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1.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e931639, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are anticancer medications that enhance the antitumor immune response. The clinical benefit afforded by ICIs, however, can be accompanied by immune-related adverse events (IRAEs). One of the common endocrine IRAEs is hypophysitis, which often causes hypopituitarism with secondary adrenal insufficiency (AI). Secondary AI, including isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency (IAD), is often associated with hyponatremia. Here, we report an unusual case of ICI-related IAD associated with severe hyperkalemia. CASE REPORT A 78-year-old woman who had an ileal conduit, chronic kidney disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension and was taking an angiotensin II receptor blocker began treatment for advanced ureteral cancer with the anti-programmed cell death protein 1 inhibitor pembrolizumab. The therapy effectively controlled the cancer, but 4 1/2 months after starting it, the patient developed anorexia, general weakness, and muscle pain and was diagnosed with IAD associated with severe hyperkalemia and hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. She recovered after prompt administration of corticosteroids and treatment with sodium bicarbonate, glucose/insulin, and cation exchange resins. CONCLUSIONS Hyperkalemia is a common symptom of primary AI but is less common in patients with central AI because a lack of ACTH does not cause aldosterone deficiency and mineralocorticoid action is preserved. The present case demonstrates the need for physicians to be aware of severe hyperkalemia as a life-threatening complication of secondary AI induced by ICIs, particularly in patients with predisposing factors, such as kidney dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, an ileal conduit, and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor use.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hiperpotassemia , Neoplasias Ureterais , Derivação Urinária , Insuficiência Adrenal , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(8): e24882, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663116

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of low-dose mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) in dialysis patients. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane libraries for clinical trials on the use of MRAs in dialysis patients. Review Manager 5.3 software was used to analyze relevant data and evaluate the quality of evidence. RESULTS: We identified nine randomized controlled trials including 1128 chronic dialysis patients. In terms of safety, when hyperkalemia was defined as serum potassium level ≥5.5 mmol/L, low-dose MRAs were significantly associated with hyperkalemia (relative risk [RR] 1.76, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.07-2.89, P = .02); however, when hyperkalemia was defined as serum potassium level ≥6.0 mmol/L or serum potassium level ≥6.5 mmol/L, no significant association was observed between low-dose MRAs and hyperkalemia (RR 1.40, 95% CI 0.83-2.37, P = .20; RR 1.98, 95% CI 0.91-4.30, P = .09, respectively). Use of low-dose MRAs can reduce cardiovascular mortality by 54% compared with the control group (0.46, 95% CI 0.28-0.76, P = .003). Similarly, the RR of all-cause mortality for the low-dose MRAs group was 0.48 (95% CI 0.33-0.72, P = .0003). CONCLUSION: Low-dose MRAs may benefit dialysis patients without significantly increasing moderate to severe hyperkalemia.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Diálise Renal/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/farmacologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664032

RESUMO

A70-year-old man, with established hypoadrenalism due to a previous bilateral adrenalectomy, was admitted with recurrent episodes of postural dizziness and presyncope. He had been discharged from hospital 3 weeks earlier on a 1-month course of cotrimoxazole following a diagnosis of prostatitis. His electrolytes on admission showed new onset hyponatraemia and hyperkalaemia.His usual glucocorticoid replacement dose was doubled in view of a presumed diagnosis of hypocortisolaemia. However, the hyperkalaemia persisted. On rereviewing his treatment, we suspected a possible diagnosis of cotrimoxazole-induced hyperkalaemia. Cotrimoxazole was stopped and ciprofloxacin started instead. His fludrocortisone replacement was doubled for 3 days after stopping treatment to decrease his postural symptoms. His postural symptoms improved, his serum potassium decreased to normal levels and he was safely discharged.It is essential to remember that cotrimoxazole, a commonly used antibiotic, can induce a potentially fatal hyperkalaemia especially in patients with known hypoadrenalism.


