex CVD-II, CVD-III, Immune Response and Oncology II panels) were compared between noncongested and severely congested patients. Results were validated in an independent validation cohort of 1,342 HF patients (436 noncongested and 232 severely congested). RESULTS: Differential protein expression analysis showed 107/363 up-regulated and 6/363 down-regulated proteins in patients with congestion compared with those without. FGF-23, FGF-21, CA-125, soluble ST2, GDF-15, FABP4, IL-6, and BNP were the strongest up-regulated proteins (fold change [FC] >1.30, false discovery rate [FDR], P < 0.05). KITLG, EGF, and PON3 were the strongest down-regulated proteins (FC <-1.30, FDR P < 0.05). Pathways most prominently involved in congestion were related to inflammation, endothelial activation, and response to mechanical stimulus. The validation cohort yielded similar findings. CONCLUSIONS: Severe congestion in HF is mainly associated with inflammation, endothelial activation, and mechanical stress. Whether these pathways play a causal role in the onset or progression of congestion remains to be established. The identified biomarkers may become useful for diagnosing and monitoring congestion status.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hiperemia , Biomarcadores , Dispneia , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Prognóstico
3.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 18: 711-719, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36097586

RESUMO

Purpose: The pathophysiology of chronic fatigue associated with post-COVID syndrome is not well recognized. It is assumed that this condition is partly due to vascular dysfunction developed during an acute phase of infection. There is great demand for a diagnostic tool that is able to clinically assess post-COVID syndrome and monitor the rehabilitation process. Patients and Methods: The Flow Mediated Skin Fluorescence (FMSF) technique appears uniquely suitable for the analysis of basal microcirculatory oscillations and reactive hyperemia induced by transient ischemia. The FMSF was used to measure vascular circulation in 45 patients with post-COVID syndrome. The results were compared with those for a group of 26 amateur runners before and after high-intensity exercise as well as for a control group of 32 healthy age-matched individuals. Results: Based on the observed changes in the NOI (Normoxia Oscillatory Index) and RHR (Reactive Hyperemia Response) parameters measured with the FMSF technique, it was found that chronic fatigue associated with post-COVID syndrome is comparable with transient fatigue caused by high-intensity exercise in terms of vascular effects, which are associated with vascular stress in the macrocirculation and microcirculation. Acute and chronic fatigue symptomatology shared similarly altered changes in the NOI and RHR parameters and both can be linked to calcium homeostasis modification. Conclusion: The NOI and RHR parameters measured with the FMSF technique can be used for non-invasive clinical assessment of post-COVID syndrome as well as for monitoring the rehabilitation process.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica , Hiperemia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Exercício Físico , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica/etiologia , Humanos , Microcirculação
4.
Microvasc Res ; 144: 104417, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) plays an important role in morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. The pathogenesis of this microangiopathy is mainly due to impaired vascular endothelial function. The Flow Mediated Skin Fluorescence (FMSF) method is an innovative, non-invasive tool for assessing the microcirculation function (especially microcirculatory response to hypoxia), also in patients with complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted at the Medical University of Lodz, Poland. Total of 84 volunteers including 30 patients with DKD, 33 patients with DM without complications, and 21 healthy subjects underwent microvascular function assessments using FMSF. This technique measures changes in the intensity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence from the skin on the forearm as a function of time, in response to blocking and releasing blood flow in the forearm. In this study we asses two key parameters: Reactive Hyperemia Response (RHR) and Hypoxia Sensitivity [log(HS)] to characterize vascular circulation in patients with DKD and their response to transient ischemia. RESULTS: The patients with low reactive hyperemic response (the RHR parameter) had a significantly higher sCr than patients with moderate and high RHR value (p < 0.001, p < 0.05, respectively) and a significantly lower eGFR than the patients with moderate and high RHR parameter (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, respectively). The patients with very low and low log(HS) values had a significantly higher sCr than the patients with high log(HS) (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, respectively), and a significantly lower eGFR than the patients with high log(HS) parameter (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, respectively). The patients with very low log(HS) had a significantly higher sCr and a significantly lower eGFR than the patients with moderate (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively). The mean value of the RHR parameter was significantly lower in DKD patients (18.31 ± 5.06 %) compared to both healthy subjects (34.37 ± 8.18 %, p < 0.001) and DM without complications subgroup (28.75 ± 7.12 %, p < 0.001). Similar trends were noted with the mean value of log(HS) parameter in DKD subgroup (1.03 ± 0.5) vs. healthy subjects (1.59 ± 0.53, p < 0.001), and vs. DM without complications subgroup (1.73 ± 0.52, p < 0.001). We observed a significant inverse correlation between the RHR parameter and serum creatinine (sCr) and a significant positive correlations with eGFR (R =  -0.3; p < 0.05, R = 0.61; p < 0.001, respectively). We found also a significant negative correlations of the log(HS) measure with sCr and a significant positive correlations with eGFR (R = -0.33; p < 0.01, R = 0.55; p < 0.001, respectively). We observed also a significant inverse correlation between the RHR and log(HS) parameters and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) (R = -0.6; p < 0.001, R = -0.32; p < 0.01, respectively). The AGEs parameter was also a significantly higher in patients with low RHR parameter than in patients with moderate (p < 0.01) and high (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The FMSF technique makes it possible to identify impairments of the microvascular function in patients with DKD. This study confirms that the simple two-parametric approach diagnostic tool perfectly characterizes the state of the microvascular system in diabetic patients with impaired renal function. These preliminary results require further validation in a larger patients cohort.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Hiperemia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Humanos , Hipóxia , Microcirculação , Pele/irrigação sanguínea
5.
Microvasc Res ; 144: 104422, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35970407

