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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(1): e24081, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver cirrhosis is a common clinical chronic progressive disease. Due to the obstruction of blood flow after cirrhosis, it leads to long-term congestion of splenic sinus, hyperplasia of fibrous tissue and proliferation of splenic myeloid cells, resulting in hepatocirrhosis and splenomegaly. At present, western medicine still uses splenectomy and interventional therapy are the main treatment, but the adverse reactions are more and the curative effect is not good. Many clinical trials have proved that Traditional Chinese medicine has a great therapeutic effect on Hepatocirrhosis with splenomegaly, which can effectively delay the development of the disease and improve the survival rate of patients. This systematic review aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of hepatocirrhosis with splenomegaly. METHODS: The databases of Pubmed, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform (WANFANG Data), Weipu Information Chinese Periodical Service Platform (VIP), and China Biomedical Literature Service System (SinoMed) will be searched online to collect randomized controlled trials related to the treatment of hepatocirrhosis with splenomegaly with Traditional Chinese medicine The time is limited from the construction of the library to November 2020. We will use the criteria provided by Cochrane 5.1.0 for quality assessment and risk assessment of the included studies, and use the Revman 5.3 and Stata 13.0 software so as to systematically review the effectiveness of Traditional Chinese medicine for hepatocirrhosis with splenomegaly. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This systematic review will evaluate the efficacy and safety of Traditional Chinese medicine for hepatocirrhosis with splenomegaly. Because all data used in this systematic review and meta-analysis have been published, this review does not require ethical approval. In addition, all data will be analyzed anonymously during the review process. RESULTS: In this study, we will evaluate the efficacy of Traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of cirrhosis with splenomegaly. CONCLUSION: The conclusion of this study will be evidence to ensure the efficacy of Traditional Chinese medicine© in the treatment of cirrhosis with splenomegaly and provide guidance for its treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY2020110121.


Assuntos
Protocolos Clínicos , Hipertensão Portal/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/normas , Esplenomegalia/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose/complicações , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Metanálise como Assunto , Esplenomegalia/etiologia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Chirurgia (Bucur) ; 115(2): 138-139, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119487

RESUMO

In chronic liver disease, the incidence of cirrhosis is increasing. About 1 million deaths from cirrhosis are reported annually by WHO, occupying the 11th position in the hierarchy of pathologies that cause death (1). The prevalence of cirrhosis is often underestimated based on the fact that one third of the patients are asymptomatic (2). Regardless of whether it is elective or urgent extra-hepatic surgery, operative interventions in this range of patients are burdened by an increased risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality (3,4). This reality requires the evaluation of the benefit-risk balance for each patient with the surgical firm indication. A journal of the medical literature, presented over the period 1995-2018 (PubMed), noted that the most frequent extrahepatic interventions in the cirrhotic patient were addressed to the cholecyst and CBD (23%), parietal defects (hernias, events) in 17 %, gastric pathology (19%) and rectum-colon (19%).v Liver cirrhosis is frequently associated with abnormalities of coagulation mechanisms: thrombopenia and platelet dysfunctions, decreased coagulation factors but also proteins involved in fibrinolysis. Cardio-circulatory changes are all the more important as the cirrhotic pathology is more evolved, being expressed by hyperkinetic syndrome and systemic vasodilation with hyper-flow, tachycardia and low peripheral resistance (5). The "trigger" element of these anomalies is the portal hypertension and the porto-systemic shunts that involve vasodilating mediators but also the compensatory activation of the renin-angiotensin system (6). The perioperative anaesthetic strategy in the patients is integrated in a multidisciplinary effort of specific management.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Cirrose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/mortalidade , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Hipertensão Portal/fisiopatologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações
4.
Intern Med ; 59(17): 2089-2094, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879200

RESUMO

Objective The relationship between gut microbiota and portal hypertension remains unclear. We investigated the characteristics of the gut microbiota in portal hypertension patients with esophago-gastric varices and liver cirrhosis. Methods Thirty-six patients (12 patients with portal hypertension, 12 healthy controls, and 12 non-cirrhosis patients) were enrolled in this university hospital study. Intestinal bacteria and statistical analyses were performed up to the genus level using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism method targeting 16S ribosomal RNA genes, with diversified regions characterizing each bacterium. Results Levels of Lactobacillales were significantly higher (p=0.045) and those of Clostridium cluster IV significantly lower (p=0.014) in patients with portal hypertension than in other patients. This Clostridium cluster contains many butanoic acid-producing strains, including Ruminococcace and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Clostridium cluster IX levels were also significantly lower (p=0.045) in portal hypertension patients than in other patients. There are many strains of Clostridium that produce propionic acid, and the effects on the host and the function of these bacterial species in the human intestine remain unknown. Regarding the Bifidobacterium genus, which is supposed to decrease as a result of cirrhosis, no significant decrease was observed in this study. Conclusion In the present study, we provided information on the characteristics of the gut microbiota of portal hypertension patients with esophago-gastric varices due to liver cirrhosis. In the future, we aim to develop probiotic treatments following further analyses that include the species level, such as the intestinal flora analysis method and next-generation sequencers.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipertensão Portal/microbiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Bifidobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
5.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 58(10): 808-812, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993269

