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1.
Appetite ; 156: 104853, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038479

RESUMO

Eating, physical activity and other weight-related lifestyle behaviors may have been impacted by the COVID-19 crisis and people with obesity may be disproportionately affected. We examined weight-related behaviors and weight management barriers among UK adults during the COVID-19 social lockdown. During April-May of the 2020 COVID-19 social lockdown, UK adults (N = 2002) completed an online survey including measures relating to physical activity, diet quality, overeating and how mental/physical health had been affected by lockdown. Participants also reported on perceived changes in weight-related behaviors and whether they had experienced barriers to weight management, compared to before the lockdown. A large number of participants reported negative changes in eating and physical activity behavior (e.g. 56% reported snacking more frequently) and experiencing barriers to weight management (e.g. problems with motivation and control around food) compared to before lockdown. These trends were particularly pronounced among participants with higher BMI. During lockdown, higher BMI was associated with lower levels of physical activity and diet quality, and a greater reported frequency of overeating. Reporting a decline in mental health because of the COVID-19 crisis was not associated with higher BMI, but was predictive of greater overeating and lower physical activity in lockdown. The COVID-19 crisis may have had a disproportionately large and negative influence on weight-related behaviors among adults with higher BMI.


Assuntos
Dieta , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Saúde Mental , Obesidade , Pandemias , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperfagia/etiologia , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/psicologia , Lanches , Isolamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352678

RESUMO

Appetitive traits of food approach or food avoidance are commonly measured using the Adult Eating Behavior Questionnaire (AEBQ). However, there is no Polish version of the AEBQ validated for adolescents, and to the best of our knowledge, no study completed with the Polish version of the AEBQ has been published thus far. The present study aimed to validate the AEBQ in a population-based sample of Polish secondary school students and to assess differences in appetitive traits between boys and girls within the Polish Adolescents' COVID-19 Experience (PLACE-19) Study. The PLACE-19 Study was conducted in a group of 2448 adolescents recruited in May 2020 through the random quota sampling of secondary schools. The AEBQ was used to assess food approach subscales (Food Responsiveness, Emotional Over-Eating, and Enjoyment of Food) and food avoidance subscales (Satiety Responsiveness, Emotional Under-Eating, Food Fussiness, and Slowness in Eating). To validate the questionnaire, the standardized factor loadings within confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with weighted least squares (WLS) were analyzed, and invariance was verified. The CFA presented good model fit, with χ2 = 4826.105 (degrees of freedom (df) = 384), root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.069 (90% confidence interval (CI): 0.067, 0.070), comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.90, and standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.08. The results revealed that, compared to the configural invariance model, the metric invariance model did not result in significantly decreased model fit, with ΔCFI = -0.002 and ΔRMSEA = -0.001, which were lower than the recommended cutoffs of 0.010 and 0.015, respectively. The scalar invariance model also did not result in significantly decreased fit of the model over the metric invariance model, with ΔCFI = -0.005 and ΔRMSEA = 0.000. Girls reported higher levels of Food Responsiveness (p < 0.0001), Emotional Over-Eating (p < 0.0001), Satiety Responsiveness (p < 0.0001), Emotional Under-Eating (p < 0.0001), and Slowness in Eating than boys (p < 0.0001), and the total AEBQ scores of girls were also higher (p < 0.0001). Positive inter-correlations were observed between all food approach subscales, as well as between Emotional Under-Eating and all food approach subscales for girls, boys, and the total sample; positive inter-correlations were also observed between the majority of food avoidance subscales. The present study confirmed the validity of the AEBQ in the studied population, and supported the associations between appetitive traits assessed using the AEBQ; it also indicated higher scores of both food approach and food avoidance subscales in girls than in boys in a population-based sample of Polish secondary school students.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Alimentos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Psicologia do Adolescente , Psicometria/métodos , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Masculino , Polônia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Sexuais
3.
Eat Behav ; 37: 101390, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434120