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Examine the effects of sensory nerve blockade on cutaneous post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) and local thermal hyperemia (LTH) following prolonged upper limb ischemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In nine males [28 years (standard deviation:6)], volar forearm skin blood flux normalized to maximum vasodilation (%SkBFmax) was assessed at control (CTRL) and sensory nerve blockade (EMLA) treated sites during the PORH response following 20-min of complete arm ischemia and during rapid LTH (33-42 °C, 1 °C·20 s-1, held for ~30-min + 20-min at 44 °C) before and after ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. RESULTS: EMLA increased mean [95 % confidence-interval] PORH amplitude by 21%SkBFmax ([9,33]; p = 0.003), delayed time to peak by 111 s ([40,182]; p = 0.007) and increased area under the curve by 19,462%SkBFmax·s ([11,346,27,579]; p < 0.001) compared to CTRL. For LTH, EMLA delayed onset time by 76 s ([46,106]; p < 0.001) Pre-IR and by 46 s ([27,65]; p < 0.001) Post-IR compared to CTRL. Post-IR onset time was delayed for CTRL by 26 s ([8,43]; p = 0.007), but was not different for EMLA (p > 0.050) compared to Pre-IR. EMLA delayed time to initial peak by 24 s ([4,43]; p = 0.022, Main time effect) and it attenuated the initial peak by 27%SkBFmax ([12,43]; p = 0.002) Pre-IR and by 16%SkBFmax ([3,29]; p = 0.020) post-IR compared to CTRL. Post-IR, the initial peak was not different for CTRL (p > 0.050), but it was increased by 16%SkBFmax ([5,26]; p = 0.005) for EMLA compared to Pre-IR. Neither EMLA nor IR altered the steady-state heating plateau (all p > 0.050). CONCLUSION: For the current model of IR injury, sensory nerves appear to have a negligible influence on the LTH response in non-glabrous forearm skin once vasodilation has been initiated.


