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1.
Wiad Lek ; 74(2): 321-326, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813495

RESUMO

Many researchers and clinicians have taken the value of hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) as an essential prognostic factor in subjects with chronic liver disorders. And HVPG alterations characterize a predictive value in subjects at the beginning of the disease (HVPG 6 - 10 mmHg) as well as in subjects in whom hemodynamically significant portal hypertension has developed (HVPG ≥ 10 mmHg). Our review aims to present the feasibility and applicability of HVPG in modern clinical practice in patients with liver cirrhosis, including invasive and non-invasive methods. HVPG measurement is a feasible method with a favorable safety profile. However, hemodynamically significant portal hypertension also might be determined using non-invasive options as elastography, magnetic resonance imaging, and indices derived from laboratory parameters, e.g., aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio, platelet count/spleen diameter ratio, or VITRO score. Hepatic vein catheterization with the evaluation of HVPG is the current gold standard for determining portal pressure; however, new non-invasive techniques are nowadays more frequently used.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas , Hipertensão Portal , Tomada de Decisões , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/patologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Hipertensão Portal/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Portal/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Pressão na Veia Porta
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(7): e24783, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607830

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: To evaluate the feasibility and potential value of 2D Parametric Parenchymal Blood Flow (2D-PPBF) for the assessment of perfusion changes following partial spleen embolization (PSE) in a retrospective observational study design.Overall, 12 PSE procedures in 12 patients were included in this study. The outcome of the study was the platelet response (PR), calculated as the percentage increase of platelet count (PLT), following PSE. To quantify perfusion changes using 2D-PPBF, the acquired digital subtraction angiography series were post-processed. A reference region-of-interest (ROI) was placed in the afferent splenic artery and a target ROI was positioned on the embolization territory of the spleen on digital subtraction angiography series pre- and post-embolization. The ratios of the target ROIs to the reference ROIs were calculated for the Wash-In-Rate (WIR), the Time-To-Peak (TTP) and the Area-Under-the-Curve (AUC). Comparisons between pre- and post-embolization data were made using Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r). Afterwards, the study population was divided by the median of the TTP before PSE to analyze its value for the prediction of PR following PSE.Following PSE, PLT increased significantly from 43,000 ±â€Š21,405 platelets/µL to 128,500 ±â€Š66,083 platelets/µL with a PR of 255 ±â€Š243% (P = .003). In the embolized splenic territory, the pre-/post-embolization 2D-PPBF parameter changed significantly: WIRpre-PSE 1.23 ±â€Š2.42/WIRpost-PSE 0.09 ±â€Š0.07; -64 ±â€Š46% (p = 0.04), TTPpre-PSE 4.41 ±â€Š0.99/TTPpost-PSE 5.67 ±â€Š1.52 (P = .041); +34 ±â€Š47% and AUCpost-PSE 0.81 ±â€Š0.85/AUCpost-PSE 0.14 ±â€Š0.08; -71 ±â€Š18% (P = .002). A significant correlation of a 2D-PPBF parameter with the PLT was found for TTPpre-PSE/PLTpre-PSE r = -0.66 (P = .01). Subgroup analysis showed a significantly increased PR for the group with TTPpre-PSE >4.44 compared to the group with TTPpre-PSE ≤4.44 (404 ±â€Š267% versus 107 ±â€Š76%; P = .04).2D-PPBF is an objective approach to analyze the perfusion reduction of embolized splenic tissue. TTP derived from 2D-PPBF has the potential to predict the extent of PR during PSE.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Hiperesplenismo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Portal/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Esplênica/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Angiografia Digital/métodos , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperesplenismo/etiologia , Hiperesplenismo/cirurgia , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Hipertensão Portal/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia Intervencionista , Adulto Jovem
3.
Acta Gastroenterol Belg ; 84(1): 95-99, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639700