RESUMO

"Overeating" is a significant public health concern, but little is known about how lay people conceptualize overeating. This study explored participants' conceptions of overeating. Participants were 175 university students and 296 community members (56% women) who were asked to rate the extent to which several statements reflected the concept of "overeating" (1 = Does not capture the meaning at all; 7 = Captures the meaning perfectly). Results showed that eating outside of hunger was viewed as being most strongly linked to the conceptualization of overeating; mindless eating, eating more than some normative amount, and a lack of restriction were all moderately linked to the conceptualization of overeating; and the quality of the food/eating style was rated as least relevant to the conceptualization of overeating. Participants with a higher BMI, participants who perceived themselves as fat, restrained eaters, and participants with an indication of eating pathology rated all of the constructs as more relevant to the concept of overeating than did their respective counterparts, but their overall pattern of responding was the same. The present research provides some initial insights into people's thoughts on what it means to "overeat," which is important given that simply believing that one has overeaten (regardless of the actual amount consumed) can have adverse psychological and behavioral consequences. These insights provide an avenue for future research to explore whether lay conceptions could be more adaptively reshaped to reduce the negative effects of perceived overeating.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
4.
Int J Behav Med ; 27(2): 247-254, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Distress intolerance, one's inability to withstand distressing emotional or physical states, is a transdiagnostic vulnerability implicated in affect-based health behaviors, including cigarette smoking and poor weight control. The current study evaluated associations between distress intolerance and the reliance on cigarettes for management of weight, appetite, or body dissatisfaction, which may pose a burden for cessation and increase risk of weight-related health problems. METHOD: Daily smokers (n = 577) completed an online survey assessing distress tolerance and reliance on cigarettes for weight and shape control with the four subscales of the Smoking and Weight Eating Episodes Test (SWEET). Four hierarchical regression models were constructed to test the association between distress intolerance and SWEET scores, accounting for the effect of relevant covarying factors. RESULTS: After adjusting for model covariates, distress intolerance was significantly incrementally associated with greater tendency to rely on cigarettes to suppress appetite (adjR2 = .040), prevent overeating (adjR2 = .034), cope with body dissatisfaction (adjR2 = .046), and cope with nicotine withdrawal-related appetite increases (adjR2 = .030). CONCLUSION: Distress intolerance may play an etiological role in maladaptive use of cigarettes to control appetite, weight, and body dissatisfaction among daily smokers, particularly those with weight- or shape-related concerns. Interventions aimed at increasing perceived ability to withstand distress could potentially reduce reliance on cigarettes for the aforementioned purposes.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Apetite/fisiologia , Fumantes/psicologia , Fumar/psicologia , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Pediatr Obes ; 15(7): e12631, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms have been linked with eating behaviors and obesity adolescence and young adulthood. Yet, little is known about whether these associations occur during early childhood and few studies have examined these associations prospectively. OBJECTIVES: To assess magnitude and direction of associations between childhood ADHD symptoms and eating behaviors. METHODS: Participants were from the Newborn Epigenetics Study (N = 470, M age = 4 years). Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine cross-sectional associations between ADHD symptoms and eating behaviors. Latent Change Score (LCS) modeling was performed to examine prospective association among a subset of children with available follow-up data. (N = 100, M age = 7 years). RESULTS: The cross-sectional results showed that attention problem (AP) and hyperactivity (HY) were positively associated with food responsiveness, emotional overeating, desire to drink, and slowness in eating. AP, but not HY, was inversely associated with enjoyment of food. Results of the LCS models revealed AP and HY were both positively associated with prospective changes in emotional overeating and satiety responsiveness. AP was further positively associated with prospective changes in food responsiveness. The reverse relationship predicting changes in ADHD symptoms from earlier assessments of eating behaviors was not significant. CONCLUSION: Results suggest a link between ADHD symptoms and obesity-related eating behaviors in early childhood, highlighting the need to address self-regulation and healthy eating behaviors in the prevention of childhood obesity.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(1): 17-20, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637411

RESUMO

The Vermont overfeeding studies were published 50 y ago and began a change in the acceptance of obesity as a bona fide area of academic interest. This article chronicles the experience of the author with acute weight gain while overfeeding, in the context of current obesity research, and presents a glimpse of things to come. The pain associated with acute overeating is illustrated by the firsthand experience of the author. The rapid return to normal weight contrasts with the difficulty that almost all people with obesity experience when they attempt to lose and maintain weight loss. Contrasting the response to overfeeding of individuals who are "resistant" to obesity with those who are obesity prone provides an avenue for unraveling the difficulties people with obesity face when they try to lose weight.