Assuntos
Doença de Addison , Hiperpotassemia , Hipoaldosteronismo , Idoso , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Potássio , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/efeitos adversos
6.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2021: 5935149, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33747123

RESUMO

Introduction: In spite of the established importance of detecting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor blocker- (ARB-) induced hyperkalemia, there have not been many studies on the time of its occurrence. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed electronic medical records to determine the onset time and incidence rate of hyperkalemia (serum potassium > 5.5 mEq/L or 6.0 mEq/L) among hospitalized patients newly started on a 15-day ACEI or ARB therapy. Results: Among 3101 hospitalized patients, hyperkalemia incidence was 0.5%-0.9% and 0.8%-2.1% in the ACEI and ARB groups, respectively. However, it was not significantly different among different ARB types. Hyperkalemia's onset was distributed throughout 15 days, without any trend. Hyperkalemia incidence was 7.3 and 35.1 times higher at 5.5 mEq/L (hazard ratio (HR) = 7.31, 95%confidence interval (CI) = 4.19-12.76, p < 0.001) and 6.0 mEq/L (HR = 35.11, 95%CI = 8.25-149.52, p < 0.001), respectively, than the baseline creatinine level. Hyperkalemia incidence in patients with chronic renal failure was 5.7 and 9.2 times higher at 5.5 mEq/L (HR = 5.72, 95%CI = 3.24-10.12, p < 0.001) and 6.0 mEq/L (HR = 9.16, 95%CI = 4.02-20.88, p < 0.001), respectively. Conclusions: It is unlikely that it is necessary to monitor hyperkalemia immediately after administration of ACEI or ARB. However, when prescribed for patients with abnormal kidney function, clinicians should always consider the possibility of developing hyperkalemia.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/diagnóstico , Hiperpotassemia/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(2): e007034, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients stabilized during hospitalization for acute decompensated heart failure (HF), initiation of sacubitril/valsartan compared with enalapril decreased the risk of cardiovascular death or rehospitalization for HF without increasing the risk of adverse events. It is unknown whether potentially high-risk subpopulations have a similar risk-benefit profile. METHODS: PIONEER-HF (Comparison of Sacubitril/Valsartan Versus Enalapril on Effect on NT-proBNP [N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide] in Patients Stabilized From an Acute HF Episode) was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial of in-hospital initiation of sacubitril/valsartan (n=440) versus enalapril (n=441) in patients stabilized during hospitalization for acute decompensated HF. The composite of cardiovascular death or rehospitalization for HF was adjudicated. Safety outcomes included worsening renal function, symptomatic hypotension, and hyperkalemia. We evaluated heterogeneity in the effect of sacubitril/valsartan on these efficacy and safety outcomes in selected subgroups of clinical concern: patients with baseline systolic blood pressure ≤118 mm Hg (median; n=448), baseline NT-proBNP >2701 pg/mL (median; n=395), estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/minute per 1.73 m2 (n=455), ≥1 additional hospitalization for HF within the prior year (n=343), admission to the ICU during the index hospitalization (n=96), inotrope use during the index hospitalization (n=68), and severe congestion (n=219). RESULTS: The relative risk reduction in cardiovascular death or rehospitalization for HF with sacubitril/valsartan versus enalapril was consistent across all high-risk subgroups (P interaction=non-significant [NS] for each). The risks of worsening renal function, symptomatic hypotension, and hyperkalemia with sacubitril/valsartan versus enalapril were also consistent in each high- versus low-risk subgroup (P interaction=NS for each). CONCLUSIONS: In high-risk subpopulations admitted for acute decompensated HF, treatment with sacubitril/valsartan after initial stabilization conferred a consistent reduction in cardiovascular death or rehospitalization for HF and was well tolerated.