Assuntos
Hiperemia , Bloqueio Nervoso , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Humanos , Isquemia , Fluxometria por Laser-Doppler , Masculino , Microcirculação , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Pele/irrigação sanguínea , Vasodilatação
6.
J Hypertens ; 40(10): 1935-1949, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35983805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Increased central venous pressure in congestive heart failure is responsible for renal dysfunction, which is mediated by renal venous congestion. Pericyte detachment from capillaries after renal congestion might trigger renal fibrogenesis via pericyte-myofibroblast transition (PMT). Platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs), which are PMT indicators, were upregulated in our recently established renal congestion model. This study was designed to determine whether inhibition of the PDGFR pathway could suppress tubulointerstitial injury after renal congestion. METHODS: The inferior vena cava between the renal veins was ligated in male Sprague-Dawley rats, inducing congestion only in the left kidney. Imatinib mesylate or vehicle were injected intraperitoneally daily from 1 day before the operation. Three days after the surgery, the effect of imatinib was assessed by physiological, morphological and molecular methods. The inhibition of PDGFRs against transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGFB1)-induced fibrosis was also tested in human pericyte cell culture. RESULTS: Increased kidney weight and renal fibrosis were observed in the congested kidneys. Upstream inferior vena cava (IVC) pressure immediately increased to around 20 mmHg after IVC ligation in both the imatinib and saline groups. Although vasa recta dilatation and pericyte detachment under renal congestion were maintained, imatinib ameliorated the increased kidney weight and suppressed renal fibrosis around the vasa recta. TGFB1-induced elevation of fibrosis markers in human pericytes was suppressed by PDGFR inhibitors at the transcriptional level. CONCLUSION: The activation of the PDGFR pathway after renal congestion was responsible for renal congestion-induced fibrosis. This mechanism could be a candidate therapeutic target for renoprotection against renal congestion-induced tubulointerstitial injury.


Assuntos
Hiperemia , Nefropatias , Animais , Fibrose , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/metabolismo , Mesilato de Imatinib/farmacologia , Rim/metabolismo , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Masculino , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
7.
Clin Radiol ; 77(10): e776-e782, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35940927

RESUMO

AIM: To compare targeted and global liver stiffness measured by magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) with liver biopsy in patients who have undergone the Fontan procedure, and to assess the relationship between liver stiffness and fibrosis stage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Targeted and global liver stiffness was compared with a quantification of liver fibrosis measured by percentage of Sirius Red (%SR) staining of biopsy samples. MRE values were compared with three other biopsy-scoring methods: Ishak, Scheuer/Ludwig-Batts/Metavir, and congestive hepatic fibrosis score (CHFS). Additionally, in patients who had two or more MRE studies, global liver stiffness was compared for longitudinal assessment. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients were included in the study, with a mean age of 16.2 years. There was no statistically significant correlation between MRE-derived liver stiffness and Ishak score, Metavir score, %SR staining, and CHFS score. Twenty patients had multiple MRE studies, with a mean age of 16.5 years, and these showed a statistically significant increase in mean liver stiffness from 3.72 to 4.68 (26% increase) within an average period of 24 months. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of correlation of liver stiffness with fibrosis stage observed in this study indicates that the effects of venous congestion in Fontan patients can confound the use of liver stiffness as a biomarker for fibrosis as assessed by percentage of SR staining, Ishak score, Metavir score, and CHFS score. These results provide motivation for further development of magnetic resonance imaging-based biomarkers to increase the specificity in the assessment of Fontan-associated liver disease. A steady increase in liver stiffness observed in these patients may be useful for longitudinal follow-up of liver health.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Técnica de Fontan , Hiperemia , Hepatopatias , Adolescente , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Fibrose , Técnica de Fontan/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hiperemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Hiperemia/etiologia , Hiperemia/patologia , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 323(3): H388-H396, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35802515

RESUMO

Supervised exercise is a common therapeutic intervention for patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD), however, the mechanism underlying the improvement in claudication symptomatology is not completely understood. The hypothesis that exercise improves microvascular blood flow is herein tested via temporally resolved magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurement of blood flow and oxygenation dynamics during reactive hyperemia in the leg with the lower ankle-brachial index. One hundred and forty-eight subjects with PAD were prospectively assigned to standard medical care or 3 mo of supervised exercise therapy. Before and after the intervention period, subjects performed a graded treadmill walking test, and MRI data were collected with Perfusion, Intravascular Venous Oxygen saturation, and T2* (PIVOT), a method that simultaneously quantifies microvascular perfusion, as well as relative oxygenation changes in skeletal muscle and venous oxygen saturation in a large draining vein. The 3-mo exercise intervention was associated with an improvement in peak walking time (64% greater in those randomized to the exercise group at follow-up, P < 0.001). Significant differences were not observed in the MRI measures between the subjects randomized to exercise therapy versus standard medical care based on an intention-to-treat analysis. However, the peak postischemia perfusion averaged across the leg between baseline and follow-up visits increased by 10% (P = 0.021) in participants that were adherent to the exercise protocol (completed >80% of prescribed exercise visits). In this cohort of adherent exercisers, there was no difference in the time to peak perfusion or oxygenation metrics, suggesting that there was no improvement in microvascular function nor changes in tissue metabolism in response to the 3-mo exercise intervention.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Supervised exercise interventions can improve symptomatology in patients with peripheral artery disease, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, MRI was used to evaluate perfusion, relative tissue oxygenation, and venous oxygen saturation in response to cuff-induced ischemia. Reactive hyperemia responses were measured before and after 3 mo of randomized supervised exercise therapy or standard medical care. Those participants who were adherent to the exercise regimen had a significant improvement in peak perfusion.


