Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 225
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251583, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010350

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Autorefractors allow non-specialists to quickly assess refractive error, and thus could be a useful component of large-scale vision screening programs. In order to better characterize the role of autorefraction for public health outreach programs in resource-limited settings, the diagnostic accuracy of two autorefractors was assessed relative to subjective refraction in an adult Indian population. METHODS: An optometrist refracted a series of patients aged ≥50 years at an eye clinic in Bangalore, India using the Nidek ARK-900 autorefractor first, followed by the 3nethra Royal autorefractor, and then subjective refraction. The diagnostic accuracy of each autorefractor for myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism was assessed using subjective refraction as the reference standard, and measures of agreement between refractions were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 197 eyes in 104 individuals (mean age 63 ± 8 years, 52% female) were evaluated. Both autorefractors produced spherical equivalent estimates that were on average more hyperopic than subjective refraction, with a measurement bias of +0.16 D (95%CI +0.09 to +0.23D) for Nidek and +0.42 D (95%CI +0.28 to +0.54D) for 3nethra. When comparing pairs of measurements from autorefraction and subjective refraction, the limits of agreement were approximately ±1D for the Nidek autorefractor and ±1.75D for the 3Nethra autorefractor. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting ≥1 diopter of myopia were 94.6% (95%CI 86.8-100%) and 92.5% (95%CI 88.9-97.5%) for the Nidek, and 89.2% (95%CI 66.7-97.4) and 77.5% (95%CI 71.2-99.4%) for the 3Nethra. The accuracy of each autorefractor increased at greater levels of refractive error. CONCLUSIONS: The sensitivity and specificity of the Nidek autorefractor for diagnosing refractive error among adults ≥50 years in an urban Indian clinic was sufficient for screening for visually significant refractive errors, although the relatively wide limits of agreement suggest that subjective refinement of the eyeglasses prescription would still be necessary.


Assuntos
Erros de Refração/diagnóstico , Idoso , Astigmatismo/diagnóstico , Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperopia/diagnóstico , Hiperopia/epidemiologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Refração Ocular , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Seleção Visual
2.
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt ; 41(3): 532-540, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792977

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To generate continuous growth curves for axial length (AL) in German children. We hypothesise that percentile curves of AL can be used as a predictive measure of myopia. METHODS: In this longitudinal and cross-sectional LIFE Child Study, children's non-cycloplegic refraction data was collected using the Zeiss i.Profiler plus while AL was measured using the Haag-Streit Lenstar. Reference growth curves were estimated as a continuous non-parametric function of age. RESULTS: Data from 4511 visits of 1965 participants (1021 boys and 944 girls) between 3 and 18 years of age were analysed. For all ages and percentiles, the estimated AL was higher in boys than girls. AL differences between boys and girls were most pronounced in the 98th percentile at 3 years of age, being 0.93 mm longer eyes in boys. This difference decreased to 0.21 mm at 18 years of age. While the lower percentiles of AL reach their final value around age 13, the 50th percentile was still increasing by 0.05 mm per year until the end of the observation period. While, in general, children with longer eyes are more likely to develop myopia, this relationship is weaker between the ages of 5 and 8. CONCLUSION: The LIFE Child Study data provides European AL data. In both Germany and China, AL has comparable growth rates when the baseline ALs are compared as percentiles. Thus, percentile curves of AL can be used as a predictive measure for the likelihood of developing as well as the progression of myopia.


Assuntos
Comprimento Axial do Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Hiperopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/diagnóstico , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Adolescente , Comprimento Axial do Olho/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hiperopia/epidemiologia , Hiperopia/fisiopatologia , Incidência , Masculino , Miopia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Testes Visuais
3.
Digit J Ophthalmol ; 27(1): 6-12, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907531