Assuntos
Aminobutiratos/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Bifenilo/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Valsartana/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica , Combinação de Medicamentos , Enalapril/uso terapêutico , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipotensão/fisiopatologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Insuficiência Renal/sangue , Insuficiência Renal/complicações , Risco
8.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 55, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperkalemia and acute coronary syndrome are not only all responsible for syncope related to complete atrioventricular block, but also share parts of electrocardiogram manifestations. Additionally, they influence each other. CASE PRESENTATION: A 32-year-old Chinese man presented with severe hypokalemia (1.63 mmol/l) at midnight in the emergency room. He developed unexpected rebound hyperkalemia (7.76 mmol/l) after 18 hours of oral and intravenous potassium chloride supplementation at a concentration of about 10 g/day and a rate of 10 mmol/hour. Subsequently, the patient complained of chest discomfort and dyspnea, followed by syncope for several minutes, approximately 2 hours after potassium reduction treatment had been started. The instant electrocardiogram showed complete atrioventricular block and elevated ST segment in the inferolateral leads, which resolved 15 minutes later, before hyperkalemia was corrected. Combined with mild coronary stenosis and negative myocardial injury markers, transient complete atrioventricular block induced by coronary vasospasm due to iatrogenic hyperkalemia was diagnosed. Normal urine potassium excretion, acid-base state, and other examinations made the diagnosis of hypokalemic periodic paralysis possible. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperkalemia may provoke acute coronary syndrome, and early coronary angiography is an effective strategy for identifying the direct cause of acute complete atrioventricular block.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Atrioventricular , Vasoespasmo Coronário , Hiperpotassemia , Adulto , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/induzido quimicamente , Vasoespasmo Coronário/induzido quimicamente , Vasoespasmo Coronário/complicações , Vasoespasmo Coronário/tratamento farmacológico , Eletrocardiografia , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperpotassemia/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Iatrogênica , Masculino
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD013109, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with chronic kidney disease (CKD) requiring dialysis are at a particularly high risk of cardiovascular death and morbidity. Several clinical studies suggested that aldosterone antagonists would be a promising treatment option for people undergoing dialysis. However, the clinical efficacy and potential harm of aldosterone antagonists for people with CKD on dialysis has yet to be determined. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to evaluate the benefits and harms of aldosterone antagonists, both non-selective (spironolactone) and selective (eplerenone), in comparison to control (placebo or standard care) in people with CKD requiring haemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 5 August 2020 using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included parallel randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cross-over RCTs, and quasi-RCTs (where group allocation is by a method that is not truly random, such as alternation, assignment based on alternate medical records, date of birth, case record number, or other predictable methods) that compared aldosterone antagonists with placebo or standard care in people with CKD requiring dialysis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias for included studies. We used a random-effects model meta-analysis to perform a quantitative synthesis of the data. We used the I² statistic to measure heterogeneity among the studies in each analysis. We indicated summary estimates as a risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes, mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes, or standardised mean differences (SMD) if different scales were used, with their 95% confidence interval (CI). We assessed the certainty of the evidence for each of the main outcomes using the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included 16 studies (14 parallel RCTs and two cross-over RCTs) involving a total of 1446 participants. Thirteen studies compared spironolactone to placebo or standard care and one study compared eplerenone to a placebo. Most included studies had an unclear or high risk of bias. Compared to control, aldosterone antagonists probably reduced the risk of death (any cause) for people with CKD requiring dialysis (9 studies, 1119 participants: RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.67; I² = 0%; moderate certainty of evidence). Aldosterone antagonist probably decreased the risk of death due to cardiovascular disease (6 studies, 908 participants: RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.64; I² = 0%; moderate certainty of evidence) and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity (3 studies, 328 participants: RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.76; I² = 0%; moderate certainty of evidence). While aldosterone antagonists probably increased risk of gynaecomastia compared with control (4 studies, 768 participants: RR 5.95, 95% CI 1.93 to 18.3; I² = 0%; moderate certainty of evidence), aldosterone antagonists may make little or no difference to the risk of hyperkalaemia (9 studies, 981 participants: RR 1.41, 95% CI 0.72 to 2.78; I² = 47%; low certainty of evidence). Aldosterone antagonists had a marginal effect on left ventricular mass among participants undergoing dialysis (8 studies, 633 participants: SMD -0.42, 95% CI -0.78 to 0.05; I² = 77%). In people with CKD requiring dialysis received aldosterone antagonists compared to control, there were 72 fewer deaths from all causes per 1000 participants (95% CI 47 to 98) with a number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) of 14 (95% CI 10 to 21) and for gynaecomastia were 26 events per 1000 participants (95% CI 15 to 39) with a number need to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) of 38 (95% CI 26 to 68). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on moderate certainty of the evidence, aldosterone antagonists probably reduces the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death and probably reduces morbidity due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in people with CKD requiring dialysis. For the adverse effect of gynaecomastia, the risk was increased compared to control. For this outcome, the absolute risk was lower than the absolute risk of death. It is hoped the three large ongoing studies will provide better certainty of evidence.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Viés , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Causas de Morte , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Eplerenona/efeitos adversos , Eplerenona/uso terapêutico , Ginecomastia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Espironolactona/efeitos adversos , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico
11.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(8): e13940, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332696

