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1.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148926

RESUMO

Immunity, which denotes the protection of multicellular organisms against various bacterial and viral infections, is an essential protective mechanism for living organisms. Allergy is a reaction to a foreign substance existing in the environment that is basically not a component of the self. Additionally, autoimmune diseases are associated with the dysfunction in the recognition of self and non-self, and are pathological conditions caused by immune cells attacking their own tissues and cells. In this paper, we outline the current status of immunity with respect to the environment from the epidemiological perspective with regard to the following: (1) evolution and immunity, (2) allergy, (3) autoantibodies, (4) autoimmune diseases, (5) relationships of immunity with the environment, allergy, autoantibodies, and autoimmune diseases, and (6) celiac disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Autoimunidade , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Autoanticorpos , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Evolução Biológica , Doença Celíaca/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
2.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 413-417, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955224

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Allergy affects approximately one-third of the world's population, and the rates are growing. In Europe, it has been noticed that the risk of asthma and allergy is lower in the rural as opposed to urban population. There is a tendency for several allergic diseases to be present in the same person at the same time. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to verify the co-occurrence of allergic multimorbidity and food allergy and intolerance in a group of children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The multicentre cross-sectional study enrolled 1,008 children and adolescence aged 6-18 years (51.2% boys, 48.8% girls). The study comprised a questionnaire (respondents' declarations) and an outpatient examination (diagnostic examination followed by a medical diagnosis). The study was conducted as part of the 2016-2020 National Health Programme. RESULTS: In the study group, allergic rhinitis (AR) was present in 46.4%, bronchial asthma (BA) in 11.2% and atopic dermatitis (AD) in 6%. Allergic multimorbidity (simultaneous presence of 2 or more of the allergic diseases AR, BA and AD) was diagnosed in 9.7%. A single allergic disease (of the 3) was diagnosed in 43.4%. A diagnosis of food allergy and food intolerance was reported respectively at 29.6% and 14.3% participants with doctor-diagnosed allergic multimorbidity. Among those without any of the 3 allergic diseases, the percentage were 14.4% and 9.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Food allergy or food intolerance was more common in subjects with allergic multimorbidity than in subjects diagnosed with one allergic disease or those free of allergic diseases.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Intolerância Alimentar/epidemiologia , Multimorbidade , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/etiologia , Intolerância Alimentar/etiologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Masculino , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência
3.
J Oral Facial Pain Headache ; 34: s73-s84, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975542

RESUMO

AIMS: To quantify the contributions of atopic disorders, sleep disturbance, and other health conditions to five common pain conditions. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis used data from 655 participants in the OPPERA study. The authors investigated the individual and collective associations of five chronic overlapping pain conditions (COPCs) with medically diagnosed atopic disorders and self-reported sleep disturbance, fatigue, and symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea. Atopic disorders were allergies, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, urticaria, allergic conjunctivitis, and food allergy. Logistic regression models estimated odds ratios as measures of association with temporomandibular disorders, headache, irritable bowel syndrome, low back pain, and fibromyalgia. Measures of sleep and atopy disorders were standardized to z scores to determine the relative strength of their associations with each COPC. Sociodemographic characteristics and body mass index were covariates. Random forest regression analyzed all variables simultaneously, computing importance metrics to determine which variables best differentiated pain cases from controls. RESULTS: Fatigue and sleep disturbance were strongly associated with each COPC and with the total number of COPCs. An increase of one standard deviation in fatigue or sleep disturbance score was associated with approximately two-fold greater odds of having a COPC. In random forest models, atopic disorders contributed more than other health measures to differentiating between cases and controls of headache, whereas other COPCs were best differentiated by measures of fatigue or sleep. CONCLUSION: Atopic disorders, previously recognized as predictors of poor sleep, are associated with COPCs after accounting for sleep problems.


