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2.
Contact Dermatitis ; 83(2): 108-114, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a result of the COVID-19 outbreak, hygiene regulations have been revised and hand sanitation has been intensified. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the onset of hand eczema during the COVID-19 pandemic in healthcare workers (HCWs) directly involved in intensive care of COVID-19 patients and HCWs without direct contact with COVID-19 patients. Hereby, we aim at increasing awareness about occupational hand eczema and preventive measures that can be adopted. METHOD: A survey was distributed amongst 114 HCWs at a single surgical centre and at a COVID-19 intensive care unit of the university hospital Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, Germany. Participants were questioned about the daily frequency of hand hygiene prior to and during the pandemic. Participants self-reported the onset of hand eczema and associated symptoms. RESULTS: Our study revealed a significant increase in hand washing, disinfection, and use of hand cream across all participants (P-value <.001), regardless of having direct contact with COVID-19 patients. A high prevalence of symptoms associated with acute hand dermatitis of 90.4% was found across all HCWs, whereas hand eczema itself was underreported (14.9%). CONCLUSION: The increase in hand sanitation during the COVID-19 pandemic impairs the skin of the hands across all HCWs, independent of direct intensive care of affected patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dermatite Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Eczema/epidemiologia , Dermatoses da Mão/epidemiologia , Desinfecção das Mãos/tendências , Higienizadores de Mão/uso terapêutico , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Creme para a Pele/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Asma/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Prevalência , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia
3.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 124(5): 494-499, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extending the drug provocation test (DPT) period is recommended for patients with suspected nonimmediate beta-lactam antibiotic (BLA) allergy and negative DPT. No consensus has been reached regarding the duration of prolonged provocation. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the negative predictive value (NPV) of the 5-day extended DPT. METHODS: Parents of patients with suspected nonimmediate mild cutaneous reactions with BLAs who had been subjected to 5-day DPT with culprit drugs were questioned by telephone interview about reexposure to the tested drug. Patients with reported reaction during reexposure were reevaluated. Skin tests and serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) analysis were not performed before first DPT. RESULTS: A total of 355 patients had negative results in 5-day DPT. The median age at DPT was 4.2 years, and 52.9% were male. The families of 255 patients (72%) could be contacted. Of these 255 patients, 179 (70%) had used the same drug, and reactions were reported for 6 (3.4%) of those patients, who were subsequently reevaluated. Five of the 6 patients had DPT with amoxicillin-clavulanate and 1 with cefixime. When detailed history was taken, 2 of the 5 patients with amoxicillin-clavulanate reaction were found to have used the drug unintentionally after their reaction to reexposure and did not have any symptoms. One of the patients underwent allergy workup and tested negative, and the other 2 refused the test. The patient with reported cefixime reaction underwent repeated allergy workup and tested negative. Therefore, the NPV of 5-day prolonged DPT was 98.9%. CONCLUSION: The 5-day prolonged DPT has high NPV and seems appropriate in duration for children with suspected nonimmediate-BLA allergy.


Assuntos
Combinação Amoxicilina e Clavulanato de Potássio/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cefixima/uso terapêutico , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/diagnóstico , Imunização/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , beta-Lactamas/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Alérgenos/imunologia , Combinação Amoxicilina e Clavulanato de Potássio/efeitos adversos , Combinação Amoxicilina e Clavulanato de Potássio/imunologia , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/imunologia , Cefixima/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Tardia , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Lactente , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , beta-Lactamas/efeitos adversos , beta-Lactamas/imunologia
4.
Immunology ; 159(2): 205-220, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642515

RESUMO

Regulatory T (Treg) cells induce immunologic tolerance by suppressing effector functions of conventional lymphocytes in the periphery. On the other hand, immune silencing is mediated by recognition of phosphatidylserine (PS) on apoptotic cells by phagocytes. Here we describe expression of the PS-binding protein Annexin V (ANXA5) in CD4+  CD25hi Treg cells at the mRNA and protein levels. CD4+  ANXA5+ T cells constitute about 0·1%-0·6% of peripheral blood CD3+ T cells, exhibit co-expression of several Treg markers, such as Forkhead box P3, programmed cell death protein-1, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 and CD38. In vitro, ANXA5+ Treg cells showed enhanced adhesion to PS+ endothelial cells. Stimulated by anti-CD3 and PS+ syngeneic antigen-presenting cells CD4+  ANXA5+ T cells expanded in the absence of exogenous interleukin-2. CD4+  ANXA5+ T cells suppressed CD4+  ANXA5- T-cell proliferation and mammalian target of rapamycin phosphorylation, partially dependent on cell contact. CD4+  ANXA5+ T-cell-mediated suppression was allo-specific and accompanied by an increased production of anti-inflammatory mediators. In vivo, using a model of delayed type hypersensitivity, murine CD4+  ANXA5+ T cells inhibited T helper type 1 responses. In conclusion, we report for the first time expression of ANXA5 on a subset of Treg cells that might bridge classical regulatory Treg function with immune silencing.