RESUMO

Liver disease, cirrhosis and portal hypertension can be complicated by pulmonary vascular disease, which may affect prognosis and influence liver transplantation (LT) candidacy. Pulmonary vascular complications comprise hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) and portopulmonary hypertension (POPH). Although these two conditions develop on a same background and share a common trigger, pulmonary responses are distinct and occur at different anatomical sites of the pulmonary circulation. HPS affects 10-30% of patients referred for LT, and is characterized by gas exchange abnormalities due to pulmonary vasodilation and right-to-left shunting. POPH occurs in 5%, and is defined by pulmonary arterial hypertension due to increased pulmonary vascular resistance, which leads to hemodynamic failure. Even though HPS and POPH may have a substantial negative impact on survival, both entities are clinically underrecognized and frequently misdiagnosed. Without intervention, the 5-year survival rate is 23% in HPS and 14% in POPH. Their presence should be actively sought by organized screening in patients presenting with dyspnea and in all patients on the waitlist for LT, also because clinical symptoms are commonly non-specific or even absent. LT may lead to resolution, however, advanced stages of either HPS or POPH may jeopardize safe and successful LT. This implicates the need of proper identification of HPS and POPH cases, as well as the need to be able to successfully 'bridge' patients to LT by medical intervention. A review article on this topic has been published in this journal in 2007 (1). This updated review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis and management of these 2 liver-induced pulmonary vascular disorders and incorporates results from our recent work.


Assuntos
Síndrome Hepatopulmonar , Hipertensão Portal , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar , Síndrome Hepatopulmonar/diagnóstico , Síndrome Hepatopulmonar/terapia , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Hipertensão Portal/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Portal/terapia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/terapia , Cirrose Hepática
4.
Z Gastroenterol ; 59(1): 24-34, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429447