Assuntos
Asma , Dor Crônica , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos
4.
S Afr Med J ; 110(7): 686-690, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergy is a common health problem in South Africa (SA), and a rational approach to allergy testing is essential to ensure cost-effective as well as optimal patient diagnosis and management. OBJECTIVES: To review allergy testing data with respect to current national testing recommendations, and to explore the regional variations in sensitisation. METHODS: Retrospective data review on allergy testing from a private pathology provider in SA over a 2-year period. Data on skin-prick testing (SPT) and allergen-specific IgE testing originating from all the provinces of SA were collected and analysed with regards to allergen positivity rate and regional sensitisation patterns. RESULTS: Among the patients (N=45 0320) tested for a suspected inhalant allergy, 46% tested positive. Only 45% of these received additional testing for the nine recommended inhalant allergens included in the current national testing protocol. Among the patients (N=6 775) who received SPT for a suspected inhalant allergy, 59% yielded one or more positive results. The most frequent sensitising allergens were house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) and grass pollen. The house dust mite, Blomia tropicalis, was a significant sensitiser in coastal regions. SPT identified two other important regional allergens which are not included in the current recommendations for inhalant allergen-specific IgE testing. CONCLUSIONS: The current diagnostic recommendations include allergens that demonstrate significant sensitisation in all regions of SA. Two additional allergens that show significant regional sensitisation in the South African population were identified. These findings may aid the recommendations for the most appropriate and cost-effective approach to allergy testing of symptomatic patients in SA.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Alérgenos/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Pólen/imunologia , Pyroglyphidae/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Cutâneos , África do Sul/epidemiologia
5.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(8): 1061-1067, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788482

RESUMO

Background: Atopy is poorly researched in HIV children living in the developing countries. There is no previous report on this subject in Nigeria and this pioneering study is undertaken to create an awareness of the burden of this disease among health practitioners. Aims: The aim of this study was to document the atopic diseases present among HIV-infected children attending the antiretroviral (ARV) clinic of a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Methods: Information was obtained from consecutive consenting caregiver/HIV-infected child attending the pediatric ARV clinic, by the use of a proforma specifically designed for the study. The data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software program, version 16.0. Results: Seventy patients were studied and their ages ranged between 2 and 17 years. These 70 were constituted by 34 (48.6%) boys and 36 (51.4%) girls. Ten (14.3%) of the 70 studied, had atopic diseases. Nine (12.9%) patients had allergic conjunctivitis and 1 (1.4%) had allergic rhinitis. The single patient with allergic rhinitis also had bronchial asthma. No case of atopic eczema, or food allergy was recorded. Atopic disease conditions were more commonly recorded among the male sex and those whose parents have atopic diseases (P < 0.05). Atopic diseases were also more common among children without advanced HIV diseases and those with eosinophilia. Cosmetic and psychological embarrassment from eye discoloration and itching were the negative impacts on the quality of living. Conclusion: Allergic conjunctivitis is common in HIV-infected Nigerian children. Atopies are more common in boys and children with parental atopies.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/complicações , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Rinite Alérgica/complicações , Adolescente , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Conjuntivite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Dermatite Atópica/diagnóstico , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Rinite Alérgica/diagnóstico , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia
6.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(7): 623-630, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608206