RESUMO

Several randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have evaluated the risk of hyperkalemia of antihypertensive drugs on diabetic nephropathy, yet the results are conflicting. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and Web of Science for RCTs investigating the risk of antihypertensive drugs on hyperkalemia in diabetic nephropathy from inception to May 31, 2020. Direct comparative meta-analysis showed that the proportion of patients with hyperkalemia was significantly higher in the ARB, aldosterone antagonist, renin inhibitor group than in the placebo group. Moreover, the risk of hyperkalemia in the ARB group was higher than that in the CCB group. Network meta-analysis showed the risk of hyperkalemia in the ARB, aldosterone antagonist, and renin inhibitor group was higher than in the placebo group, but there was no statistical difference between the CCB, ACEI, ß blocker, endothelin inhibitor, and diuretic groups than in the placebo group. The possibility of antihypertensive drugs in risk of hyperkalemia being the worst treatment was aldosterone antagonist (98.8%), followed by ARB (73.8%), renin inhibitor (63.8%), diuretic (53.1%), ACEI (46.9%), ß blocker (36.8%), endothelin inhibitor (35.2%), placebo (27.1%), and finally CCB (14.3.1%). Therefore, aldosterone antagonist seems worse than other antihypertensive drugs in the risk of hyperkalemia in patients with diabetic nephropathy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Hiperpotassemia , Hipertensão , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperpotassemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Metanálise em Rede
12.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(11): 2408-2419, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the risk of hyperkalemia and acute kidney injury (AKI) when spironolactone use is added on to loop diuretic use among patients with heart failure, and to evaluate whether the risk is modified by level of kidney function. METHODS: We identified 17,110 patients with heart failure treated with loop diuretics between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2016 within the Geisinger Health System. We estimated the incidence of hyperkalemia and AKI associated with spironolactone initiation, and used target trial emulation methods to minimize confounding by indication. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 134 mo, 3229 of 17,110 patients (18.9%) initiated spironolactone. Incidence rates of hyperkalemia and AKI in patients using spironolactone with a loop diuretic were 2.9 and 10.1 events per 1000 person-months, respectively. In propensity score-matched analyses, spironolactone initiation was associated with higher hyperkalemia and AKI risk compared with loop alone (hazard ratio, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.35 to 2.10; P<.001, and hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.26; P=.04, respectively). There were no differences in the relative risk of either outcome associated with spironolactone by level of kidney function. CONCLUSION: The addition of spironolactone to loop diuretics in patients with heart failure was associated with higher risk of hyperkalemia and AKI; these risks must be weighed against the potential benefits of spironolactone.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Espironolactona/efeitos adversos , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/diagnóstico , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Fatores de Risco , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD007004, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) is used to reduce proteinuria and retard the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, resolution of proteinuria may be incomplete with these therapies and the addition of an aldosterone antagonist may be added to further prevent progression of CKD. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2009 and updated in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of aldosterone antagonists (selective (eplerenone), non-selective (spironolactone or canrenone), or non-steroidal mineralocorticoid antagonists (finerenone)) in adults who have CKD with proteinuria (nephrotic and non-nephrotic range) on: patient-centred endpoints including kidney failure (previously know as end-stage kidney disease (ESKD)), major cardiovascular events, and death (any cause); kidney function (proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and doubling of serum creatinine); blood pressure; and adverse events (including hyperkalaemia, acute kidney injury, and gynaecomastia). SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 13 January 2020 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal, and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that compared aldosterone antagonists in combination with ACEi or ARB (or both) to other anti-hypertensive strategies or placebo in participants with proteinuric CKD. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed study quality and extracted data. Data were summarised using random effects meta-analysis. We expressed summary treatment estimates as a risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes, or standardised mean difference (SMD) when different scales were used together with their 95% confidence interval (CI). Risk of bias were assessed using the Cochrane tool. Evidence certainty was evaluated using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: Forty-four studies (5745 participants) were included. Risk of bias in the evaluated methodological domains were unclear or high risk in most studies. Adequate random sequence generation was present in 12 studies, allocation concealment in five studies, blinding of participant and investigators in 18 studies, blinding of outcome assessment in 15 studies, and complete outcome reporting in 24 studies. All studies comparing aldosterone antagonists to placebo or standard care were used in addition to an ACEi or ARB (or both). None of the studies were powered to detect differences in patient-level outcomes including kidney failure, major cardiovascular events or death. Aldosterone antagonists had uncertain effects on kidney failure (2 studies, 84 participants: RR 3.00, 95% CI 0.33 to 27.65, I² = 0%; very low certainty evidence), death (3 studies, 421 participants: RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.10 to 3.50, I² = 0%; low certainty evidence), and cardiovascular events (3 studies, 1067 participants: RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.26 to 3.56; I² = 42%; low certainty evidence) compared to placebo or standard care. Aldosterone antagonists may reduce protein excretion (14 studies, 1193 participants: SMD -0.51, 95% CI -0.82 to -0.20, I² = 82%; very low certainty evidence), eGFR (13 studies, 1165 participants, MD -3.00 mL/min/1.73 m², 95% CI -5.51 to -0.49, I² = 0%, low certainty evidence) and systolic blood pressure (14 studies, 911 participants: MD -4.98 mmHg, 95% CI -8.22 to -1.75, I² = 87%; very low certainty evidence) compared to placebo or standard care. Aldosterone antagonists probably increase the risk of hyperkalaemia (17 studies, 3001 participants: RR 2.17, 95% CI 1.47 to 3.22, I² = 0%; moderate certainty evidence), acute kidney injury (5 studies, 1446 participants: RR 2.04, 95% CI 1.05 to 3.97, I² = 0%; moderate certainty evidence), and gynaecomastia (4 studies, 281 participants: RR 5.14, 95% CI 1.14 to 23.23, I² = 0%; moderate certainty evidence) compared to placebo or standard care. Non-selective aldosterone antagonists plus ACEi or ARB had uncertain effects on protein excretion (2 studies, 139 participants: SMD -1.59, 95% CI -3.80 to 0.62, I² = 93%; very low certainty evidence) but may increase serum potassium (2 studies, 121 participants: MD 0.31 mEq/L, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.45, I² = 0%; low certainty evidence) compared to diuretics plus ACEi or ARB. Selective aldosterone antagonists may increase the risk of hyperkalaemia (2 studies, 500 participants: RR 1.62, 95% CI 0.66 to 3.95, I² = 0%; low certainty evidence) compared ACEi or ARB (or both). There were insufficient studies to perform meta-analyses for the comparison between non-selective aldosterone antagonists and calcium channel blockers, selective aldosterone antagonists plus ACEi or ARB (or both) and nitrate plus ACEi or ARB (or both), and non-steroidal mineralocorticoid antagonists and selective aldosterone antagonists. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The effects of aldosterone antagonists when added to ACEi or ARB (or both) on the risks of death, major cardiovascular events, and kidney failure in people with proteinuric CKD are uncertain. Aldosterone antagonists may reduce proteinuria, eGFR, and systolic blood pressure in adults who have mild to moderate CKD but may increase the risk of hyperkalaemia, acute kidney injury and gynaecomastia when added to ACEi and/or ARB.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Falência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Proteinúria/tratamento farmacológico , Viés , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Canrenona/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Eplerenona/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperpotassemia/prevenção & controle , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Naftiridinas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Espironolactona/efeitos adversos , Espironolactona/análogos & derivados , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico
14.
Neurocirugía (Soc. Luso-Esp. Neurocir.) ; 31(5): 216-222, sept.-oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-195154