RESUMO

Esophagogastric variceal bleeding (EVB) is the most dangerous complication of cirrhotic portal hypertension.With the continuous emergence of research findings on EVB, multiple disciplinary team, including internal medicine department, surgery department, intervention therapy department, radiology department, has become a new mode for the prevention and treatment of EVB. This article first reviewed the classification of esophageal varices and gastric varices, and then reviewed the recent research findings of EVB from three aspects: primary prophylaxis, active variceal bleeding treatment, and secondary prophylaxis.The aim was to provide new ideas for the individualized prevention and treatment of EVB.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Hipertensão Portal , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/classificação , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/terapia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Hipertensão Portal/terapia
7.
Surgery ; 168(3): 434-439, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatoduodenectomy with synchronous resection of the portal vein/superior mesenteric vein confluence may result in the development of left-sided portal hypertension. Left-sided portal hypertension presents with splenomegaly and varices and may cause severe gastrointestinal bleeding. The aim of the study is to review the incidence, treatment, and preventive strategies of left-sided portal hypertension. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement to identify all studies published up to September 30, 2019 reporting data on patients with left-sided portal hypertension after pancreatoduodenectomy with venous resection. RESULTS: Eight articles including 829 patients were retrieved. Left-sided portal hypertension occurred in 7.7% of patients who had splenic vein preservation and 29.4% of those having splenic vein ligation. Fourteen cases of gastrointestinal bleeding owing to left-sided portal hypertension were reported at a mean interval of 28 months from pancreatoduodenectomy. Related mortality at 1 month was 7.1%. Treatment of left-sided portal hypertension consisted of splenectomy in 3 cases (21%) and colectomy in 1 (7%) case, whereas radiologic, endoscopic procedures or conservative treatments were effective in the other cases (71%). CONCLUSION: Left-sided portal hypertension represents a potentially severe complication of pancreatoduodenectomy with venous resection occurring at greater incidence when the splenic vein is ligated and not reimplanted. Left-sided portal hypertension-related gastrointestinal bleeding although rare can be managed depending on the situation by endoscopic, radiologic procedures or operative intervention with low related mortality.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Portal/epidemiologia , Veias Mesentéricas/cirurgia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/efeitos adversos , Veia Porta/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia , Colectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Tratamento Conservador/estatística & dados numéricos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Hipertensão Portal/terapia , Incidência , Ligadura/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Esplenectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Esplenomegalia/epidemiologia , Esplenomegalia/etiologia , Esplenomegalia/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Med Clin North Am ; 104(4): 647-662, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505258