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the management of patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) insertion is well-established but common recommendations in the follow up management are inconsistent. Doppler sonography is commonly used for detection for TIPS dysfunction whilst data on the impact of elective invasive examinations are scarce. AIM: The aim of this retrospective analysis is to evaluate potential benefits of elective invasive examinations in the follow up management of patients after TIPS insertion METHODS: Data of all patients receiving TIPS at the university hospitals of Muenster and Bonn between 2013 and 2018 (n = 534) were collected. The impact of performance of elective invasive examinations at 12 months after TIPS insertion on the occurrence of liver related events (LREs) and frequency of TIPS revisions within 24 months after TIPS insertion was analyzed. RESULTS: No significant differences were found concerning occurrence of liver related events after 24 months depending on whether an elective invasive examination was performed. Occurrence of hepatic encephalopathy, relapse of initial indication for TIPS, as well as death or liver transplantation all did not differ. These findings were verified by a subgroup analysis including only patients who did not experience a LRE or TIPS revision within the first 12 months after TIPS procedure. CONCLUSION: The analyzed data suggest no evidence for a beneficial impact due to implementation of an elective invasive examination program after TIPS insertion. Invasive examinations should remain reserved to patients with suspected TIPS dysfunction.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/cirurgia , Hipertensão Portal/cirurgia , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática/efeitos adversos , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Seguimentos , Encefalopatia Hepática , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD011973, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Portal hypertension commonly accompanies advanced liver disease and often gives rise to life-threatening complications, including haemorrhage from oesophageal and gastrointestinal varices. Variceal haemorrhage commonly occurs in children with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis. Therefore, prevention is important. Band ligation, beta-blockers, and sclerotherapy have been proposed as alternatives for primary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal bleeding in children. However, primary prophylaxis is not the current standard of care in paediatric patients because it is unknown whether those treatments are of benefit or harm when used for primary prophylaxis in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES: To determine the benefits and harms of beta-blockers compared with placebo or no intervention for primary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal bleeding in children with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, LILACS, and Science Citation Index Expanded (April 2020). We screened the reference lists of the retrieved publications and manually searched the main paediatric gastroenterology and hepatology conference (NASPGHAN and ESPGHAN) abstract books from 2008 to December 2019. We searched clinicaltrials.gov, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and the World Health Organization (WHO) for ongoing clinical trials. We imposed no language or document type restrictions on our search. SELECTION CRITERIA: We planned to include randomised clinical trials, irrespective of blinding, language, or publication status to assess benefits and harms. We included observational studies, retrieved with the searches for randomised clinical trials, for a narrative report of harm. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We planned to summarise data from randomised clinical trials by standard Cochrane methodologies. We planned to asses risk of bias and use GRADE to assess the certainty of evidence. Our primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, serious adverse events and liver-related morbidity, and health-related quality of life. Our secondary outcomes were oesophageal variceal bleeding and adverse events not considered serious. We planned to use intention-to-treat principle. We planned to analyse data with RevMan Analysis. MAIN RESULTS: We found no randomised clinical trials that assessed beta-blockers compared with sham or no intervention for primary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal bleeding in children with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis. We found four observational studies that reported on harms. As a systematic search for observational studies was not planned, we only listed the reported harms in a table. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Randomised clinical trials assessing the benefits or harms of beta-blockers versus placebo or no intervention for primary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal bleeding in children with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis are lacking. Therefore, trials with adequate power and proper design, assessing the benefits and harms of beta-blockers versus placebo on patient-relevant clinical outcomes, such as mortality, quality of life, failure to control variceal bleeding, and adverse events are needed. Unless such trials are conducted and the results become published, we cannot make any conclusions regarding the benefits or harms of the two interventions.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos adversos , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/complicações , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Hepatopatias/complicações , Veia Porta , Trombose Venosa/complicações , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Criança , Doença Crônica , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Primária/métodos
6.
Arq Bras Cir Dig ; 33(3): e1525, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Portal hypertension (PH) can be measured indirectly through a hepatic vein pressure gradient greater than 5 mmHg. Cirrhosis is the leading cause for PH and can present as complications ascites, hepatic dysfunction, renal dysfunction, and esophagogastric varices, characterizing gastropathy. AIM: To evaluate the use of carvedilol as primary prophylaxis in the development of collateral circulation in rats submitted to the partial portal vein ligament (PPVL) model. METHOD: This is a combined qualitative and quantitative experimental study in which 32 Wistar rats were divided into four groups (8 animals in each): group I - cirrhosis + carvedilol (PPVL + C); group II - cirrhosis + vehicle (PPVL); group III - control + carvedilol (SO-sham-operated + C); group IV - control + vehicle (SO-sham-operated). After seven days of the surgical procedure (PPVL or sham), carvedilol (10 mg/kg) or vehicle (1 mL normal saline) were administered to the respective groups daily for seven days. RESULTS: The histological analysis showed no hepatic alteration in any group and a decrease in edema and vasodilatation in the PPVL + C group. The laboratory evaluation of liver function did not show a statistically significant change between the groups. CONCLUSION: Carvedilol was shown to have a positive effect on gastric varices without significant adverse effects.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Carvedilol/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Animais , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/complicações , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
8.
J Postgrad Med ; 66(4): 209-211, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037167

RESUMO

Cavernomatous transformation of the portal vein, seen in extrahepatic portal venous obstruction (EHPVO), can cause impingement or ischemic insult on bile ducts manifesting as "portal cavernoma cholangiopathy" (PCC). Bile duct wall calcification in portal biliopathy is a rare occurrence and has not been reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge. We report a 59-year-old male, a known case of EHPVO, who had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy, splenectomy, and splenorenal shunt in the past. The patient had now presented to us in view of recurrent episodes of cholangitis for which a bilioenteric bypass was planned. Intraoperatively, dilated and densely thickened bile ducts with multiple pericholedochal collaterals were noted. Incision of common hepatic duct and left hepatic duct showed completely calcified ductal wall with no visible healthy mucosa. Calcifications were removed partially from the bile duct walls near choledochotomy site. With the anticipation of futile benefit from bilioenteric bypass, Roux-en-Y HJ was abandoned. Hepaticoduodenostomy was done to prevent bile leak from choledochotomy site.