Assuntos
Hiperemia , Doença Arterial Periférica , Teste de Esforço , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Hiperemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Claudicação Intermitente/diagnóstico por imagem , Claudicação Intermitente/terapia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Caminhada
9.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(9): 106666, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35907307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hippocampal venous congestion is a rare complication associated with cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas (CS-DAVFs). CASE DESCRIPTION: A 74-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with a swollen left eye. Isolated lesions were found in the left hippocampus and the middle cerebellar peduncle. Cerebral angiography revealed retrograde venous drainage of the bilateral inferior petrosal sinuses from the left CS-DAVF. The patient underwent transcatheter arterial embolization, resulting in complete resolution of the hippocampal lesions and neurological symptoms. CONCLUSION: Hippocampal injury is a rare complication of CS-DAVF. Attentive diagnosis and treatment can effectively prevent adverse consequences.


Assuntos
Seio Cavernoso , Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central , Embolização Terapêutica , Hiperemia , Idoso , Seio Cavernoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Seio Cavernoso/patologia , Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central/complicações , Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central/terapia , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hipocampo , Humanos , Hiperemia/etiologia , Hiperemia/patologia , Hiperemia/terapia
10.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 133(3): 593-605, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834626

RESUMO

Pulse transit time (PTT) is the time it takes for pressure waves to propagate through the arterial system. Arterial stiffness assessed via PTT has been extensively examined in the conduit arteries; however, limited information is available about PTT to the skeletal muscle microcirculation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess PTT to the skeletal muscle microcirculation (PTTm) with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and to determine whether PTTm provides unique information about vascular function that PTT assessed in the conduit arteries (PTTc) cannot provide. This pilot study was conducted with 10 (male = 5; female = 5) individuals of similar age (21.5 ± 1.2 yr). The feasibility of using the intersecting tangents method to derive PTTm with NIRS was assessed during reactive hyperemia with the cross-correlation of PTTm produced by the intersecting tangents method and a different algorithm that used signal spectral properties. To determine whether PTTm was distinct from PTTc, the cross-correlation of PTTm and PTTc during reactive hyperemia was assessed. Cross-correlation indicated agreement between PTTm derived from both algorithms (r2 = 0.77, P < 0.01) and a lack of agreement between PTTm and PTTc during reactive hyperemia (r2 = 0.07, P < 0.01). Therefore, we conclude that it is feasible to assess PTTm using NIRS, and PTTm provides unique information about vascular function, including skeletal muscle microvascular elasticity, which cannot be achieved with traditional PTTc. PTTm with NIRS may provide a comprehensive and noninvasive assessment of vascular function and health.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Pulse transit time to the skeletal muscle microcirculation can be assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy and the intersecting tangents method. Pulse transit analysis to the microcirculation provides a comprehensive assessment of the vascular response to postocclusive reactive hyperemia that pulse transit analysis in the conduit arteries cannot provide. Pulse transit time to the skeletal muscle microcirculation using near-infrared spectroscopy provides unique information about microvascular elasticity in the skeletal muscle. These findings indicate that the combination of near-infrared spectroscopy and pulse transit analysis may be a useful method for assessing the skeletal muscle microcirculation.