RESUMO

Purpose: To identify the information sources for patients undergoing laser vision correction. Methods: Individuals who underwent corneal refractive surgery at a private practice from December 2017 to August 2018 and agreed to complete an anonymous questionnaire were included. The manifest refraction and surgical method was recorded and correlated with the questionnaire results. Results: Data collected from 126 patients (mean age, 32.8 ± 8.6 years; 55.6% women) were analyzed. Of 121 patients, 120 (99.2%) identified the Internet as a source for information on refractive surgery, and 71 of 119 (59.7%) noted that the clinic's website influenced their choice of clinic. Patients with high myopia more commonly used contact lenses and had considered undergoing refractive surgery for a longer time compared with patients with other refractive errors (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, resp.). Patients with hyperopia were less likely to know their own refractive error (P = 0.02). Conclusions: In this patient cohort, the Internet was the main source of information for those undergoing refractive surgery.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo/cirurgia , Hiperopia/cirurgia , Terapia a Laser/métodos , Lasers de Excimer/uso terapêutico , Miopia/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Refrativos/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Idoso , Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais Privados , Humanos , Hiperopia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miopia/epidemiologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acuidade Visual , Adulto Jovem
4.
Clin Exp Optom ; 104(5): 595-601, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689658

RESUMO

Clinical relevance: Investigation of refractive errors amongst Swedish schoolchildren will help identify risk factors associated with myopia development.Background: Genetic and hereditary aspects have been linked with the development of myopia. Nevertheless, in the case of 'school myopia' some authors suggest that environmental factors may affect gene expression, causing school myopia to soar. Additional understanding about which environmental factors play a relevant role can be gained by studying refractive errors in countries like Sweden, where prevalence of myopia is expected to be low.Methods: Swedish schoolchildren aged 8-16 years were invited to participate. Participants underwent an eye examination, including cycloplegic refraction and axial length (AL) measurements. Predictors such as time spent in near work, outdoor activities and parental myopia were obtained using a questionnaire. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalent refraction (SER) ≤ -0.50D and hyperopia as SER ≥ +0.75D.Results: A total of 128 children (70 females and 58 males) participated in this study with mean age of 12.0 years (SD = 2.4). Based on cycloplegic SER of the right eye, the distribution of refractive errors was: hyperopia 48.0% (CI95 = 38.8-56.7), emmetropia 42.0% (CI95 = 33.5-51.2) and myopia 10.0%. (CI95 = 4.4-14.9). The mean AL was 23.1 mm (SD = 0.86), there was a correlation between SER and AL, r = -0.65 (p < 0.001). Participants with two myopic parents had higher myopia and increased axial length than those with one or no myopic parents. The mean time spent in near work, outside of school, was 5.3 hours-per-day (SD = 3.1), and mean outdoor time reported was 2.6 hours-per-day (SD = 2.2) for all the participants. The time spent in near work and outdoor time were different for different refractive error categories.Conclusion: The prevalence of myopia amongst Swedish schoolchildren is low. Hereditary and environmental factors are associated with refractive error categories. Further studies with this sample are warranted to investigate how refractive errors and environmental factors interact over time.


Assuntos
Hiperopia , Miopia , Erros de Refração , Comprimento Axial do Olho , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperopia/epidemiologia , Hiperopia/genética , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/genética , Refração Ocular , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Erros de Refração/genética , Suécia/epidemiologia
5.
J Atten Disord ; 25(2): 235-244, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371126

RESUMO

Objective: To examine the association of refractive error (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism) and strabismus with ADHD. Method: Based on data from the large, representative, epidemiological sample of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) study (N = 13,488), the associations of myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, and strabismus with ADHD were examined, with and without consideration of other common ADHD risk factors. Results: In single logistic regression models, all examined forms of refractive error and strabismus showed an association with ADHD. After controlling for confounding variables, results remained stable and showed an increased risk for ADHD in children with hyperopia, astigmatism, and strabismus compared with the control group. Only the association between myopia and ADHD in children was not significant. Conclusion: Hyperopia, astigmatism, and strabismus seem to be independently associated with ADHD. Health care professionals in different medical fields should consider this association to adequately diagnose and treat affected children.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Hiperopia , Miopia , Erros de Refração , Estrabismo , Adolescente , Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Hiperopia/complicações , Hiperopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Estrabismo/epidemiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238122, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853278