Assuntos
Hiperfagia/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Autoexperimentação , Humanos , Hiperfagia/metabolismo , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/psicologia , Ganho de Peso , Perda de Peso
7.
Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab ; 14(5): 351-358, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536375

RESUMO

Introduction: Night Eating Syndrome (NES) refers to an abnormal eating behavior which presents as evening hyperphagia consuming >25% calorie intake and/or nocturnal awaking with food ingestion which occurs ≥2 times per week. Although the syndrome has been described more than seven decades ago, the literature has been growing slowly on its etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Areas covered: The proposed treatment options for NES are all at a case-study level. Moreover, our understanding of its etiology, comorbidities, and diagnosis is still premature. We performed a literature review in Medline/PubMed to identify all the studies proposing a management plan for NES and summarized all the existing data on its diagnosis and treatment. Expert opinion: To date, none of the proposed treatment options for NES have been promising and long-term data on its efficacy is lacking. The slow growth of evidence on this debilitating but underreported condition may be due to unawareness among clinicians, under-reporting by patients, and unrecognized diagnostic criteria. Objective screening of symptoms during office visits especially for patients at a high-risk for NES will identify more patients suffering from the syndrome.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiopatologia , Hiperfagia/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Doenças Metabólicas/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Comer Noturno/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Humanos , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Doenças Metabólicas/psicologia , Síndrome do Comer Noturno/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia
9.
Appetite ; 141: 104341, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276712

RESUMO

Greater ability to delay gratification for an immediate food reward may protect against the development of obesity. However, it is not known if the behaviors children exhibit during a delay of gratification task are related to overeating in other contexts. The purpose of this analysis was to assess the relationship between observed child coping strategies during a delay of gratification task and laboratory intake from ad libitum test-meals. The sample consisted of 40, 7-9 year old children (40% (N = 16 with overweight/obesity). Across 5 laboratory visits, children consumed 3 identical test-meals presented after varying exposure conditions (i.e., no exposure, exposure to food commercials, exposure to toy commercials). On the first visit, children were recorded during a delay of gratification task which was coded for three behavioral themes: looking at vs. away from food, talking vs. staying silent, and fidgeting vs. sitting still. Pearson correlations and multiple regressions were run to look at the relationships between coping strategies and test-meal intake. Time spent looking away from food was negatively associated with ad libitum food consumption at the meals. Conversely, greater time spent looking at food was positively associated with ad libitum food consumption. These relationships were independent of covariates likely to influence intake (e.g., sex, age, weight status, parent income) and were more robust following food rather than toy commercial exposure. Children who spent more time looking at food and less time looking away during a delay of gratification task may be vulnerable to overeating in other contexts. Upon replication in larger samples, these behaviors could serve as modifiable targets in the development of childhood obesity prevention programs.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Refeições/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Recompensa , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
10.
Psychol Assess ; 31(10): 1220-1233, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219280