Assuntos
Hiperemia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microcirculação/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Projetos Piloto , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos
11.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 662, 2022 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35820834

RESUMO

Flap options for upper limb reconstruction have increased due to better understanding of its vascular anatomy. The posterior interosseus artery flap (PIAF) is used to cover defects of the wrist, hand, proximal thumb, and first web space. This flap has many advantages but requires good knowledge about the anatomy of the posterior interosseus artery (PIOA) and its perforators. METHODS: Twenty upper extremity cadaveric specimens were injected with red latex, Fine dissection of the PIOA and its perforators took place; the perforators were counted, measured, described and photographed. Twenty patients with dorsal hand defects, had PIAF. Cases have Post-operative care and followed up for 6 months post-operative. RESULTS: The PIOA was constant in all cadaveric dissections and gave off 4-8 septocutaneous perforators along its course between the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) and extensor digitorum (EDM) muscles. The mean distance of the distal most perforator in the middle third forearm from the ulnar styloid was 10.39 ± 1.54 cm. The anastomosis between the PIOA and the anterior interosseus artery (AIOA) was there in all specimens. Venous congestion occurred in 10% of the cases and was managed conservatively. Necrosis of the distal third of the flap was inevitable in one case; excellent results were obtained in the other cases 90%. CONCLUSIONS: The posterior interosseus artery flap is an excellent perforator flap for hand reconstruction preserving the ulnar and radial artery; but it has a possible complications such as venous congestion or partial flap necrosis that could be managed conservatively. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.


Assuntos
Hiperemia , Retalho Perfurante , Cadáver , Humanos , Necrose , Retalho Perfurante/irrigação sanguínea , Artéria Ulnar/cirurgia
12.
Int J Cardiol ; 362: 59-67, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35662563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantitative flow ratio (QFR) is a novel angiography-derived index aimed to assess the functional relevance of coronary stenoses without pressure wires and adenosine. Good diagnostic yield with the hyperemic fractional flow reserve (FFR) have been reported, while data on the comparison of QFR to non-hyperemic pressure ratios (NHPR) are scarce. METHODS: In this retrospective, observational and single-center study with a large population representative of the real practice, we assessed and compared the diagnostic performance of contrast flow (cQFR) and fixed flow (fQFR) QFR against the NHPR resting full-cyle ratio (RFR) using FFR as reference standard. RESULTS: A total of 626 lesions from 544 patients were investigated. Mean diameter stenosis, FFR, cQFR, fQFR and RFR were 44.8%, 0.842, 0.847, 0.857 and 0.912, respectively. The correlation between cQFR and FFR was stronger (r = 0.830, P < 0.001) compared to that between FFR and RFR (r = 0.777, P < 0.001) and between cQFR and RFR (r = 0.687, P < 0.001). Using FFR ≤0.80 as reference, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and overall diagnostic accuracy for cQFR were 82%, 95%, 87%, 92%, and 91%, respectively. cQFR displayed a higher area under the curve (AUC) than fQFR and RFR (0.938 vs. 0.891 vs. 0.869, P < 0.01). The good diagnostic yield of cQFR appeared to be maintained in different clinical subsets including female gender, aortic valve stenosis and atrial fibrillation, and in different anatomical subsets including focal and non-focal lesions. CONCLUSION: cQFR has a high and better diagnostic performance than the NHPR RFR in predicting FFR-based functional significance of coronary stenoses.


Assuntos
Estenose Coronária , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Hiperemia , Angiografia Coronária , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
14.
Int Ophthalmol ; 42(9): 2855-2869, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672599

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Impaired digital reactive hyperaemia and flicker-stimulated retinal vascular response are commonly reported risk markers of cardiovascular disease. This is the first study to determine the correlation of these risk markers with diabetes mellitus by comparing our novel flicker-modulated ECG-gated fundoscope with the EndoPAT2000 system. METHODS: In total, 119 controls and 120 participants with diabetes mellitus partook in this cross-sectional study. The EndoPAT2000 system assessed digital reactive hyperaemia under fasting conditions. A mydriatic ECG-gated fundoscope with a novel flicker module acquired digital retinal images of the left eye before, during and after flicker stimulation. An inhouse semi-automated software measured retinal vessel diameters using a validated protocol with two observers repeating measurements in a subset of 10 controls and 10 participants with diabetes mellitus. Intra- and inter-observer reliability analyses occurred by the interclass correlation coefficient. A receiver operating characteristic curve established associations of variables with diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: Diabetes mellitus was more strongly associated with flicker-stimulated retinal arteriolar calibre change from baseline (AUC 0.81, 95% CI 0.75-0.87, p < 0.0001) than reactive hyperaemia index. Median flicker-stimulated arteriolar calibre change from baseline (controls: 2.74%, IQR 1.07 vs diabetes mellitus: 1.64%, IQR 1.25, p < 0.0001) and reactive hyperaemia index (controls: 1.87, IQR 0.81 vs diabetes mellitus: 1.60, IQR 0.81, p = 0.003) were lower in diabetes mellitus than controls. Intra- and inter-observer reliability coefficients were high from 0.87 to 0.93. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired flicker-stimulated retinal arteriolar calibre change from baseline is more highly correlated with diabetes mellitus in this study than a reduced reactive hyperaemia index.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hiperemia , Estudos Transversais , Eletrocardiografia , Humanos , Manometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Vasos Retinianos , Vasodilatação
15.
J Vis Exp ; (183)2022 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35695540