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Myopia prevalence is influenced by environmental factors including heritability and social disadvantage. The current prevalence of myopia among disadvantaged school children in Australia has not been reported. Therefore, this study analyses refractive data for children from rural and outer suburban areas. METHODS: The records of 4,365 children aged 6-15 visiting a city-based government-school respite care center during the years 2014/2016/2018 were analyzed for right eye non-cycloplegic spherical equivalent refraction (SER). The prevalence of myopia (SER≤-0.50D) was compared with historical data. RESULTS: The prevalence of myopia was 3.5%, 4.4% and 4.3% in 2014, 2016 and 2018, respectively. The prevalence of myopia increased with age (P<0.0001), but was not related to sex or year of testing (all P >0.05). The overall mean SER was 0.89±0.86D, 0.62±0.89D and 0.56±0.95 in 2014, 2016 and 2018, respectively. Mean SER was associated with year of testing, age (all P <0.0001) and sex (P = 0.03). Mean SER decreased slightly from 2014 to 2018 and demonstrated a significant shift towards less hyperopia with increasing age. Mean SER of females was higher than that of males and decreased faster than in males with age (P interaction = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Myopia prevalence increased with age. The mean SER decreased slightly from 2014 to 2018. Sex differences in the rate of change with age was observed. Compared with 40 years ago, the prevalence of myopia has doubled, but it remains significantly lower than in school children of a similar age living in established urban areas that are regarded as having a higher socioeconomic status.


Assuntos
Miopia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Olho/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperopia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Testes Visuais/métodos , Populações Vulneráveis
7.
Folia Med (Plovdiv) ; 62(2): 345-351, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666755

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The refractive state of the eye changes as the eye's axial length increases and the cornea and lens flatten. In general, eyes are hyperopic at birth, become slightly more hyperopic until the age of 7, which at this point we see a myopic shift toward plano until the eyes reach their adult dimensions, usually by about the age 16. AIM: To determine the prevalence of refractive error in preschool children aged 3 - 6 in the city of Kazanlak, Bulgaria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a kindergarten based school within the city of Kazanlak, Bul-garia. Out of 15 kindergarten schools, 10 chose to participate in the study. The children underwent non-mydriatic refraction screening using a Plus-Optix S12с mobile camera. Myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism were defined as being a spherical equivalent (SE) ≤ -0.50 D, SE ≥ +2.00 D and cylindrical diopters ≤ -1.00 D. RESULTS: A total of 596 children were screened. Out of these 596 children; 526 were with ametropia (470 hypermetropia, 46 myopia) and 50 had astigmatism. Strabismus was found in 12 children, with a further 8 children suffering from amblyopia and finally 8 children were also found to be diagnosed with anisometropia. In 8 cases there were no results due to opacities or due to the small size of the pupil. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of refractive error in preschool children is similar to that found in other research in the field. While most cases fall into the category of emmetropia or mild hypermetropia, most of the children had never been to an ophthalmologist. A manda-tory checkup should be issued for all children below the age of seven.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Hiperopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/epidemiologia , Ambliopia/epidemiologia , Anisometropia/epidemiologia , Bulgária/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Estrabismo/epidemiologia
8.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 104(10): 1338-1344, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To quantify the current burden of myopia and hyperopia in Austrian young men and the time trend of myopia in the past 35 years by individual and social correlates. METHOD: We included data on all Austrian military conscripts from 1983 to 2017 (n=1 507 063) from six medical investigation stations. Young men provided data on education, weight and height for calculating body mass index, blood pressure and resting heart rate. Non-cycloplegic refractions were measured by an autorefractometer. Spherical equivalent was calculated by standard formula (sphere+cylinder/2, unit dioptres (D)). Myopic refractive error was defined as <-0.5 D). Hyperopic refractive error was defined as >0.5 D. RESULTS: The largest burden of refractive error in Austria is myopia, which rose from 13.8% to 24.4% over 35 years, with less than 5% hyperopic population. Over time, the prevalence of myopia was constantly lower yet increased more rapidly among those with low education levels (11.4%-21.7%) compared with those with higher education (24.5%-29.6%) in all medical investigation stations. We found consistent associations of some unfavourable health indicators (underweight: ORs 1.1-1.4, higher resting heart rate: all p trend <0.001) with higher myopia prevalence, which point towards lifestyle factors playing an important role in the development of myopia. CONCLUSION: Primary preventive measures are needed to curb the observed trend in myopia among Austrian young men. Future research should investigate the impact of modifiable factors on myopia development and progression, particularly lifestyle factors that are dramatically shifting.