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the incidence of severe potassium disturbances during barbiturate coma therapy in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), and the characteristics of these patients. METHODS: The study comprised 37 patients with severe TBI who were treated for barbiturate coma between 2015 and 2017 in level 3 intensive care units of two hospitals. RESULTS: No potassium disturbance occurred in 14 patients. Seventeen patients developed mild-moderate hypokalemia (2.6-3.5 mEq/L), and 6 patients developed severe hypokalemia (< 2.5 mEq/L) following the induction of barbiturate therapy. The incidence of mild-to-severe barbiturate-induced hypokalemia was 62.2% and the rate of severe hypokalemia was 16.2%. The mean potassium supply per day during thiopentone therapy was statistically significantly different between patients with mild-to-moderate hypokalemic and those with severe hypokalemic (p < 0.001). Four of 6 patients with severe hypokalemia developed rebound hyperkalemia exceeding 6mEq/L following the cessation of barbiturate infusion. The nadir potassium concentration was 1.5 mEq/L and the highest value was 6.8 mEq/L. The mean time to reach nadir potassium concentrations was 2.8 days. The mortality rate of the 6 patients was 66.7%. Of the 2 survivors of severe hypokalemia, the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) on discharge and the extended GOS one year after the trauma were 5 and 8 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Severe hypokalemia refractory to medical treatment and rebound hyperkalemia is a serious adverse effect of thiopentone coma therapy in patients with severe TBI. Excessive and aggressive potassium replacement during the barbiturate-induced hypokalemia period must be avoided. Weaning barbiturate treatment over time may be advantageous in the management of severe serum potassium disturbances