RESUMO

The incidence of dry eye syndrome (DES) has increased due to wearing masks, utilizing digital devices, and working remotely during the pandemic. A survey was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic to determine the prevalence of dry eye syndrome. A cross-sectional study investigated how prevalent DES is during COVID-19 in healthy patients aged 20-45 in the United States. An Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire was given to 40 individuals remotely from October 31, 2021, to December 1, 2021. The AOS and the OSDI survey were used to evaluate DES. The subjects were 29 years old on average (SD 14.14), with 23 males (57.5%) and 17 females (42.5%). According to the OSDI survey, low DES, moderate DES, and severe DES had prevalence rates of 15%, 77.5%, and 7.5%, respectively. White (W) people represent 50% of the population, while African Americans (AA) represent 35%, Asians represent 7.5%, and Hispanics represent 7.5%. Mild DES affected 77.5% of subjects, with 64.50% males and 35.50% females. According to the AOS objective grading system, mild (M) DES, moderate (MO) DES, and severe (S) DES had prevalence rates of 40%, 12.5%, and 15%, respectively. Linear regression was used to compare the two grading systems, and it demonstrated a strong relationship between the two grading systems.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Síndromes do Olho Seco , Hiperemia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Síndromes do Olho Seco/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Lágrimas
16.
Acta Biomed ; 93(S1): e2022180, 2022 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: More than 250 000 women estimated to be diagnosed with breast cancer in the USA every year. Mastectomy is primary treatment for more than a third of those with early-stage disease. Most of the patients undergoing mastectomy receive breast reconstruction. A number of. Surgical techniques have been described to reconstruct the breast. With autologous tissue breast reconstruction, the plastic surgeon uses patient's own tissues, taken from a different part of the body where there is an excess of fat and skin. Deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap is the autologous breast reconstruction technique of choice in our department due to long lasting results, low donor site morbidity and positive patient reported outcomes have been described.   Case Report: We present the case of a 42-year-old woman who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by left breast simple mastectomy, axillary lymph-nodes dissection and later adjuvant radiation therapy (RT). After conclusion of RT a DIEP flap breast reconstruction was performed. Nine-hours after the operation, signs of acute venous congestion were noted. The venous congestion was treated by a combined surgical and medical approach based on pedicle discharge and ICU resuscitation protocol. After take back surgery, the patient was tightly monitored in the intensive care unit where intravenous heparin infusion and leech therapy were performed for 2 days. Flap congestion resolved completely, and the patient was discharged.   Conclusions: Venous congestion is very difficult to treat due to its potential multifactorial nature. The most important step is to recognize this kind of emergency because irreversible microvascular damages will develop in 6-8 hours. Because of multiple causes of venous congestion a timely multidisciplinary approach is mandatory, to maximize flap salvage and success rates.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Hiperemia , Mamoplastia , Retalho Perfurante , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperemia/cirurgia , Hiperemia/terapia , Mamoplastia/efeitos adversos , Mamoplastia/métodos , Mastectomia/efeitos adversos , Mastectomia/métodos , Retalho Perfurante/irrigação sanguínea , Retalho Perfurante/cirurgia
17.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 100(2): 199-206, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35723684