Assuntos
Anexina A5/metabolismo , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Animais , Anexina A5/genética , Anexina A5/imunologia , Adesão Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/imunologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/genética , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenótipo , Fosfatidilserinas/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/metabolismo
5.
Mol Immunol ; 117: 160-167, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801102

RESUMO

The naturally occurring polysaccharide, ß-1,3-glucans, a well-known immunostimulant, has been highly valued for many years for their health-promoting and anti-aging properties, but its mode of action is poorly understood. In this study, we first showed that oral administration of ß-1,3-glucans did not affect the general condition and physiology of male mice throughout the trial period. We then showed that dietary intake of ß-1,3-glucans induced a significant increase in T helper cells (CD4+) in young, middle-aged and aged male mice. We also showed that ß-1,3-glucans supplementation considerably increased the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, a T cell-mediated immune response, in young and aged mice. In addition, we found that ß-1,3-glucans supplementation remarkably promoted the production of total anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) immunoglobulin G (IgG), anti-KLH IgG1, and anti-KLH IgG2a in young and aged mice without disturbing immune homeostasis. These data together indicate that oral administration of ß-1,3-glucans enhanced the adaptive immune responses of aged mice without disturbing their general condition and physiology, supporting the idea that ß-1,3-glucans are capable of counteracting the immunosenescence in mice. They also suggest that ß-1,3-glucans can be clinically useful to help the elderly generate an improved response to vaccine with stronger humoral and cell-mediated immune responses.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , beta-Glucanas/imunologia , Animais , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
6.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 167(5): 656-659, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625066

RESUMO

We studied allergenic, immunogenic, and skin-irritating effects of deicing chemicals HCM (Volgograd), Bishofit (Turkmenia), and Nordix-P (Russia) in model experiments on various types of laboratory animals (rats, mice, rabbits). All the studied deicing chemicals exhibited weak immunotoxic activity and in high doses can cause delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction that manifested in skin irritant effect on the skin and produced a suppressive effect on the humoral immunity. The modified method for assessing skin irritation proposed by us is more sensitive than standard methods.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/farmacologia , Glicerol/farmacologia , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/induzido quimicamente , Irritantes/farmacologia , Sais/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Cobaias , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Coelhos , Ratos , Federação Russa , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/imunologia , Transportes
7.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 47(5): 477-483, sept.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-186522

RESUMO

Introduction and objectives: Drug provocation tests (DPTs) are the gold-standard method to diagnose non-immediate hypersensitivity reactions (NIHSR) to beta-lactam antibiotics (BL) in children. Our aim was to compare the negative predictive value (NPV) of one-day (short) DPT versus 3-7 days (extended) DPT for the diagnosis of NIHSR to BL in paediatric age. A secondary aim was to compare confidence on drug re-exposure after short and extended negative DPTs. Methods: The occurrence of HSR on drug re-exposure and drug refusal after negative diagnostic DPTs were evaluated in children/adolescents with a history of NIHSR to BL using a questionnaire performed six months to ten years after DPT. Patients were divided into two groups according to the protocol performed: short DPT vs. extended DPT. Results: We enrolled 212 children and adolescents (86 females, 126 males, mean age at DPT 5.52 years, p25 = 3 years, p75 = 7.25 years): 69 tested with short DPT, and 143 with extended DPT. The NPV of both types of DPT together was 95.2%. The NPV of short DPT was 97.5% and the NPV of extended DPT was 93.8% (p = 0.419). After negative DPT, beta-lactams were refused by carers in 14.75% of the children requiring subsequent treatment, 6.98% in the short DPT group and 18.99% in the extended DPT group (p = 0.074). Conclusions: In our paediatric sample, prolonging drug administration did not increase the NPV of diagnostic DPT for NIHSR to BL or reduce drug refusal. Altogether, the data here reported suggest that, however intuitive, prolonging DPT is not beneficial in the parameters analysed