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Vaccine hesitancy is among the top ten threats to global health, and access to precise data on adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) is imperative to alleviate public concerns surrounding vaccines. This study aimed to present the overall trends of AEFIs reported in South Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the trends of AEFIs using the Korea Institute of Drug Safety & Risk Management-Korea Adverse Event Reporting System database between January 2005 and December 2017. AEFIs were classified into five categories to evaluate associations between vaccines and AEFIs through a case-non-case study: neurologic reactions, general systemic reactions, local reactions, allergic reactions, and others. RESULTS: Among 54378 reported adverse events (AEs) associated with all vaccines approved in South Korea, more than half (56.7%) occurred following influenza vaccination, followed by the pneumococcal (11.6%) and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines (5.0%). After immunization with most vaccines, general systemic reactions were most common, followed by local and neurologic reactions. Adjusted reporting odds ratios were calculated for all neurologic, general, local, and allergic reactions: of all vaccines, rotavirus [neurologic 2.43, 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.25-2.62], BCG (general; 2.20, 95% CI, 1.91-2.53), BCG (local; 3.15, 95% CI, 2.69-3.68), and Japanese encephalitis (allergic 2.38, 95% CI, 1.98-2.87) vaccines showed the highest values. CONCLUSION: The majority of reported AEFIs were non-serious and mostly general systemic reactions. Sufficient knowledge on the AEFIs would secure public confidence on the safety of vaccines, thereby reducing public health burden from vaccine-preventable diseases.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Imunização/efeitos adversos , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Algoritmos , Vacina BCG , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização/psicologia , Masculino , República da Coreia , Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234633, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on prevalence and associated risk factors for atopy and allergic diseases from high-altitude urban settings in Latin America. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of atopy, asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, and associations with relevant risk factors in preschool children in the Andean city of Cuenca. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken using a representative sample of 535 children aged 3-5 years attending 30 nursery schools in the city of Cuenca, Ecuador. Data on allergic diseases and risk factors were collected by parental questionnaire. Atopy was measured by skin prick test (SPT) reactivity to a panel of relevant aeroallergens. Associations between risk factors and the prevalence of atopy and allergic diseases were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Asthma symptoms were reported for 18% of children, rhinitis for 48%, and eczema for 28%, while SPT reactivity was present in 33%. Population fractions of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema attributable to SPT were 3.4%, 7.9%, and 2.9%, respectively. In multivariable models, an increased risk of asthma was observed among children with a maternal history of rhinitis (OR 1.85); rhinitis was significantly increased in children of high compared to low socioeconomic level (OR 2.09), among children with a maternal history of rhinitis (OR 2.29) or paternal history of eczema (OR 2.07), but reduced among children attending daycare (OR 0.64); eczema was associated with a paternal history of eczema (OR 3.73), and SPT was associated with having a dog inside the house (OR 1.67). CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of asthma, rhinitis, and eczema symptoms were observed among preschool children in a high-altitude Andean setting. Despite a high prevalence of atopy, only a small fraction of symptoms was associated with atopy. Parental history of allergic diseases was the most consistent risk factor for symptoms in preschool children.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Eczema/epidemiologia , Rinite/epidemiologia , Alérgenos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Testes Cutâneos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 27, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adjuvants used in inactivated vaccines often upregulate type 2 immunity, which is dominant in allergic diseases. We hypothesised that cumulative adjuvant exposure in infancy may influence the development of allergies later in life by changing the balance of type 1/type 2 immunity. We examined the relationship between immunisation with different vaccine types and later allergic disease development. METHODS: We obtained information regarding vaccinations and allergic diseases through questionnaires that were used in The Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS), which is a nationwide, multicentre, prospective birth cohort study that included 103,099 pregnant women and their children. We examined potential associations between the initial vaccination before 6 months of age and symptoms related to allergies at 12 months of age. RESULTS: Our statistical analyses included 56,277 children. Physician-diagnosed asthma was associated with receiving three (aOR 1.395, 95% CI 1.028-1.893) or four to five different inactivated vaccines (aOR 1.544, 95% CI 1.149-2.075), compared with children who received only one inactivated vaccine. Similar results were found for two questionnaire-based symptoms, i.e. wheeze (aOR 1.238, 95% CI 1.094-1.401; three vaccines vs. a single vaccine) and eczema (aOR 1.144, 95% CI 1.007-1.299; four or five vaccines vs. a single vaccine). CONCLUSIONS: Our results, which should be cautiously interpreted, suggest that the prevalence of asthma, wheeze and eczema among children at 12 months of age might be related to the amount of inactivated vaccine exposure before 6 months of age. Future work should assess if this association is due to cumulative adjuvant exposure. Despite this possible association, we strongly support the global vaccination strategy and recommend that immunisations continue. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN000030786 .