Assuntos
Hiperopia/epidemiologia , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Miopia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Áustria/epidemiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Constituição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Escolaridade , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Aptidão Física , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; 27(3): 209-218, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960781

RESUMO

Purpose: To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of AMD in an Iranian population in 2014.Methods: In this population-based cross-sectional study, a total of 2975 Iranian residents (age: ≥50 years) from the urban and rural areas of Gilan province were included. The prevalence of different grades of AMD was determined using the International Age-Related Maculopathy Epidemiological Study Group grading system.Results: Of 2975 eligible individuals, 2587 (87.0%) subjects participated and 2275 (76.5%) subjects (62.6 ± 8.8 years old) had gradable fundus photographs. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence of early and late AMD based on the 2016 Iran census were 13.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.6-16.2) and 0.7% (95% CI, 0.4-1.3), respectively. In multivariate analysis, each decade increase in age was associated with the adjusted odds of any (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.31, 95% CI, 1.09-1.56; P = .0031), early (AOR = 1.27, 95% CI, 1.06-1.53; P = .012) and late AMD (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI, 1.08-5.28; P = .031). Hyperopia was identified to be less frequent in late AMD (AOR = 0.20, 95% CI, 0.04-0.80; P = .024). No significant association was found between AMD and sex, smoking, outdoor working, diabetes, hypertension, pseudophakia, hyperlipidemia and myopia.Conclusion: Gilan Eye Study demonstrated the first estimate of age-specific AMD prevalence in Iran being compatible with other WHO regions. With the expected increase in the life expectancy and aging of Iranians, the number of people affected by AMD will be increasing in future. Healthcare policy makers should be advised to provide more efficient eye care services and preventive strategies in this regard.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico/instrumentação , Degeneração Macular/diagnóstico , Degeneração Macular/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Hiperopia/epidemiologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Degeneração Macular/classificação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
10.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; 27(3): 194-199, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878821

RESUMO

Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was reported to be associated with disturbances in the prefrontal circuitry and seems to be associated with dysfunctions of eye motility. This study aimed to explore associations between ADHD and ocular abnormalities, including amblyopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism, and heterotropia, using a large, nationwide population-based dataset in Taiwan.Methods: We retrieved our sample for this cross-sectional study from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. In total, 116,308 children with ADHD were selected as the study group and 116,308 randomly selected children without ADHD as the comparison group. We used conditional logistic regression analyses to examine the odds ratios (ORs) of amblyopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism, and heterotropia between children with and those without ADHD.Results: We found that children with ADHD had significantly higher prevalences of amblyopia (1.6% vs. 0.9%, p< .001), hypermetropia (2.4% vs. 1.3%, p < .001), astigmatism (0.2% vs. 0.1%, p < .001), and heterotropia (1.1% vs. 0.5%, p < .001) than children without ADHD. The ORs of amblyopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism and heterotropia for children with ADHD were 1.89 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.76 ~ 2.05), 1.82 (95% CI = 1.68 ~ 1.92), 1.73 (95% CI = 1.34 ~ 2.16), and 2.01 (95% CI = 1.82 ~ 2.21) compared to children without ADHD.Conclusions: The findings suggest that ADHD is associated with ocular abnormalities, including amblyopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism, and heterotropia.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Anormalidades do Olho/etiologia , Transtornos da Motilidade Ocular/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Ambliopia/epidemiologia , Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Anormalidades do Olho/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperopia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estrabismo/epidemiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783494

RESUMO

Uncorrected refractive error, especially myopia, in young children can cause permanent visual impairment in later life. However, data on the normative development of refractive error in this age group is limited, especially in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of refractive error in a sample of infants and young children between the ages of 6 to 36 months in a prospective, cross-sectional study. Cycloplegic retinoscopy was conducted on both eyes of 151 children of mean age 18.09 ± 7.95 months. Mean spherical equivalent refractive error for the right and left eyes was +0.85 ± 0.97D and +0.86 ± 0.98D, respectively. The highest prevalence of refractive error was astigmatism (26%), followed by hyperopia (12.7%), myopia (1.3%) and anisometropia (0.7%). There was a reduction of hyperopic refractive error with increasing age. Myopia was seen to emerge at age 24 months. In conclusion, the prevalence of astigmatism and hyperopia in infants and young children was high, but that of myopia and anisometropia was low. There was a significant reduction in hyperopic refractive error towards emmetropia with increasing age. It is recommended that vision screening be conducted early to correct significant refractive error that may cause disruption to clear vision.