RESUMO

AIM: Microvascular resistance reserve (MRR) as derived from continuous intracoronary thermodilution specifically quantifies microvasculature function. As originally described, the technique necessitates reinstrumentation of the artery and manual reprogramming of the infusion pump when performing resting and hyperemic measurements. To simplify and to render this procedure operator-independent, we developed a fully automated method. The aim of the present study is to validate the automated procedure against the originally described one. METHODS AND RESULTS: For the automated procedure, an infusion pump was preprogrammed to allow paired resting-hyperemic thermodilution assessment without interruption. To validate the accuracy of this new approach, 20 automated measurements were compared to those obtained in the same vessels with conventional paired resting-hyperemic thermodilution measurements (i.e., with a sensor pullback at each infusion rate and manual reprogramming of the infusion pump).  A close correlation between the conventional and the automated measuring technique was found for resting flow (Qrest : r = 0.89, mean bias = 2.52; SD = 15.47), hyperemic flow (Qhyper : r = 0.88, mean bias = -2.65; SD = 27.96), resting microvascular resistance (Rµ-rest : r = 0.90, mean bias = 52.14; SD = 228.29), hyperemic microvascular resistance Rµ-hyper : r = 0.92, mean bias = 12.95; SD = 57.80), and MRR (MRR: r = 0.89, mean bias = 0.04, SD = 0.59).  Procedural time was significantly shorter with the automated method (5'25″ ± 1'23″ vs. 4'36″ ± 0'33″, p = 0.013). CONCLUSION: Continuous intracoronary thermodilution-derived measurements of absolute flow, absolute resistance, and MRR can be fully automated. This further shortens and simplifies the procedure when performing paired resting-hyperemic measurements.


Assuntos
Hiperemia , Termodiluição , Automação , Circulação Coronária , Vasos Coronários , Humanos , Microcirculação , Termodiluição/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Resistência Vascular
18.
J Physiol ; 600(15): 3483-3495, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35738560

RESUMO

Chronic exposure to hypoxia (high-altitude, HA; >4000 m) attenuates the vasodilatory response to exercise and is associated with a persistent increase in basal sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). The mechanism(s) responsible for the reduced vasodilatation and exercise hyperaemia at HA remains unknown. We hypothesized that heightened adrenergic signalling restrains skeletal muscle blood flow during handgrip exercise in lowlanders acclimatizing to HA. We tested nine adult males (n = 9) at sea-level (SL; 344 m) and following 21-28 days at HA (∼4300 m). Forearm blood flow (FBF; duplex ultrasonography), mean arterial pressure (MAP; brachial artery catheter), forearm vascular conductance (FVC; FBF/MAP), and arterial and venous blood sampling (O2 delivery ( D O 2 ${D}_{{{\rm{O}}}_{\rm{2}}}$ ) and uptake ( V ̇ O 2 ${\dot{V}}_{{{\rm{O}}}_{\rm{2}}}$ )) were measured at rest and during graded rhythmic handgrip exercise (5%, 15% and 25% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction; MVC) before and after local α- and ß-adrenergic blockade (intra-arterial phentolamine and propranolol). HA reduced ΔFBF (25% MVC: SL: 138.3 ± 47.6 vs. HA: 113.4 ± 37.1 ml min-1 ; P = 0.022) and Δ V ̇ O 2 ${\dot{V}}_{{{\rm{O}}}_{\rm{2}}}$ (25% MVC: SL: 20.3 ± 7.5 vs. HA: 14.3 ± 6.2 ml min-1 ; P = 0.014) during exercise. Local adrenoreceptor blockade at HA restored FBF during exercise (25% MVC: SLα-ß blockade : 164.1 ± 71.7 vs. HAα-ß blockade : 185.4 ± 66.6 ml min-1 ; P = 0.947) but resulted in an exaggerated relationship between D O 2 ${D}_{{{\rm{O}}}_{\rm{2}}}$ and V ̇ O 2 ${\dot{V}}_{{{\rm{O}}}_{\rm{2}}}$ ( D O 2 ${D}_{{{\rm{O}}}_{\rm{2}}}$ / V ̇ O 2 ${\dot{V}}_{{{\rm{O}}}_{\rm{2}}}$ slope: SL: 1.32; HA: slope: 1.86; P = 0.037). These results indicate that tonic adrenergic signalling restrains exercise hyperaemia in lowlanders acclimatizing to HA. The increase in adrenergic restraint is necessary to match oxygen delivery to demand and prevent over perfusion of contracting muscle at HA. KEY POINTS: In exercising skeletal muscle, local vasodilatory signalling and sympathetic vasoconstriction integrate to match oxygen delivery to demand and maintain arterial blood pressure. Exposure to chronic hypoxia (altitude, >4000 m) causes a persistent increase in sympathetic nervous system activity that is associated with impaired functional capacity and diminished vasodilatation during exercise. In healthy male lowlanders exposed to chronic hypoxia (21-28 days; ∼4300 m), local adrenoreceptor blockade (combined α- and ß-adrenergic blockade) restored skeletal muscle blood flow during handgrip exercise. However, removal of tonic adrenergic restraint at high altitude caused an excessive rise in blood flow and subsequently oxygen delivery for any given metabolic demand. This investigation is the first to identify greater adrenergic restraint of blood flow during acclimatization to high altitude and provides evidence of a functional role for this adaptive response in regulating oxygen delivery and demand.