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Vacinas Virais/efeitos adversos , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Dermatite Atópica/etiologia , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/etiologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão , Masculino , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/efeitos adversos
9.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 28, 2020 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sick building syndrome (SBS) refers to the combination of symptoms experienced by occupants of specific building characteristics. This study investigated the associations of children's lifestyle behaviors, allergies, home, and school environment with SBS symptoms. METHODS: A total of 4408 elementary school children living in Sapporo City, Japan participated in this study. SBS was determined on parental answers to MM080 standardized school questionnaires on symptoms that were weekly experienced by these children, and if the symptom is attributed to their home or school environment. The Japanese version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire was used to assess wheeze, rhino-conjunctivitis, and eczema. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the associations between SBS symptoms and variables by controlling the potential confounders (gender, grade, school, and parental history of allergies). A stepwise backward elimination was conducted to assess independent variables related to SBS. RESULTS: Participants revealed mucosal (6.9%), skin (2.0%), and general (0.8%) symptoms. The presence of one or more allergy was associated with increased mucosal and skin symptoms. Children who skipped breakfast, displayed faddiness (like/dislike of food), had constipation, have insufficient sleep, did not feel refreshed after sleep, and lacked deep sleep showed significantly high odds ratios with SBS symptoms. The stepwise analysis showed faddiness for mucosal symptoms and not feeling refreshed after sleep for mucosal and skin symptoms, whereas constipation and lacking deep sleep for general symptoms were independent variables in increasing the symptoms. We found no significant relationship between SBS in children and schools. Considering children's home, old building, no ventilation, wall-to-wall carpet, and heavy nearby traffic were associated with elevated mucosal symptom, while living in a multifamily home increased general symptoms. Home dampness was an independent variable in increasing all SBS symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Allergies and lifestyle behaviors were associated with increased SBS in children, including skipping breakfast, displaying faddiness, constipation, insufficient sleep, not feeling refreshed after sleep, and the lack of deep sleep. Further, dampness at home was associated with increase in all SBS symptoms. Lifestyle (e.g., eating and sleeping habits) and home (i.e., dampness) improvements might alleviate SBS symptoms in children.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Síndrome do Edifício Doente/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Japão , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome do Edifício Doente/etiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233890, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergic conditions and respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are common causes of morbidity and mortality in childhood. The relationship between vitamin D status in pregnancy (mothers), early life (infants) and health outcomes such as allergies and RTIs in infancy is unclear. To date, studies have shown conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to gather and appraise existing evidence on the associations between serum vitamin D concentrations during pregnancy and at birth and the development of eczema, wheezing, and RTIs in infants. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, MEDLINE, ProQuest, Scopus, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and Academic Search Premier databases were searched systematically using specified search terms and keywords. STUDY SELECTION: Articles on the associations between serum vitamin D concentrations during pregnancy and at birth and eczema, wheezing, and RTIs among infants (1-year-old and younger) published up to 31 March 2019 were identified, screened and retrieved. RESULTS: From the initial 2678 articles screened, ten met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. There were mixed and conflicting results with regards to the relationship between maternal and cord blood vitamin D concentrations and the three health outcomes-eczema, wheezing and RTIs-in infants. CONCLUSION: Current findings revealed no robust and consistent associations between vitamin D status in early life and the risk of developing eczema, wheezing and RTIs in infants. PROSPERO registration no. CRD42018093039.


Assuntos
Eczema/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Sons Respiratórios , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Morbidade , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue
13.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 48(3): 281-289, mayo-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192031

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: In Africa, few studies of sensitisation profiles have been performed in children or adolescents and, in Angola, there are none. The objectives of the present study were to assess the sensitisation profile of Angolan schoolchildren and to determine the relationship between that pattern, sociodemographic factors, asthma and other allergic diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional, observational study in 5-14-year-old children, performed between September and November 2017, in the Province of Bengo, Angola. Five schools (15%) were randomly selected in the geographical area of the study: three from an urban area, and two from a rural area. Data were collected using the Portuguese versions of the ISAAC questionnaires for children and adolescents, regarding asthma, rhinitis and eczema. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed with a battery of 12 aeroallergens. Stools were assessed for the presence of helminths. Descriptive statistics were used, as well as univariate calculation of odds ratios. RESULTS: Sensitisation to aeroallergens was low (8%) and most sensitised children were asymptomatic. Most frequent sensitisations involved house dust mites, cockroach or fungi, and a high proportion of children (78.1%) were monosensitised. No relationship was detected between sensitisations and asthma, rhinitis or eczema. Place of residence, gender, age or helminthic infection did not affect the probability of having positive SPTs. CONCLUSIONS: The most frequent sensitisations in children from Bengo Province in Angola involve house dust mites, followed by cockroach and fungi. No relationship was found between atopic sensitisation and asthma or other allergic diseases


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Imunização/métodos , Alérgenos/imunologia , Asma/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Angola/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/imunologia , Razão de Chances , Testes Cutâneos , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia
14.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 48, 2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is a condition defined by the attribution of non-specific symptoms to electromagnetic fields (EMF) of anthropogenic origin. Despite its repercussions on the lives of its sufferers, and its potential to become a significant public health issue, it remains of a contested nature. Different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the origin of symptoms experienced by self-declared EHS persons, which this article aims to review. METHODS: As EHS is a multi-dimensional problem, and its explanatory hypotheses have far-reaching implications, a broad view was adopted, not restricted to EHS literature but encompassing all relevant bodies of research on related topics. This could only be achieved through a narrative approach. Two strategies were used to identify pertinent references. Concerning EHS, a complete bibliography was extracted from a 2018 report from the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety and updated with more recent studies. Concerning related topics, the appropriate databases were searched. Systematic reviews and expert reports were favored when available. FINDINGS: Three main explanatory hypotheses appear in the literature: (1) the electromagnetic hypothesis, attributing EHS to EMF exposure; (2) the cognitive hypothesis, assuming that EHS results from false beliefs in EMF harmfulness, promoting nocebo responses to perceived EMF exposure; (3) the attributive hypothesis, conceiving EHS as a coping strategy for pre-existing conditions. These hypotheses are successively assessed, considering both their strengths and limitations, by comparing their theoretical, experimental, and ecological value. CONCLUSION: No hypothesis proves totally satisfying. Avenues of research are suggested to help decide between them and reach a better understanding of EHS.