RESUMO

Nonhomeostatic eating is a complex (presumably) multidimensional construct associated with negative health outcomes. However, little research has examined the latent structure of nonhomeostatic eating processes, interrelationships among nonhomeostatic eating constructs, and differential associations between nonhomeostatic eating constructs and external correlates. This study adopted a construct validation approach to investigate these research questions in a large sample of undergraduate women and men (N = 998; 54.6% female). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on items from 8 measures representing numerous nonhomeostatic eating process constructs (e.g., binge eating, loss of control [LOC] over eating, "food addiction"). The 7-factor retained solution included the following: (1) emotional eating, (2) external eating, (3) LOC over eating, (4) overeating, (5) distress over nonhomeostatic eating, (6) hedonic hunger, and (7) food addiction. LOC over eating was the nonhomeostatic eating factor most strongly related to other factors (M rs = .71 and .65 in women and men, respectively). Factor score multiple regressions conducted separately by sex indicated that distress over nonhomeostatic eating was related to body mass index, depressive symptoms, and eating-related clinical impairment in both women and men. In women, food addiction demonstrated unique associations with depressive symptoms, emotion dysregulation, and clinical impairment, whereas overeating uniquely predicted these outcomes in men. This is the first comprehensive analysis of the latent structure of nonhomeostatic eating processes and associations with external correlates, and results suggest that LOC over eating, distress over nonhomeostatic eating, food addiction (in women), and overeating (in men) exhibited the strongest relations with psychosocial impairment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Bulimia/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Emoções , Feminino , Dependência de Alimentos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Angústia Psicológica , Autocontrole/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174338

RESUMO

Few studies have investigated the underlying neural substrates of food addiction (FA) in humans using a recognised assessment tool. In addition, no studies have investigated subregions of the amygdala (basolateral (BLA) and central amygdala), which have been linked to reward-seeking behaviours, susceptibility to weight gain, and promoting appetitive behaviours, in the context of FA. This pilot study aimed to explore the association between FA symptoms and activation in the BLA and central amygdala via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in response to visual food cues in fasted and fed states. Females (n = 12) aged 18-35 years completed two fMRI scans (fasted and fed) while viewing high-calorie food images and low-calorie food images. Food addiction symptoms were assessed using the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Associations between FA symptoms and activation of the BLA and central amygdala were tested using bilateral masks and small-volume correction procedures in multiple regression models, controlling for BMI. Participants were 24.1 ± 2.6 years, with mean BMI of 27.4 ± 5.0 kg/m2 and FA symptom score of 4.1 ± 2.2. A significant positive association was identified between FA symptoms and higher activation of the left BLA to high-calorie versus low-calorie foods in the fasted session, but not the fed session. There were no significant associations with the central amygdala in either session. This exploratory study provides pilot data to inform future studies investigating the neural mechanisms underlying FA.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Ingestão de Alimentos , Jejum , Comportamento Alimentar , Dependência de Alimentos/fisiopatologia , Hiperfagia/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Apetite , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Alimentos , Dependência de Alimentos/complicações , Dependência de Alimentos/psicologia , Humanos , Hiperfagia/etiologia , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Projetos Piloto , Recompensa , Resposta de Saciedade , Ganho de Peso , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216640

RESUMO

Environmental factors such as food availability and variety can function as cues for overeating in individuals susceptible to overweight or obesity, but relatively little is known about other types of environmental factors that may also be important. This qualitative study compared and contrasted categories of internal and external cues through focus groups and key informant interviews with 24 adults (26 to 77 years old) in the United States who had a body mass index within the healthy range (21.6 ± 2.5 kg/m2) or had overweight or obesity (29.1 ± 3.6 kg/m2). Five domains of external factors influencing food intake were identified: (a) Environmental cues including food availability and variety; (b) normative expectations for dietary intake; (c) food palatability; (d) overt social pressures to overeat; and (e) perceived social expectations around eating. All external domains were noted by participants with overweight or obesity to be challenging, and solutions to avoid overeating were lacking; however, overt social pressures and perceived social expectations appeared to be especially problematic. By explicitly defining different domains of external factors that challenge healthy weight regulation, this study identifies specific targets to address in interventions for healthy weight management.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Sinais (Psicologia) , Ingestão de Energia , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa
13.
Int J Eat Disord ; 52(8): 871-884, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228298