OBJETIVOS: Evaluar la incidencia de alteraciones graves de los niveles de potasio durante el coma terapéutico inducido por barbitúricos en pacientes con lesiones cerebrales traumáticas (LCT) graves y las características de estos pacientes. MÉTODOS: El estudio incluyó 37 pacientes con LCT grave que habían sido tratados mediante coma terapéutico inducido por barbitúricos entre 2015 y 2017 en unidades de cuidados intensivos de nivel 3 de dos hospitales. RESULTADOS: En 14 pacientes no se observaron alteraciones de los niveles de potasio. Diecisiete pacientes desarrollaron hipopotasemia leve o moderada (2,6-3,5 mEq/l), y 6 pacientes desarrollaron hipopotasemia grave (< 2,5 mEq/l) después de la inducción de la terapia con barbitúricos. La incidencia de hipopotasemia de leve a grave inducida por barbitúricos fue del 62,2% y la tasa de hipopotasemia grave fue del 16,2%. El aporte medio de potasio al día durante el tratamiento con tiopentona fue diferente de forma estadísticamente significativa entre los pacientes con hipopotasemia leve o moderada y entre los que tenían hipopotasemia grave (p < 0,001). Cuatro de los 6 pacientes con hipopotasemia grave desarrollaron hiperpotasemia de rebote que superó los 6 mEq/l después de la suspensión de la infusión de barbitúricos. La concentración mínima de potasio fue de 1,5 mEq/l y el valor máximo de potasio fue de 6,8 mEq/l. El tiempo medio hasta alcanzar las concentraciones mínimas de potasio fue de 2,8 días. La tasa de mortalidad de los 6 pacientes fue del 66,7%. En los 2 supervivientes con hipopotasemia grave, los resultados de la Escala de Resultados de Glasgow (Glasgow Outcome Scale, GOS) en el alta y la GOS extendida un año después del traumatismo fueron 5 y 8, respectivamente


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hipopotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Coma/induzido quimicamente , Barbitúricos/efeitos adversos , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Barbitúricos/uso terapêutico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Potássio/sangue , Mortalidade , Eletroencefalografia
15.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 42(3): 965-971, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390087

RESUMO

Background Co-trimoxazole is an antibiotic combination used for the treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, amongst others. Co-trimoxazole is known to increase serum potassium. For this reason, Dutch guidelines advise serum potassium monitoring in high-risk patients. Objective This study aimed to determine average serum potassium rise after administration of intravenous co-trimoxazole in hospitalized patients, compared to intravenous ceftriaxone. This study also aimed to determine adherence to Dutch guidelines by measuring the incidence of serum potassium monitoring in these patients. Setting Five departments of the Canisius Wilhelmina Hospital, a teaching hospital in Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Method Data was collected and compared from patients that received intravenous co-trimoxazole (n = 66) and intravenous ceftriaxone (n = 132) in the period of November 2008-November 2017. For each patient using co-trimoxazole, two patients using ceftriaxone were included in a paired fashion. Baseline and follow-up potassium were collected, if available. Additionally, it was tested if serum potassium was measured around the initiation of antibiotic therapy. Main outcome measure Changes in serum potassium where obtainable in 30 patients using cotrimoxazole and 40 patients using ceftriaxone. When compared to ceftriaxone, administration of intravenous co-trimoxazole was associated with a significant mean increase in serum potassium (+ 0.55 mmol/l, 95% CI 0.29-0.80, p < 0.001). After correction for confounders (baseline potassium, estimated glomerular filtration rate 30 to < 60, the presence of haematological malignancies and the usage of corticosteroids), this effect shrunk noticeably, but remained significant (+ 0.28 mmol/l, 95% CI 0.03-0.53, p = 0.031). Results The incidence of hyperkalemia at follow-up was 20% in the cotrimoxazole group, compared to 5% in the ceftriaxone group. Despite this, serum potassium was often not measured in patients using intravenous cotrimoxazole, being 76% at baseline and 55% in the period of 48-120 h after antibiotic therapy initiation, compared to 87% and 34% in the ceftriaxone group respectively. Conclusion Adherence to Dutch guidelines was poor as serum potassium monitoring was often not performed. As intravenous co-trimoxazole usage is associated with a significant increase in mean serum potassium, monitoring is strongly recommended.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/tratamento farmacológico , Potássio/sangue , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/efeitos adversos , Ceftriaxona/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Pneumocystis carinii
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7804, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385354