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Alérgenos/imunologia , Antibacterianos/imunologia , Testes de Provocação Brônquica/métodos , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/diagnóstico , beta-Lactamas/imunologia , Substituição de Medicamentos , Hipersensibilidade Tardia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Testes Cutâneos
8.
J Dermatol Sci ; 95(3): 99-106, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thimerosal has been used as a preservative in many products which may cause contact dermatitis. It is the second most common allergen in positive patch test reactions, though being a clinical irrelevant allergen. Thimerosal-induced contact dermatitis is generally considered to be a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction, but it is difficult to explain the fact that most patients develop an allergic reaction upon first encounter with thimerosal. Recent studies have demonstrated the association between Mas-related G protein coupled receptor X2 (MRGPRX2) and pseudo-allergic reactions which occur at the first contact with stimulation. This suggests the possibility that thimerosal may cause contact dermatitis via MRGPRX2 mediated mechanism. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor B2 (MrgprB2)/MRGPRX2 in contact dermatitis induced by thimerosal. METHODS: Thimerosal induced pseudo-allergic reactions via MrgprB2/ MRGPRX2 were investigated using a novel skin pseudo-allergic reaction mouse model, footpad swelling and extravasation assays in vivo and mast cell degranulation assay in vitro. RESULTS: Thimerosal induced contact dermatitis in dorsal skin and footpad swelling in wild-type mice, but had no significant effect in MrgprB2-knockout mice. Thimerosal-induced dermatitis is characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells and elevation of serum histamine and inflammatory cytokines, rather than elevation of serum IgE level. Thimerosal increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in HEK293 cells overexpressing MrgprB2/MRGPRX2. Downregulation of MRGPRX2 resulted in the reduced degranulation of LAD2 human mast cells. CONCLUSIONS: MrgprB2 mediates thimerosal-induced mast cell degranulation and pseudo-allergic reaction in mice. MRGPRX2 may be a key contributor to human contact dermatitis.


Assuntos
Dermatite de Contato/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/etiologia , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Conservantes Farmacêuticos/toxicidade , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Timerosal/efeitos adversos , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Degranulação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dermatite de Contato/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/patologia , Masculino , Mastócitos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Conservantes Farmacêuticos/administração & dosagem , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Timerosal/administração & dosagem
10.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 36(6): 1012-1016, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475384

RESUMO

In this article, we report the sonographic features of vaccination granulomas in three children sensitized to aluminum. Although the recognition of the vaccination granuloma relies on the clinical examination, misdiagnosis is frequent, leading to distressful procedures or prolonged antibiotic administration. In all our cases, sonography revealed a teardrop-shaped echogenic central structure, suggesting the deposition of aluminum crystals along the route of administration with consequent subcutaneous degenerative changes, and a surrounding hypoechoic cap, which reflects the changeable inflammatory reaction and the granuloma formation.


Assuntos
Compostos de Alumínio/efeitos adversos , Granuloma/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/diagnóstico , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Granuloma/etiologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/etiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Ultrassonografia
13.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 83(12): 2334-2344, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382820

RESUMO

Quinoa crude polysaccharides (QPS) were extracted from Chenopodium quinoa Willd. The soluble non-starch polysaccharide fraction (QPS1) was subsequently purified by DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-50 gel chromatography, using QPS as raw materials. Its chemical structure was identified using FT-IR, NMR, AFM, SEM and Congo red staining. High performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC) was used to determine molecular weight, and composition by HPLC. QPS1, with a molecular weight of 34.0 kDa, was mainly composed of mannose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose and arabinose at a molar ratio of 2.63:2.40:1.64:6.28:1.95:2.48:5.01. In addition, we evaluated the ameliorative effects of QPS1 on the improvement of anti-cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced immunosuppression in ICR mice. The result exhibited significantly immune-enhancing activity: QPS1 successfully improved the content of IFN-γ, IL-6, IFN-ɑ, IgM and lysozyme (LYSO) in serum for three weeks, enhanced the phagocytic function of mononuclear macrophages and ameliorated delayed allergy in mice.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Chenopodium quinoa/embriologia , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Animais , Configuração de Carboidratos , Citocinas/sangue , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Polissacarídeos/química
14.
Gen Dent ; 67(4): 38-45, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355763

RESUMO

Penicillin allergy, local anesthetic hypersensitivity, latex allergy, contact hypersensitivity, and anaphylaxis are among the allergic reactions encountered in dental practice. This article reviews the literature pertaining to these important areas of overlap between dentistry and allergy/immunology. The epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of penicillin allergy as it relates to dentistry are reviewed. The relevant literature regarding local anesthetic and latex hypersensitivity is discussed. In addition, the presentation, evaluation, and management of contact hypersensitivity, including that to metals, are addressed. Recognition and appropriate treatment of anaphylaxis also are reviewed. This article will help dentists understand potential areas of comanagement with allergists/immunologists to optimize patient care.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Imediata , Hipersensibilidade ao Látex , Odontologia , Odontólogos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/diagnóstico , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Tardia , Hipersensibilidade ao Látex/diagnóstico
15.
Internist (Berl) ; 60(8): 821-839, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286163