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The network theory of psychopathology has been described as an "innovative framework" that may "transform" clinical psychological science. Several network studies have identified central eating disorder (ED) symptoms, yet studies have been comprised primarily of women. Using two large samples, we constructed ED symptom networks among men to identify central symptoms. METHOD: Participants were recruited from three universities and using Amazon's Mechanical Turk. Participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q), Male Body Attitudes Scale, and Drive for Muscularity Scale. ED symptom networks were jointly estimated among men with (n = 248) and without core ED symptoms (n = 902). Core ED symptoms were defined by (a) scoring above a suggested male EDE-Q clinical cutoff and (b) reporting symptoms consistent with probable ED diagnoses. Expected influence and predictability (proportion of each node's variance explained by other nodes in the network) were calculated for each node. RESULTS: Shape overvaluation, desiring weight loss, fear of losing control over eating, feeling guilty for missing weight training, and using supplements had the greatest expected influence and predictability. Network structures did not significantly differ between participants with versus without core ED symptoms. DISCUSSION: The centricity of body dissatisfaction items in the networks supports some components of cognitive behavioral theories of EDs. However, the findings also suggest the importance of muscularity- and leanness-oriented concerns, which have been traditionally neglected from leading ED theories that tend to focus on thinness pursuits as a main driver of body dissatisfaction.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos , Adulto , Atitude , Medo , Humanos , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicopatologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Magreza/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Eat Behav ; 33: 97-101, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078948

RESUMO

There is limited understanding of the relationship between emotion dysregulation and weight gain among smokers, although available data suggest there are potential relationships that may be of clinical importance. The present study explored a potential mechanism in the relationship between emotion dysregulation and body mass index (BMI). Specifically, the current study examined the indirect effects of emotional eating on the association between emotion dysregulation and BMI among smokers. Participants included 136 (52.2% female; Mage = 42.25, SD = 11.24) adults who were treatment-seeking smokers. Primary analysis included one regression-based model, wherein emotion dysregulation served as the predictor, emotional eating as the intermediary variable, and BMI as the criterion variable. Covariates were age and gender. Results indicated that emotional dysregulation was significantly associated with BMI through emotional eating (a*b = 0.02, SE = 0.01, CI95% = 0.002, 0.042). The current findings provide initial empirical evidence that greater reported levels of emotion dysregulation may be associated with greater reported levels of emotional eating, which in turn, may be related to higher BMI.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Fumantes/psicologia , Fumar/psicologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105966

RESUMO

This study investigated the genetic and environmental contributions to emotional overeating (EOE) and depressive symptoms, and their covariation, in a Sri-Lankan population, using genetic model-fitting analysis. In total, 3957 twins and singletons in the Colombo Twin and Singleton Study-Phase 2 rated their EOE behaviour and depressive symptoms, which were significantly associated (men: r = 0.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06-0.16, women: r = 0.12, 95% CI 0.07-0.16). Non-shared environmental factors explained the majority of variance in men (EOE e 2 = 87%, 95% CI 78-95%; depressive symptoms e 2 = 72%, 95% CI 61-83%) and women (EOE e 2 = 76%, 95% CI 68-83%; depressive symptoms e 2 = 64%, 95% CI 55-74%). Genetic factors were more important for EOE in women (h 2 = 21%, 95% CI 4-32%) than men (h 2 = 9%, 95% CI 0-20%). Shared-environmental factors were more important for depressive symptoms in men (c 2 = 25%, 95% CI 10-36%) than women (c 2 = 9%, 95% CI 0-35%). Non-shared environmental factors explained the overlap between depressive symptoms and EOE in women but not in men. Results differed from high-income populations, highlighting the need for behavioural genetic research in global populations.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Doenças em Gêmeos/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Adulto , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/genética , Doenças em Gêmeos/epidemiologia , Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hiperfagia/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Meio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/psicologia , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/psicologia
16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(5): 1361-1372, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although short-term studies have found that serving larger portions of food increases intake in preschool children, it is unknown whether this portion size effect persists over a longer period or whether energy intake is moderated through self-regulation. OBJECTIVES: We tested whether the portion size effect is sustained in preschool children across 5 consecutive days, a period thought to be sufficient for regulatory systems to respond to the overconsumption of energy. METHODS: With the use of a crossover design, over 2 periods we served the same 5 daily menus to 46 children aged 3-5 y in their childcare centers. In 1 period, all foods and milk were served in baseline portions, and in the other period, all portions were increased by 50%. The served items were weighed to determine intake. RESULTS: Increasing the portion size of all foods and milk by 50% increased daily consumption: weighed intake increased by a mean ± SEM of 143 ± 21 g/d (16%) and energy intake increased by 167 ± 22 kcal/d (18%; both P < 0.0001). The trajectories of intake by weight and energy across the 5-day period were linear and the slopes did not differ between portion conditions (both P > 0.13), indicating that there were sustained increases in intake from larger portions without compensatory changes over time. Children differed in their response to increased portions: those with higher weight status, lower ratings for satiety responsiveness, or higher ratings for food responsiveness had greater increases in intake from larger portions (all P < 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: This demonstration that preschool children failed to adjust their intake during prolonged exposure to larger portions challenges the suggestion that their self-regulatory behavior is sufficient to counter perturbations in energy intake. Furthermore, overconsumption from large portions may play a role in the development of overweight and obesity, as the magnitude of the effect was greater in children of higher weight status. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02963987.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Tamanho da Porção , Resposta de Saciedade , Autocontrole , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Masculino , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Psicologia da Criança , Saciação
17.
Psychosom Med ; 81(8): 749-758, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033935