Assuntos
Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperopia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Saúde do Lactente , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Miopia/epidemiologia , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(13): 4178-4186, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596926

RESUMO

Purpose: To examine, in Norwegian adolescents, to what degree emmetropia and low hyperopia were maintained from 16 to 18 years of age, and if this was the case, whether it was associated with continued coordinated ocular growth. Methods: Cycloplegic autorefraction and ocular biometry, including crystalline lens thickness, were measured in 93 Norwegian adolescents (mean age: 16.7 ± 0.3 years; 63.4% females) and repeated after 2 years. Crystalline lens power was determined by ray tracing over a 1-mm pupil, based on the Gullstrand-Emsley model. Serum vitamin D3 concentration was measured at follow-up. Results: Emmetropia and low hyperopia (-0.50 diopters [D] < spherical equivalent refractive error [SER] < +2.00 D) were present in 91.4% at baseline and 89.2% at follow-up. The emmetropes and low hyperopes who maintained their refractive error exhibited continued ocular axial growth (+0.059 ± 0.070 mm) together with a decrease in crystalline lens power (-0.064 ± 0.291 D) and a deepening of the anterior chamber (+0.028 ± 0.040 mm). Thinning of the crystalline lens was found in 24%. Overall, the negative change in SER was larger in those with the most negative SER at baseline (R2 = 0.178, P < 0.001), and was associated with increases in vitreous chamber depth and in crystalline lens power (R2 = 0.752, P < 0.001), when adjusted for sex. There was no difference in vitamin D3 level between those who exhibited negative versus positive changes in refractive error. Conclusions: The results show that emmetropic and low hyperopic eyes were still growing in late adolescence, with refractive errors being maintained through a coordinated decrease in crystalline lens power.


Assuntos
Emetropia/fisiologia , Olho/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperopia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Prevalência
14.
MSMR ; 26(9): 26-30, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557048

RESUMO

During 2001-2018, there were approximately 1.38 million incident diagnoses of myopia, 1.21 million incident diagnoses of astigmatism, and 492,000 incident diagnoses of hyperopia among active component service members (crude overall incidence rates of 7.8, 6.6, and 2.2 diagnoses per 100 personyears, respectively). Incidence rates of all 3 conditions were higher among women compared to men. Service members in the Marine Corps, enlisted personnel, and those working in other/unknown military occupations had higher overall rates of incident myopia diagnoses compared to their respective counterparts. Incidence rates of astigmatism diagnoses were similar across all services and among both enlisted personnel and officers. Overall rates of hyperopia diagnoses were similar across all race/ethnicity groups and service branches and among both enlisted personnel and officers. However, across occupational groups, overall rates of hyperopia and astigmatism diagnoses were highest among service members working in healthcare occupations. Future analyses should focus on the specific effects of military refractive surgery programs on the readiness of service members.


Assuntos
Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperopia/epidemiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miopia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 162, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303931

RESUMO

Introduction: Addition in patients of less than 40 years is not uncommon in our practice. We investigated the need for addition after objective refraction and thus determine the average age of onset of the presbyopia. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study of patients aged 35-45 years at the Central Hospital of Yaoundé over a period of three months. All patients underwent cycloplegic refraction. Distance visual acuity was corrected after instillation of cycloplegic eye drops while near addition was assessed two days later when the cycloplegia was no longer effective. Possible additional distance correction was done 2 days after cycloplegia. Statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS 20.0 software. Results: We examined 55 patients, 110 eyes. The average age of patients was 41.87±2.5 years, the sex-ratio was 0.28. There was a female predominance. Hypermetropic astigmatism was the most common ametropia (58.2% of cases) followed by hyperopia (24.6%).No patient was myopic. the average age of presbyopia onset in this age group was 43.2±1.7 years. After objective correction of distance visual acuity, no patient needed for addition before the age of 40. Moreover, 4 out of 10 patients with hypermetropic ametropia did not need addition before the age of 40. Addition was significantly associated with age. Conclusion: The average age of presbyopia onset is 43.2±1.7 years. Before the age of 45, addition must be preceded by objective refraction.