Assuntos
Altitude , Hiperemia , Adrenérgicos , Adulto , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Hiperemia/metabolismo , Hipóxia , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia
19.
Andrologia ; 54(9): e14494, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676072

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of tadalafil on reactive oxygen species induced by a hyperoxia model in rats, both in terms of enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide (NO), and its pathological effects on the corpus cavernosum. Overall, 24 rats were divided into three groups. The control group (eight rats) was not exposed to any intervention. The second group (eight rats), was exposed to hyperoxia in a hyperoxia cabinet for 8 h a day for 10 days. The third group (eight rats) was exposed to hyperoxia the same as in the second group, tadalafil at a dose of 10 mg/kg was given orally as a dissolved form in water in the amount of 10-12 ml/100 g/day to the rats placed in separate cages having removed from the hyperoxia cabin. SOD levels differ enough to create a difference, but there was no significant difference in terms of NO levels. The SOD level was highest in hyperoxia conditions and lowest in the group given tadalafil. While corpus cavernosum hyperemia was found to be higher statistically in the experimental groups than in the control group, we found that the severity of hyperemia was less in the group given tadalafil. The corpus cavernosum was found to be statistically more dilated in the experimental groups than in the control group. We determined that hyperoxia status increased the level of SOD and this level decreased with tadalafil administration, which would make a statistical difference.


Assuntos
Hiperemia , Hiperóxia , Animais , Hiperóxia/complicações , Óxido Nítrico , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Tadalafila/farmacologia , Tadalafila/uso terapêutico
20.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 24(7): 928-936, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35687487

RESUMO

Osteocalcin (OCN) is a bone-derived and vitamin K dependent hormone that affects energy metabolism and vascular calcification. The relationship between serum OCN and vascular function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is uncertain. This study investigated the association between serum OCN and vascular function as expressed with reactive hyperemia index (RHI) and augmentation index (AIx) measured by Endo-PAT 2000 device. This cross-sectional analysis was based on 256 pre-dialysis CKD patients who had completed the Endo-PAT 2000 test and serum OCN at the First Center of Chinese PLA Hospital from November 2017 to December 2019. Based on whether the RHI was less than 1.67, the patients were divided into endothelial dysfunction and normal endothelial function groups. Multiple logistic and linear regression were used to analyze the association between OCN and vascular function. Subgroup analyses were performed to examine the effects of OCN on vascular function in different CKD populations. After multivariate adjustment, CKD with low OCN were more likely to have endothelial dysfunction (OR: 0.794; 95%CI: 0.674-0.934; P = .006); on the contrary, patients with high OCN had a higher degree of arterial stiffness (standardized ß: 0.174; P = .003). Subgroup analyses showed that higher OCN was associated with severe arterial stiffness but a better endothelial function in young (age < 65 years, PRHI /PAIx@75  = .027/.011), male (PRHI /PAIx@75  = .040/.016), patients with a history of hypertension (PRHI /PAIx@75  = .004/.009) or diabetes (PRHI /PAIx@75  = .005/.005), and in early CKD (PRHI /PAIx@75  = .014/.015). In conclusion, serum OCN correlates with vascular function in CKD patients: beneficial for endothelial function but detrimental to arterial stiffness.


Assuntos
Hiperemia , Hipertensão , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Rigidez Vascular , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Endotélio Vascular , Humanos , Masculino , Osteocalcina , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia
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