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We introduce a new statistical software R package, rties, that simplifies the use of dynamic models for investigating interpersonal emotional processes. We demonstrate the package by using it to test whether emotional dynamics in romantic couples can predict, or are predicted by, shared unhealthy behaviors (SUBs). METHODS: We use data from 74 romantic couples discussing their health behaviors. The conversations were videotaped and rated for evidence that the couples engaged in unhealthy behaviors that benefitted the relationship in some way (e.g., increasing closeness). Participants also provided video-prompted continuous recall of their emotional experience during the conversation. We use the rties package to estimate the parameters for inertia-coordination and coupled-oscillator models of the couples' emotional experience. Those parameter estimates are then used as predictors and outcomes of the couple's SUB. RESULTS: The coupled-oscillator model accounted for 17% of the variance in unhealthy behavior, with both partner's amplification predicting higher unhealthy behavior (women: B = 0.95, SE = 0.31, t(63) = 3.06, p = .003, 95% confidence interval = 0.25-1.45; men: B = 0.9, SE = 0.29, t(63) = 3.09, p = .003, 95% confidence interval = 0.32-1.47). These results suggest that co-dysregulation, an unstable interpersonal pattern of amplified emotional oscillations is associated with more SUBs. In contrast, the dynamics assessed with inertia coordination were not associated with behavior. CONCLUSIONS: The new rties package provides a set of relatively easy-to-use statistical models for representing and testing theories about interpersonal emotional dynamics. Our results suggest that emotional co-dysregulation may be a particularly detrimental pattern for health.


Assuntos
Emoções , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Relações Interpessoais , Modelos Psicológicos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Software , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Comportamento Sedentário , Fumar/psicologia
18.
Appetite ; 138: 102-114, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917939