Assuntos
Ductos Biliares/cirurgia , Colangite/diagnóstico , Colestase/etiologia , Doenças do Ducto Colédoco/etiologia , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Icterícia/etiologia , Ductos Biliares/diagnóstico por imagem , Coledocostomia , Colestase/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Ducto Colédoco/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Veia Porta/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Vnitr Lek ; 66(4): 32-41, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972182

RESUMO

Liver cirrhosis is the most common reason of clinically significant portal hypertension in the western countries. Portal vein or hepatic veins thrombosis is less common. Variceal bleeding is the most severe life threatening complication of portal hypertension. Appropriate treatment includes initial general management, fluid replacement and hemosubstitution, antibiotic prophylaxis, vasoactive medication and endoscopic treatment. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is standard option in case of first line treatment failure. Dedicated esophageal metal stent or balloon tamponade could be used as a bridge to the TIPS or in case of TIPS contraindication. Non selective beta-blockers and endoscopic therapy are used in primary and secondary prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas , Hipertensão Portal , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/complicações , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/terapia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/complicações
10.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(704): 1548-1553, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880110

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal bleeding related to portal hypertension of cirrhosis is associated with a significant mortality risk (10-20 %). The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) reduces the hepatic venous pressure gradient. Several studies have evaluated early TIPS insertion (within 72h from diagnostic endoscopy) with the aim of improving outcomes in selected patients at high risk of failure to control bleeding and/or rebleeding. The majority reported an improvement of 6-week and 1-year survival rates and a decrease in failure to control bleeding and rebleeding. Here, we review the available data and discuss the limits of early TIPS in terms of patient identification and access to the procedure.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Gastrointestinal , Hipertensão Portal , Cirrose Hepática , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/complicações , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22051, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925738

RESUMO

Addressing pancreaticobiliary disorders concomitant with gastroesophageal varices remains challenging. The goal of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients with gastroesophageal varices.We retrospectively analyzed the data of consecutive patients with gastroesophageal varices who underwent ERCP.Two hundred seventy ERCP procedures were performed on 208 patients. The overall technical success rate was 98.5%, and no difference was found between cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients (98.7% vs 97.7%, P = .511); of these, endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage, endoscopic metal biliary endoprosthesis placement, endoscopic retrograde pancreatic drainage, and stone extraction were conducted in 173/270 (64.1%), 27/270 (10.0%), 26/270 (9.6%), and 116/270 (43.0%) cases, respectively. Endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage and stone extraction were more frequently performed in cirrhotic cases (67.7% versus 45.5%, P = .005; 46.5% versus 25.0%, P = .009, respectively), while the noncirrhotic group had significantly higher rates of endoscopic metal biliary endoprosthesis placement (31.8% versus 5.8%, P = .000) and endoscopic retrograde pancreatic drainage (18.2% versus 8.0%, P = .036) than the cirrhotic group. The overall rate of adverse events was 21.1%, including fever (6.7%), post-ERCP pancreatitis ( 3.0%), hyperamylasemia (6.3%), duodenal papilla bleeding (3.3%), cardiac mucosal laceration (1.1%), and perforation (0.4%). No differences in any of the adverse events were found between the 2 groups. Additionally, gastroesophageal variceal bleeding occurred in 1 patient with grade III varices 7 days after ERCP.ERCP may be effective and safe for patients with gastroesophageal varices, irrespective of the etiologies caused by liver cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica/efeitos adversos , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/cirurgia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233350, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) remains the most sensitive and specific marker for the differentiation of ascites due to portal hypertension from ascites due to other causes. SAAG has some limitations and may fail in selected conditions. Voltammetric analysis (VA) has been used for the detection of electroactive species of biological significance and has proven effective for detection infections in biological fluids. AIMS: In this study, we compared the accuracy of voltammetric analysis (VA) with that of SAAG to differentiate ascites due to portal hypertension from that having a different origin. METHODS: 80 ascites samples were obtained from patients undergoing paracentesis at the Campus Bio-Medico Hospital of Rome. VA was performed using the BIONOTE device. The ability of VA to discriminate ascitic fluid etiology and biochemical parameters was evaluated using Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), with ten-fold cross-validations. RESULTS: Mean age was 68.6 years (SD 12.5), 58% were male. Ascites was secondary to only portal hypertension in 72.5% of cases (58 subjects) and it was secondary to a baseline neoplastic disease in 27.5% of cases (22 subjects). Compared to SAAG≥1.1, e-tongue predicted ascites from portal hypertension with a better accuracy (92.5% Vs 87.5%); sensitivity (98.3% Vs 94.8%); specificity (77.3% Vs 68.2%); predictive values (PPV 91.9% Vs 88.7% and NPV 94.4% Vs 83.3%). VA correctly classified ascites etiology in 57/58 (98.2%) of cases with portal hypertension and in 17/22 (77.2%) of cases with malignancy. Instead, VA showed poor predictive capacities towards total white blood count and polymorphonuclear cell count. CONCLUSIONS: According to this proof of concept study, VA qualifies as a promising low-cost and easy method to discriminate between ascites secondary to portal hypertension and ascites due to malignancy.