Assuntos
Campos Eletromagnéticos/efeitos adversos , Saúde Ambiental , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia
15.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(5): e16763, 2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internet search engines are increasingly being utilized as the first port of call for medical information by the public. The prevalence of allergies in developed countries has risen steadily over time. There exists significant variability in the quality of health-related information available on the web. Inaccurately diagnosed and mismanaged allergic disease has major downstream effects on patients, general practitioners, and regional allergy services. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to verify whether Ireland has a relatively high rate of web-based allergy-related searches, to establish the proportion of medically accurate web pages encountered by the public, and to compare current search results localized to Dublin, Ireland with urban centers elsewhere. METHODS: Google Trends was used to evaluate regional interest of allergy-related search terms over a 10-year period using terms "allergy," "allergy test," "food allergy," and "food intolerance." These terms were then inputted into Google search, localizing them to cities in Ireland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Output for each search was reviewed by two independent clinicians and deemed rational or nonevidence based, as per current best practice guidelines. Searches localized to Dublin were initially completed in 2015 and repeated in 2019 to assess for changes in the quality of search results over time. RESULTS: Ireland has a persistently high demand for web-based information relating to allergy and ranks first worldwide for "allergy test," second for "food allergy" and "food intolerance," and seventh for "allergy" over the specified 10-year timeframe. Results for each of the four subsearches in Dublin (2015) showed that over 60% of websites promoted nonevidence-based diagnostics. A marginal improvement in scientifically robust information was seen in 2019, but results for "allergy test" and "food intolerance" continued to promote alternative testing 57% (8/14) of the time. This strongly contrasted with results localized to Southampton and Rochester, where academic and hospital-affiliated web pages predominantly featured. Government-funded Department of Health websites did not feature in the top five results for Dublin searches "allergy testing," "food allergy," or "food intolerance" in either 2015 or 2019. CONCLUSIONS: The Irish public demonstrates a keen interest in seeking allergy-related information on the web. The proportion of evidence-based websites encountered by the Irish public is considerably lower than that encountered by patients in other urban centers. Factors contributing to this are the lack of a specialist register for allergy in Ireland, inadequate funding for allergy centers currently in operation, and insufficient promotion by the health service of their web-based health database, which contains useful patient-oriented information on allergy. Increased funding of clinical allergology services will more meaningfully impact the health of patients if there is a parallel investment by the health service in information and communication technology consultancy to amplify their presence on the web.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Internet/instrumentação , Ferramenta de Busca , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rising prevalence of allergies can substantially impact the skin, which is one of the largest targets for allergic and immunologic responses. OBJECTIVE: Here, we describe the results of an online survey assessing self-reported allergy prevalence in Americans, outline the populations who report allergies, and characterize the skin conditions associated with allergy. METHODS: An online survey was conducted in the USA of 2,008 adults as a representative sample of the general American population. RESULTS: 41.7% of American adults (mean age 44.7 ± 15.3 years old) reported having allergies. Reported allergies included respiratory allergies (45.2%), skin allergies (41.4) and food allergies (33.9%). 47.7% of those who reported allergies also reported experiencing associated skin reactions. In addition, those who reported allergies were 2 to 4.5 times more likely to report a cutaneous skin disease, 7 times more likely to report sensitive skin, and twice as likely to report experiencing skin reactions when using skincare products compared to those who did not report allergies. CONCLUSIONS: It is estimated that over 100 million American adults have allergies. These results will help raise awareness about the burden of allergies and the need to develop solutions to mitigate their impact on health.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Autorrelato , Adulto , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Environ Int ; 139: 105706, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371302