RESUMO

To explore whether the association between mindful parenting and children/adolescents' disordered eating behaviors (i.e., emotional eating and overeating) may be mediated by parenting stress and parental child-feeding practices. The sample comprised 726 family dyads composed of a mother (79.8%) or a father (20.2%) and their child (7-18 years old), of which 362 children/adolescents had normal weight (BMI = 5-85th percentile) and 364 had overweight or obesity (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) according to the WHO Child Growth Standards. Parents completed self-report measures of mindful parenting, parenting stress, and child-feeding practices, and children/adolescents completed measures of emotional eating and overeating. The path model was estimated in AMOS. Mindful parenting was negatively associated with children's emotional eating through lower levels of parenting stress followed by less frequent use of food as a reward and through less frequent use of food as a reward only. Mindful parenting was linked to children's overeating through lower levels of parenting stress. Moreover, mindful parenting was associated with less frequent use of food as a reward, pressuring to eat and monitoring through lower levels of parenting stress, among parents of girls, mostly from the early stage of adolescence. Additionally, higher levels of parenting stress were associated with using food as a reward and, consequently, with higher levels of emotional eating among girls, and with more restriction and, consequently, with more overeating among early-stage adolescents. A comprehensive model suggesting that mindful parenting can help children/adolescents engage less in disordered eating behaviors through lower levels of parenting stress and the adoption of more adaptive child-feeding practices is proposed. Parental practices, particularly mindful parenting, may have an important role in promoting healthier eating behaviors among children/adolescents.


Assuntos
Emoções , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Atenção Plena/métodos , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Eat Behav ; 33: 40-43, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Latinos experience disparities in obesity. Although causes of obesity are multifactorial, overeating is a major contributor. Emotional eating (EE) is associated with obesity and with intake of energy-dense foods. However, the relationship between EE and overeating, and the mediating role of energy-dense foods on this relationship, has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association between EE and overeating among Latinos and the potential mediating role of energy-dense food consumption on this relationship. METHODS: This study had a cross-sectional design. Participants were recruited from a community health center. EE was assessed with the Three Factor Eating Behavior Questionnaire R18-V2. Overeating was calculated from the Mifflin-St Jeor equation. Energy-dense food intake was assessed with a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Mediation was tested with bootstrapping. RESULTS: Participants (n = 200) were 53.5% female and 78% were overweight or obese. Approximately 60% of the sample reported EE and 45.5% engaged in overeating. Percentage of calories from energy-dense foods was 23%. EE was significantly associated with overeating (OR total effect = 1.23; 95%CI = 1.03, 1.45) and this relationship was partly mediated by intake of energy-dense foods (OR indirect effect = 1.06; 95%CI = 1.02, 1.15; mediated proportion = 31.5%). CONCLUSION: In this Latino sample, EE was positively associated with overeating and intake of energy-dense foods partially mediated this association. Examination of longitudinal associations between EE, energy-dense foods, overeating and obesity is warranted. Understanding these associations may provide information to develop effective interventions to prevent and manage obesity among Latinos.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperfagia/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 316(5): R472-R485, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758976

RESUMO

The main objective of these studies was to characterize metabolic, body composition, and cardiovascular responses to a free-choice high-fat, high-sucrose diet in female cycling and pregnant rats. In the nonpregnant state, female Sprague-Dawley rats offered a 3-wk free-choice high-fat, high-sucrose diet had greater energy intake, adiposity, serum leptin, and triglyceride concentrations compared with rats fed with standard chow and developed glucose intolerance. In addition, choice-diet-fed rats had larger cardiac ventricular weights, smaller kidney and pancreas weights, and higher blood pressure than chow-fed rats, but they did not exhibit resistance artery endothelial dysfunction. When the free-choice diet continued throughout pregnancy, rats remained hyperphagic, hyperleptinemic, and obese. Choice pregnant rats exhibited uterine artery endothelial dysfunction and had smaller fetuses compared with chow pregnant rats. Pregnancy normalized mean arterial blood pressure and pancreas weights in choice rats. These studies are the first to provide a comprehensive evaluation of free-choice high-fat, high-sucrose diet on metabolic and cardiovascular functions in female rats, extending the previous studies in males to female cycling and pregnant rodents. Free-choice diet may provide a new model of preconceptual maternal obesity to study the role of increased energy intake, individual food components, and preexisting maternal obesity on maternal and offspring physiological responses during pregnancy and after birth.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Sacarose na Dieta/toxicidade , Metabolismo Energético , Ciclo Estral , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Hiperfagia/etiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Adiposidade , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Sacarose na Dieta/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/sangue , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica , Hiperfagia/sangue , Hiperfagia/fisiopatologia , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ganho de Peso
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