Assuntos
Ascite/diagnóstico , Ascite/etiologia , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Hipertensão Portal/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albuminas/análise , Líquido Ascítico/química , Biomarcadores/análise , Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Técnicas de Química Analítica/estatística & dados numéricos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Albumina Sérica Humana/análise
13.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(10): 1624-1633, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453061

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) of ≥10 mm Hg predicts clinical decompensation (CD) in compensated cirrhosis. A proportion of cirrhotic patients at presentation have high HVPG (≥20 mm Hg) and are compensated. The natural history, spectrum of CD, and mortality in this group is largely unknown. METHODS: Consecutive compensated cirrhotic patients with HVPG ≥6 mm Hg (n = 741) were followed up for 3-6 months for the development of any CD. Patients were classified based on the baseline HVPG (6 to <12 mm Hg [low HVPG, Gr.A, n = 163], 12 to <20 mm Hg [intermediate HVPG, Gr.B, n = 437] and ≥20 mm Hg [high HVPG, Gr.C, n = 141]). We analyzed the predictors of first CD, HVPG response to carvedilol, and mortality in these groups. RESULTS: CD developed in 217 (29.3%) patients during a mean follow-up of 1.6 ± 0.4 years, and those who developed CD had higher baseline HVPG (17.02 ± 4.79 vs 14.28 ± 4.86; P < 0.001). First CD was seen earlier (1.3 ± 0.7 years vs 1.5 ± 0.6 years and 1.6 ± 0.5 years, P = 0.02) and more frequently (44.7% vs 11% and 31.1%, P < 0.01) in high HVPG groups compared with low and intermediate HVPG groups, with higher mortality rates. Patients in the high HVPG group compared with the low HVPG group more often had NASH-cirrhosis (35.5% vs 19.6%; P 0.001), higher liver stiffness values (45.06 ± 20.46 vs 20.09 ± 5.47 kPa, P < 0.001), and lower platelet counts (113.37 ± 72.57 vs 151.7 ± 87.30/cmm, P < 0.001). Patients with HVPG ≥12 mm Hg received carvedilol, and a repeat HVPG performed in a proportion after 9.3 ± 2.4 months showed response (≥20% reduction in HVPG or <12 mm Hg) in 31.6% patients (Gr. B, 44.9% > Gr. C, 22.2%, P < 0.05). Baseline HVPG (HVPG ≥12 to <20 mm Hg [Hazard ratio: 2.73] and HVPG ≥20 mm Hg [Hazard ratio: 4.48], P < 0.001) independently predicted CD. DISCUSSION: HVPG ≥20 mm Hg in patients with compensated cirrhosis independently predicts early and more frequent CD and poor outcomes. These patients should be labeled as "high-risk compensated cirrhosis," and early and effective interventions to reduce portal pressure should be initiated to improve long-term outcomes.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/epidemiologia , Veias Hepáticas , Hipertensão Portal/fisiopatologia , Icterícia/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Pressão Venosa , Adulto , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Cateterismo Periférico , Doença Hepática Terminal , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Feminino , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Icterícia/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
14.
Radiol Med ; 125(10): 1008-1011, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306200