RESUMO

Phthalates are among the most ubiquitous environmental contaminants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Exposure to phthalates and related health effects have been extensively studied over the past four decades. An association between phthalate exposure and allergic diseases has been suggested, although the literature is far from conclusive. This article reviews and evaluates epidemiological (n = 43), animal (n = 49), and cell culture studies (n = 42), published until the end of 2019, on phthalates and allergic diseases, such as asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema. In contrast to earlier reviews, emphasis is placed on experimental studies that use concentrations with relevance for human exposure. Epidemiological studies provide support for associations between phthalate exposures and airway, nasal, ocular, and dermal allergic disease outcomes, although the reported significant associations tend to be weak and demonstrate inconsistencies for any given phthalate. Rodent studies support that phthalates may act as adjuvants at levels likely to be relevant for environmental exposures, inducing respiratory and inflammatory effects in the presence of an allergen. Cell culture studies demonstrate that phthalates may alter the functionality of innate and adaptive immune cells. However, due to limitations of the applied exposure methods and models in experimental studies, including the diversity of phthalates, exposure routes, and allergic diseases considered, the support provided to the epidemiological findings is fragmented. Nevertheless, the current evidence points in the direction of concern. Further research is warranted to identify the most critical windows of exposure, the importance of exposure pathways, interactions with social factors, and the effects of co-exposure to phthalates and other environmental contaminants.


Assuntos
Asma , Hipersensibilidade , Ácidos Ftálicos , Animais , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade
18.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 125(1): 84-89, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environmental chemicals, such as phthalates, phenols, and parabens, may affect children's immune development and contribute to the risk of atopic diseases and asthma. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the associations between prenatal and childhood phthalate exposure and atopic diseases in children at the age of 9 years. METHODS: This analysis is restricted to 145 mother-child pairs from the prospective Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Phthalate metabolite levels were assessed in the urine samples collected from mothers during the third trimester of pregnancy and from children at age of 2 and 9 years. For the appropriate recognition of children's health status, a questionnaire was administered to the mothers and completed with information from the medical record of each child. The clinical examination was performed by a pediatrician/allergist in the presence of the mother or a relative. RESULTS: A higher urine concentration of mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate increased the risk of food allergy in children at the age of 9 years (odds ratio [OR], 1.75; 95% CI, 1.19-2.57; P = .004) and decreased the risk of atopic dermatitis (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.27-0.87; P = .02). For mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate, an increased risk of atopic dermatitis was observed (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.18-3.05; P = .008). A higher urine concentration of mono-benzyl phthalate increased the risk of asthma in children (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.08-2.58; P = .02), but the risk of asthma decreased when the concentration of mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate was higher (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 10.43-0.97; P = .04). CONCLUSION: Our study has not provided clear evidence of the negative effect of phthalate exposure during pregnancy and within the 9 years after birth on allergic diseases in children.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Ácidos Ftálicos/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/urina , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Polônia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/urina , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Chemosphere ; 252: 126600, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234631

RESUMO

Findings are inconsistent in studies for impacts of outdoor air pollutants on airway health in childhood. In this paper, we collected data regarding airway and allergic symptoms in the past year before a survey in 13,335 preschoolers from a cross-sectional study. Daily averaged concentrations of ambient sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10) in the past year before the survey were collected in the kindergarten-located district. We investigated associations of 12-month average concentrations of these pollutants with childhood airway and allergic symptoms. In the two-level (district-child) logistic regression analyses, exposure to higher level of NO2 and of PM10 increased odds of wheeze symptoms (adjusted OR, 95%CI: 1.03, 1.01-1.05 for per 3.0 µg/m3 increase in NO2; 1.22, 1.09-1.39 for per 7.6 µg/m3 increase in PM10), wheeze with a cold (1.03, 1.01-1.06; 1.22, 1.08-1.39), dry cough during night (1.05, 1.03-1.08; 1.23, 1.09-1.40), rhinitis symptoms (1.11, 1.08-1.13; 1.32, 1.07-1.63), rhinitis on pet (1.11, 1.05-1.18; 1.37, 0.95-1.98) and pollen (1.12, 1.03-1.21; 1.23, 0.84-1.82) exposure, eczema symptoms (1.09, 1.05-1.12; 1.22, 0.98-1.52), and lack of sleep due to eczema (1.12, 1.07-1.18; 1.58, 1.25-1.98). Exposures to NO2 and PM10 were also significantly and positively associated with the accumulative score of airway symptoms. Similar positive associations were found of NO2 and of PM10 with the individual symptoms and symptom scores among preschoolers from different kindergarten-located district. These results indicate that ambient NO2 and PM10 likely are risk factors for airway and allergic symptoms in childhood in Shanghai, China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Eczema/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Fatores de Risco , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise
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