RESUMO

Our aim was to evaluate the association between ritodrine and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) and the occurrence of neonatal hyperkalemia or hypoglycemia among late preterm infants in a retrospective cohort study. We used a nationwide obstetrical database from 2014. A total of 4,622 live preterm infants born at 32-36 gestational weeks participated. Fourteen risk factors based on both clinical relevance and univariate analysis were adjusted in multivariable logistic regression analyses. Neonatal hyperkalemia and hypoglycemia occurred in 7.6% (284/3,732) and 32.4% (1,458/4,501), respectively. Occurrence of hyperkalemia was associated with concomitant usage of ritodrine and MgSO4 compared with no usage (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-2.15). Occurrence of hypoglycemia was associated with ritodrine alone (aOR 2.58 [CI 2.21-3.01]) and with concomitant usage of ritodrine and MgSO4 (aOR 2.59 [CI 2.13-3.15]), compared with no usage, and was associated with long-term usage (≥ 48 hours) of ritodrine and cessation directly before delivery. In conclusion, in late preterm infants, usage of ritodrine together with MgSO4 was associated with occurrence of critical neonatal hyperkalemia, and long-term usage of ritodrine and cessation directly before delivery were associated with neonatal hypoglycemia.


Assuntos
Hiperpotassemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Sulfato de Magnésio/efeitos adversos , Ritodrina/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperpotassemia/patologia , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/patologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/patologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Japão/epidemiologia , Sulfato de Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/tratamento farmacológico , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/patologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Ritodrina/uso terapêutico
17.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(1): 74-79, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32291375

RESUMO

Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is a key strategy in treating hypertension in cardiovascular and renal diseases. However, RAAS inhibitors (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, aldosterone receptor antagonists, and direct renin inhibitors) increase the risk of hyperkalemia (serum potassium >5.5 mmol/L). This poses a therapeutic challenge because these patient groups comprise in whom the drugs are therapeutically indicated. Important considerations when initiating ACEI or ARB therapy include obtaining an estimate of glomerular filtration rate and a baseline serum potassium concentration, as well as assessing whether the patient has excessive potassium intake from diet, supplements, or drugs that can also increase serum potassium. Serum potassium monitoring shortly after initiation of therapy can assist in preventing hyperkalemia. If hyperkalemia does develop, prompt recognition of cardiac dysrhythmias and effective treatment to antagonize the cardiac effects of potassium, redistribute potassium into cells, and remove excess potassium from the body is important. Understanding the mechanism of action and monitoring of ACEI and ARB coupled with judicious drug use and clinical vigilance can minimize the risk to the patient of developing hyperkalemia.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Potássio/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Dieta , Interações Alimento-Droga , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/sangue , Hiperpotassemia/terapia , Potássio/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Risco
18.
BMJ ; 369: m824, 2020 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321724

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the effects of nationwide replacement of discretionary salt (used at table or during cooking) with potassium enriched salt substitute on morbidity and death from cardiovascular disease in China. DESIGN: Modelling study. SETTING: China. POPULATION: Adult population in China, and specifically individuals with chronic kidney disease (about 17 million people). INTERVENTIONS: Comparative risk assessment models were used to estimate the effects of a nationwide intervention to replace discretionary dietary salt with potassium enriched salt substitutes (20-30% potassium chloride). The models incorporated existing data and corresponding uncertainties from randomised trials, the China National Survey of Chronic Kidney Disease, the Global Burden of Disease Study, and the Chronic Kidney Disease Prognosis Consortium. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Averted deaths from cardiovascular disease, non-fatal events, and disability adjusted life years from a reduction in blood pressure were estimated after implementation of potassium enriched salt substitution. In individuals with chronic kidney disease, additional deaths from cardiovascular disease related to hyperkalaemia from increased intake of potassium were calculated. The net effects on deaths from cardiovascular disease were estimated as the difference and ratio of averted and additional deaths from cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: Nationwide implementation of potassium enriched salt substitution could prevent about 461 000 (95% uncertainty interval 196 339 to 704 438) deaths annually from cardiovascular disease, corresponding to 11.0% (4.7% to 16.8%) of annual deaths from cardiovascular disease in China; 743 000 (305 803 to 1 273 098) non-fatal cardiovascular events annually; and 7.9 (3.3 to 12.9) million disability adjusted life years related to cardiovascular disease annually. The intervention could potentially produce an estimated 11 000 (6422 to 16 562) additional deaths related to hyperkalaemia in individuals with chronic kidney disease. The net effect would be about 450 000 (183 699 to 697 084) fewer deaths annually from cardiovascular disease in the overall population and 21 000 (1928 to 42 926) fewer deaths in individuals with chronic kidney disease. In deterministic sensitivity analyses, with changes to key model inputs and assumptions, net benefits were consistent in the total population and in individuals with chronic kidney disease, with averted deaths outweighing additional deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Nationwide potassium enriched salt substitution in China was estimated to result in a substantial net benefit, preventing around one in nine deaths from cardiovascular disease overall. Taking account of the risks of hyperkalaemia, a substantial net benefit was also estimated for individuals with chronic kidney disease.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dieta Hipossódica , Hipertensão/dietoterapia , Cloreto de Potássio , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperpotassemia/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Medição de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade
19.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 26(12): 1651-1657, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220637