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This manuscript reports on a preliminary experience concerning emborrhoid in patients affected by cirrhotic portal hypertension; furthermore, a novel customized technique of coils release, named "Spaghetti technique," is described. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five patients with chronic anemia due to internal hemorrhoidal bleeding and cirrhotic portal hypertension were treated. Clinics and hemoglobin values were evaluated to objectively assess clinical conditions up to 3 months follow-up. Embolizations were performed with fibered coils, oversized, released stretched and not packed. RESULTS: Technical success, intended as occlusion of all superior hemorrhoidal artery branches, was 100%. In two patients, inferior hemorrhoidal arteries were embolized too. No patients reported major or minor complications. At 3-month follow-up, clinical improvement was obtained in four of the five patients; hemoglobin values improved or remained stable in the whole sample. CONCLUSIONS: Based on this limited experience, emborrhoid seems to be safe and effective at 3-month follow-up to improve symptoms in patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension and chronic anemia due to hemorroidal bleeding; the stretched fashion to release oversized coils provides effective embolization.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Hemorragia/terapia , Hemorroidas/terapia , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Idoso , Anemia/etiologia , Anemia/terapia , Embolização Terapêutica/instrumentação , Feminino , Hemorragia/complicações , Hemorroidas/complicações , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Masculino , Artérias Mesentéricas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Transplant Proc ; 52(5): 1503-1506, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278579

RESUMO

Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is characterized by intrapulmonary microvasculature dilatation that causes intrapulmonary shunting and leads to a gas exchange abnormality in the presence of liver diseases, which is the most common cause of respiratory insufficiency in these patients. HPS doubles the risk of death, and liver transplantation (LT) is the only curative therapeutic option so it should be considered in patients with severe HPS, with excellent survival rates post-LT. However, pretransplant Pao2 <45 mm Hg has been associated with an increase in post-transplant morbidity and mortality, but it does not imply a contraindication for LT. The resolution of HPS usually occurs within 6 months post-LT, but it can take 1 year. Portopulmonary hypertension (PoPH) is defined as pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) that develops in the setting of portal hypertension with or without liver disease in the absence of other causes of PAH. The prevalence of PoPH is 5% to 10% among liver transplant (LT) candidates. The impact of LT on PoPH is unpredictable. Therefore, despite conferring a high morbidity and mortality, PoPH itself is not an indication for liver transplantation. It may be considered a contraindication for LT in severe cases.