RESUMO

Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a rare, often underdiagnosed condition and a common cause of renal failure. Drugs are the leading cause. The underlying pathophysiological condition is often a type IV hypersensitivity reaction. There are also rarer idiopathic forms, which often remain unrecognized. Additionally, the pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood, so that only very few promising forms of treatment are available. For some medications the overall risk is low but the side effects are relevant for the clinical routine due to the fact that they are frequently prescribed. In addition, the development of new approaches, such as immunotherapy also leads to side effects that cannot be completely predicted. For many diseases the occurrence of acute kidney injury increases the mortality and morbidity. A potentially irreversible chronic renal failure increases the incidence of further comorbidities and reduces the quality of life. Treatment is difficult and mostly empirical.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Nefrite Intersticial/complicações , Nefrite Intersticial/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/complicações , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/fisiopatologia , Nefrite Intersticial/prevenção & controle , Qualidade de Vida , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia
16.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(9): 1314-1319, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274404

RESUMO

Introduction. Current intradermal tuberculin skin tests for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) based on purified protein derivative (PPD) have poor specificity.Aims. Developing a better skin test antigen as well as a simple skin patch test may improve and facilitate diagnostic performance.Methodology. Defined recombinant antigens that were unique to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), including two potential latency-associated antigens (ESAT-6 and Rv2653c) and five DosR-encoded latency proteins (Rv1996, Rv2031c, Rv2032, DevR and Rv3716c), were used as diagnostic skin test reagents in comparison with a standard PPD. The performance of the skin tests based on the detection of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction in guinea pigs sensitized to MTB and M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine was evaluated.Results. The latency antigens Rv1996, Rv2031c, Rv2032 and Rv2653c and the ESAT-6 protein elicited less reactive DTH skin responses in MTB-sensitized guinea pigs than those resulting from PPD, but elicited no response in BCG-vaccinated guinea pigs. The remaining two latency antigens (DevR and Rv3716c) elicited DTH responses in both groups of animals, as did PPD. The reactivity of PPD in BCG-vaccinated guinea pigs was greater than that of any of the selected skin test reagents. Using stronger concentrations of selected skin test reagents in the patch test led to increased DTH responses that were comparable to those elicited by PPD in guinea pigs sensitized with MTB.Conclusion. Transdermal application of defined purified antigens might be a promising method for LTBI screening.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Tardia/imunologia , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Testes Cutâneos/métodos , Adesivo Transdérmico , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Feminino , Cobaias , Indicadores e Reagentes , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Testes Cutâneos/normas , Tuberculina/imunologia
18.
J Foot Ankle Surg ; 58(5): 974-979, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266695

RESUMO

Because of their inert character and desired biocompatibility, titanium implants have been universally accepted as safer alternatives to the conventional stainless steel orthopedic implants; however, recent emergence of type IV hypersensitivity reactions to titanium have included eczema, contact dermatitis, a prolonged febrile state, sterile osteonecrosis, and impaired fracture and wound healing. This report presents a patient with postoperative incision dehiscence and devascularization of surfaces in contact with titanium hardware after undergoing a double calcaneal osteotomy and a first metatarsal-cuneiform arthrodesis using titanium alloy implants. Titanium hypersensitivity was confirmed in this case through standard allergy patch testing by a board-certified immunologist. Complete healing occurred after diagnosis of the titanium allergy and hardware explant. To our knowledge, this is one of a few known allergies to titanium implants after foot and ankle surgery.


Assuntos
Artrodese/efeitos adversos , Artrodese/instrumentação , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/etiologia , Ossos do Metatarso/cirurgia , Titânio/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Feminino , Pé Chato/cirurgia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/terapia , Osteotomia/efeitos adversos , Ossos do Tarso/cirurgia
20.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 44(8): 844-860, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162717

RESUMO

Contrast media (CM) are an indispensable part of modern medical imaging. Adverse reactions to CM are uncommon, but frequently involve cutaneous symptoms. This two-part article reviews adverse events secondary to CM that are relevant to the practising dermatologist. Part 1 covers the classification of CM, immediate hypersensitivity reactions to CM and the newly described condition, gadolinium deposition disease. Given that there has only been two case reports to our knowledge of a delayed adverse reaction to gadolinium-based CM, this second part will focus on cutaneous delayed reactions caused by iodinated CM (ICM). Delayed hypersensitivity reactions to ICM commonly present as maculopapular exanthems, but more rarely, they can manifest as fixed drug eruptions, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, drug-related eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis, symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema, graft-versus-host disease, vasculitis and iododerma. Delayed reactions to ICM may be underdiagnosed, as cutaneous symptoms may be attributed to oral medications, particularly if patients are on multiple drugs.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/induzido quimicamente , Iodo/efeitos adversos , Dermatopatias/induzido quimicamente , Pustulose Exantematosa Aguda Generalizada/etiologia , Idoso , Exantema/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dermatopatias/patologia , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/etiologia
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