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Increasing antimicrobial resistance has renewed interest in older, less used antimicrobials. Cotrimoxazole shows promise; however, hyperkalaemia and acute kidney injury (AKI) are potential complications. Identifying risk factors for and quantification of these events is required for safe use. This study aimed to evaluate predictors of cotrimoxazole-associated AKI and hyperkalaemia in a clinical setting. METHODS: Patients prescribed cotrimoxazole were identified using electronic healthcare records over 3 years (1 April 2016 to 31 March 2019). Individual risk factors were recognized. Serum creatinine and potassium trends were analysed over the subsequent 21 days. AKI and patients with hyperkalaemia were classified using Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) and laboratory criteria. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Among 214 patients prescribed cotrimoxazole, 42 (19.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 14.6-25.7) met AKI criteria and 33 (15.4%, 95% CI 11.0-21.1) developed hyperkalaemia. Low baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2, odds ratio (OR) 7.78, 95% CI 3.57-16.13, p < 0.0001) and cardiac disorders (OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.17-4.82, p 0.011) predicted AKI, while low baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2, OR 6.80, 95% CI 3.09-15.06, p < 0.0001) and higher baseline serum potassium (p 0.001) predicted hyperkalaemia. Low-dose cotrimoxazole (<1920 mg/d) was associated with lower AKI and hyperkalaemia risk (p 0.007 and 0.019 respectively). Early (within the first 2-4 days of therapy) serum creatinine changes predicted AKI (OR 3.65, 95% CI 1.73-7.41, p 0.001), and early serum potassium changes predicted hyperkalaemia (>0.6 mmol/L, OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.14-5.27, p 0.0236). CONCLUSIONS: Cotrimoxazole-associated AKI and hyperkalaemia is frequent and dose dependent. Renal function, serum potassium and preexisting cardiac disorders should be evaluated before prescribing cotrimoxazole. Serum creatinine and potassium monitoring within first 2 to 4 days of treatment to identify susceptible patients is recommended, and the lowest effective dose ought to be prescribed.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Hiperpotassemia , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/efeitos adversos , Injúria Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperpotassemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Neurocirugia (Astur : Engl Ed) ; 31(5): 216-222, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146086

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the incidence of severe potassium disturbances during barbiturate coma therapy in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), and the characteristics of these patients. METHODS: The study comprised 37 patients with severe TBI who were treated for barbiturate coma between 2015 and 2017 in level 3 intensive care units of two hospitals. RESULTS: No potassium disturbance occurred in 14 patients. Seventeen patients developed mild-moderate hypokalemia (2.6-3.5mEq/L), and 6 patients developed severe hypokalemia (<2.5mEq/L) following the induction of barbiturate therapy. The incidence of mild-to-severe barbiturate-induced hypokalemia was 62.2% and the rate of severe hypokalemia was 16.2%. The mean potassium supply per day during thiopentone therapy was statistically significantly different between patients with mild-to-moderate hypokalemic and those with severe hypokalemic (p<0.001). Four of 6 patients with severe hypokalemia developed rebound hyperkalemia exceeding 6mEq/L following the cessation of barbiturate infusion. The nadir potassium concentration was 1.5mEq/L and the highest value was 6.8mEq/L. The mean time to reach nadir potassium concentrations was 2.8 days. The mortality rate of the 6 patients was 66.7%. Of the 2 survivors of severe hypokalemia, the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) on discharge and the extended GOS one year after the trauma were 5 and 8 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Severe hypokalemia refractory to medical treatment and rebound hyperkalemia is a serious adverse effect of thiopentone coma therapy in patients with severe TBI. Excessive and aggressive potassium replacement during the barbiturate-induced hypokalemia period must be avoided. Weaning barbiturate treatment over time may be advantageous in the management of severe serum potassium disturbances.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Hiperpotassemia , Hipopotassemia , Barbitúricos/efeitos adversos , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Coma/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperpotassemia/epidemiologia , Hipopotassemia/induzido quimicamente
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