Assuntos
Síndrome Hepatopulmonar/cirurgia , Hipertensão Portal/cirurgia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/cirurgia , Hepatopatias/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Feminino , Síndrome Hepatopulmonar/complicações , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Hipertensão Pulmonar/complicações , Hepatopatias/complicações , Masculino
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD011573, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Portal hypertension commonly accompanies advanced liver disease and often gives rise to life-threatening complications, including bleeding (haemorrhage) from oesophageal and gastrointestinal varices. Variceal bleeding commonly occurs in children with chronic liver disease or portal vein obstruction. Therefore, prevention is important. Primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding in adults is the established standard of care because of the results of numerous randomised clinical trials demonstrating the efficacy of non-selective beta-blockers or endoscopic variceal ligation in decreasing the incidence of variceal bleeding. In children, band ligation, beta-blockers, and sclerotherapy have been proposed as alternatives for primary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal bleeding. However, it is unknown whether those treatments are of benefit or harm when used for primary prophylaxis in children. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of sclerotherapy compared with sham or no intervention for primary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal bleeding in children with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase Elsevier, and two other registers in February 2019. We scrutinised the reference lists of the retrieved publications, and performed a manual search of the main paediatric gastroenterology and hepatology conference (NASPGHAN and ESPGHAN) abstracts from January 2008 to December 2018. We searched four registries for ongoing clinical trials. There were no language or document type restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised clinical trials irrespective of blinding, language, or publication status assessing sclerotherapy versus sham or no intervention for primary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal bleeding in children with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methodology to perform this systematic review. We used the intention-to-treat principle to analyse outcome data, and GRADE to assess the certainty of evidence per outcome. MAIN RESULTS: We found only one randomised clinical trial that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. The trial was at high risk of bias. The trial included 108 Brazilian children with median age of 4.3 years (range 11 months to 13 years). Fifty-six children were randomised to prophylactic sclerotherapy (ethanolamine oleate 2%) and 52 children to no intervention (control). Children were followed up for a median of 4.5 years. Eight children (six from the sclerotherapy group versus two from the control group) dropped out before the end of the trial. The follow-up was from 18 months to eight years. Mortality was 16% (9/56 children) in the sclerotherapy group versus 15% (8/52 children) in the control group (risk ration (RR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44 to 2.50; very low-certainty evidence). Upper gastrointestinal bleeding occurred in 21% (12/56) of the children in the sclerotherapy group versus 46% (24/52) in the control group (RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.83; very low-certainty evidence). There were more children with congestive hypertensive gastropathy in the sclerotherapy group than in the control group (14% (8/56) versus 6% (3/52); RR 2.48, 95% CI 0.69 to 8.84; very low-certainty evidence). The incidence of gastric varices was similar between the sclerotherapy group and the control group (11% (6/56) versus 10% (5/52); RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.36 to 3.43; very low-certainty evidence). The incidence of bleeding from gastric varices was higher in the sclerotherapy group than in the control group (4% (3/56) versus 0% (0/52); RR 6.51, 95% CI 0.34 to 123.06; very low-certainty evidence). The study did not assess health-related quality of life. Oesophageal variceal bleeding occurred in 5% (3/56) of the children in the sclerotherapy group versus 40% (21/52) of the children in the control group (RR 0.13, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.42; very low-certainty evidence). The most prevalent complications (defined as non-serious) were pain and fever after the procedure, which promptly resolved with analgesics. However, numerical data on the frequency of these adverse events and their occurrences in the two groups were lacking. No funding information was provided. We found no ongoing trials. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence, obtained from one randomised clinical trial at high risk of bias, is very uncertain on whether sclerotherapy has an influence on mortality and if it may decrease first upper gastrointestinal or oesophageal variceal bleeding in children. The evidence is very uncertain on whether sclerotherapy has an influence on congestive hypertensive gastropathy, incidence on gastric varices, and incidence of bleeding from gastric varices. Health-related quality of life was not measured. There were no serious events caused by sclerotherapy, and analysis of non-serious adverse events could not be performed due to lack of numerical data. The GRADE assessment of each outcome showed a very low-certainty evidence. The results of the trial need to be interpreted with caution. Larger randomised clinical trials, following the SPIRIT and CONSORT statements, assessing the benefits and harms of sclerotherapy compared with sham or no intervention for primary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal bleeding in children with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis are needed. The trials should include important clinical outcomes such as death, failure to control bleeding, and adverse events.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Terminal/complicações , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Escleroterapia/métodos , Trombose Venosa/complicações , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/complicações , Humanos , Ligadura/métodos , Veia Porta , Prevenção Primária , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
Am J Med Sci ; 359(4): 206-211, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) is a common clinical problem, and may be more prevalent among patients with cirrhosis, especially in the setting of portal hypertension and coagulopathy. However, there is extremely little data available on the subject of LGIB in patients with cirrhosis. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to better understand the etiology and outcomes of cirrhotic patients hospitalized with LGIB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 3,735 cirrhotic patients admitted to the Medical University of South Carolina between January 2011 and September 2018, and identified patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of hematochezia or bright red blood per rectum. RESULTS: Thirty patients with cirrhosis and LGIB were included in the cohort. The mean age was 56 ± 13 years, with 30% women. The mean model of end stage liver disease score was 22, and Child-Pugh (CP) scores were C: 41%, B: 33% and A: 26%. The mean Charlson Comorbidity Index was 5.6. Twenty-four (80%) patients had a clinical decompensating event (hepatic encephalopathy, ascites, esophageal varices); the mean hepatic venous pressure gradient was 14.1 mm Hg (n = 8). In 33% of patients, LGIB was considered significant bleeding that necessitated blood transfusion. The most common cause of LGIB was hemorrhoids (11 patients, 37%), followed by portal hypertensive enteropathy or colopathy (7 patients, 23%). Hemoglobin levels on admission were lower in patients with CP B/C cirrhosis than in those with CP A (P < 0.001). The length of stay was 9 ± 10 days, and 5 patients died (mortality, 17%). CONCLUSIONS: Despite being uncommon, LGIB in cirrhotic patients is associated with a high mortality rate.


Assuntos
Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/complicações , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , South Carolina
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