Assuntos
Hiperopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/epidemiologia , Presbiopia/epidemiologia , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idade de Início , Camarões/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Midriáticos/administração & dosagem , Acuidade Visual
16.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 69(4): 464-467, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000845

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the magnitude of refractive errors among high school children. METHODS: The cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted from April to August 2017 in four public-sector high schools in Lahore, Pakistan. Using multistage simple random sampling, all public sector high schools of the city were initially included. Screening of refractive errors was managed on the school premises. Data was collected on a pre-tested, structured questionnaire. SPSS 23 was used for data analysis. RESULTS: There were 1000 subjects with an overall mean age of 13.78±1.72 years (range: 10-18 years). Refractive errors were present in 244(24.4%) and myopia 127(52%) was the major type of refractive error followed by astigmatism 93(38.1%) and hypermetropia 24(9.8%). Differece in the prevalence of refractive errors in urban and rural settings was significant (p=0.00002). CONCLUSIONS: Uncorrected refractive errors were present in a considerable segment of public-sector high school students of Lahore.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Óculos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hiperopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Setor Público , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Ophthalmology ; 126(7): 989-999, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822446

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence, ocular characteristics, and associated risk factors of moderate to high hyperopia in early childhood. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of individual participant data from population-based studies. PARTICIPANTS: Six- to 72-month-old multiethnic children who participated in 4 population-based studies of pediatric eye diseases. METHODS: The pooled studies conducted comparable parental interviews and ocular examinations including cycloplegic autorefraction. Presence of hyperopia was defined based on cycloplegic refractive error in the worse eye. Multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the association of potential risk factors with hyperopia risk. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence and odds ratios of moderate to high hyperopia (≥4.0 diopters [D]). RESULTS: Cycloplegic refraction was completed in 15 051 children 6 to 72 months of age. Among these children, the overall prevalence of moderate to high hyperopia (≥4.0 D) in the worse eye was 3.2% (95% confidence interval, 2.9%-3.5%), accounting for 15.6% of all hyperopia (≥2.0 D). Among children with moderate to high hyperopia, both eyes were affected in 64.4%, 28.9% showed spherical anisometropia of 1.0 D or more, and 19.5% showed astigmatism of 1.5 D or more. Among 36- to 72-month-old children with moderate to high hyperopia, 17.6% wore glasses. Prevalence of moderate to high hyperopia was slightly less in 12- to 23-month-old children and was relatively stable in children 24 months of age and older. Non-Hispanic and Hispanic white race and ethnicity, family history of strabismus, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and being a participant in the United States studies were associated with a higher risk of moderate to high hyperopia (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: By assembling similarly designed studies, our consortium provided robust estimates of the prevalence of moderate to high hyperopia in the general population and showed that in 6- to 72-month-old children, moderate to high hyperopia is not uncommon and its prevalence does not decrease with age. Risk factors for moderate to high hyperopia differ from those for low to moderate hyperopia (2.0-<4.0 D) in preschool children, with family history of strabismus and maternal smoking during pregnancy more strongly associated with moderate to high hyperopia than low to moderate hyperopia.


Assuntos
Hiperopia , Pré-Escolar , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperopia/epidemiologia , Hiperopia/etiologia , Hiperopia/fisiopatologia , Lactente , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 97(4): 394-400, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30338671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of school nurse screening for hypermetropia and convergence insufficiency exophoria (CIE) in schoolchildren. METHODS: Near point of convergence and distance visual acuity with +2.00D lenses were measured in 2097 children (6-15 years) during standard school nurse screening in the municipality of Randers, Denmark. One hundred and ninety-four children with positive screening results (near point of convergence >10 cm and/or distance visual acuity improved or maintained with +2.00D) and 182 controls with negative screening results received a full vision assessment, including cycloplegic refraction and orthoptic evaluation. RESULTS: Sensitivity and specificity of screening was 0.75 and 0.69 for CIE and 0.59 and 0.87 for hypermetropia (≥+2.00), respectively. While precision of screening for CIE was significantly higher for symptomatic children aged 9-15 than for younger and asymptomatic children, precision of screening for hypermetropia was independent of age and presence of visually related symptoms. CONCLUSION: While precision of screening for CIE and hypermetropia (>+2.00) was low, additional vision evaluation of children older than 9 years with asthenopic symptoms identified most children with CIE with a low absolute number of false positives.


Assuntos
Exotropia/epidemiologia , Hiperopia/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Seleção Visual/enfermagem , Acuidade Visual , Acomodação Ocular/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Convergência Ocular/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exotropia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperopia/diagnóstico , Incidência , Masculino , Curva ROC
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...