RESUMO

Hospitalists often care for patients with liver disease, including those with acute liver injury and failure and patients with complications of decompensated cirrhosis. Acute liver failure is a true emergency, requiring intensive care and oftentimes transfer of the patient to a liver transplant center. Patients with decompensated cirrhosis have complications of portal hypertension, including variceal hemorrhage, ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and hepatic encephalopathy. These complications increase the risk of mortality among patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Comanagement by the hospitalist with gastroenterology/hepatology can optimize care, especially for patients being considered for liver transplant evaluation.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Falência Hepática Aguda/etiologia , Ascite/epidemiologia , Ascite/etiologia , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/epidemiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Falência Hepática Aguda/epidemiologia , Transplante de Fígado , Peritonite/epidemiologia , Peritonite/etiologia
11.
Surgery ; 168(2): 267-273, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ligation of the splenic vein during pancreaticoduodenectomy with synchronous resection of the spleno-mesenteric-portal venous confluence has been associated with the development of left portal hypertension despite preservation of the natural confluence with the inferior mesenteric vein. This study aimed to assess whether a left splenorenal venous shunt might mitigate clinical signs of left portal hypertension associated with splenic vein ligation. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the presence of left portal hypertension based on biologic and radiologic parameters in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy with synchronous resection of the spleno-mesentericoportal confluence between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2018. We compared several parameters between patients undergoing splenic vein ligation with preservation of the inferior mesenteric vein confluence and a splenorenal venous shunt: the early and late spleen volumes and spleen volume ratios, an early and late platelet count, the presence of thrombocytopenia, the presence of varices, and digestive bleeding in the long-term. RESULTS: There were 114 consecutive patients: 36 with splenic vein ligation and 78 with splenorenal venous shunt. All had a pancreaticogastrostomy. Patients with splenic vein ligation had a comparable baseline and early and late platelet counts. Although baseline splenic volumes were comparable between the 2 groups (242 ± 115 mL vs 261 ± 138 mL; P = .51), patients with splenic vein ligation showed a statistically significant greater splenic volume beyond the 6th postoperative months (334 ± 160 mL vs 241 ± 111 mL; P = .004), higher early and late spleen volume ratios (1.42 ± 0.67 vs 1.10 ± 0.3; P = .001 and 1.38 ± 0.38 vs 0.97 ± 0.4; P = .0001) than patients with splenorenal venous shunt. Splenic vein ligation was also associated with a higher rate of varices (81% vs 50%; P = .002) and more frequent varices with a caliber greater than 1 cm (57% vs 36%; P = .05) and more colonic varices (33% vs 12%; P = .01). Only 1 patient had long-term digestive bleeding (splenic vein ligation). CONCLUSION: The left splenorenal shunt decreases clinical signs of left portal hypertension associated with splenic vein ligation and inferior mesenteric vein confluence preservation.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Ligadura/efeitos adversos , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/efeitos adversos , Veia Esplênica/cirurgia , Derivação Esplenorrenal Cirúrgica , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Contagem de Plaquetas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esplenomegalia/etiologia , Varizes/etiologia
12.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 44(5): 617-625, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187043

RESUMO

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) has a heterogenous clinical presentation and can be challenging to diagnose. Distinct histologic changes have been linked with CVID in several organ systems, which can help identify the correct diagnosis. In this study we review a cohort of hepatic CVID biopsies, to better define the spectrum of histologic and biochemical alterations. We reviewed 26 liver biopsies from 24 patients with CVID, obtained at 4 institutions between 2010 and 2019. Histologic slides were examined, and pathologic, biochemical, and clinical features were recorded. A control cohort of 21 patients with nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) but lacking CVID was also examined. Liver function tests were frequently abnormal, especially alkaline phosphatase (median: 193 IU/L) and aspartate transaminase (median: 56 U/L), elevated in 23 and 17 of 25 biopsies, respectively. Fifteen patients had CVID involvement of other organs. Histologic features of primary biliary cholangitis were present in 2 patients, with florid duct lesions and prominent bile duct injury, in association with positive antimitochondrial antibodies. Among the other 24 biopsies, mild to moderate portal and lobular inflammation were present in 18 and 17 of 24 biopsies, respectively. Overall, 22 of 24 biopsies showed NRH-like changes. Plasma cell were absent. A distinct pattern of pericellular fibrosis was present in 23 of 26 biopsies overall. Involvement ranged from focal centrizonal fibrosis to bridging fibrosis and was accompanied by increased intrasinusoidal lymphocytes in 13 of 24 biopsies. Pericellular fibrosis was identified in 1 of 21 biopsies in the control cohort. Additional findings included granulomatous inflammation or nonhepatocellular foreign body-type multinucleate giant cells, identified in 4 biopsies. Three of 6 examined biopsies also demonstrated focal hepatocellular copper deposition. Hepatic disease in CVID is often associated with elevated alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase and is characterized histologically by the mild nonspecific portal and lobular hepatitis, absence of plasma cells, NRH-like changes, and less commonly, typical histologic features of primary biliary cholangitis. We have also identified a distinctive pattern of delicate pericellular fibrosis that is a helpful clue to the diagnosis of hepatic disease in CVID, especially when accompanied by NRH-like changes.


Assuntos
Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/complicações , Hepatite/etiologia , Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Fígado/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biópsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/diagnóstico , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/imunologia , Feminino , Hepatite/imunologia , Hepatite/patologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/imunologia , Hipertensão Portal/patologia , Fígado/imunologia , Cirrose Hepática/imunologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Plasmócitos/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Turquia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(1): 117-122, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166673

RESUMO

This study was conducted to compare the feasibility, safety and effectiveness of the combined-laparoscopic splenectomy and esophagogastric devascularization (C-LSED) with open splenectomy and esophagogastric devascularization surgery (OSED) in patients with portal hypertension due to liver cirrhosis. From February 2014 to June 2018, 68 patients with portal hypertension were diagnosed as having serious gastroesophageal varices and/or hypersplenism in our center. Thirty patients underwent C-LSED and 38 patients received OSED. Results and outcomes were compared retrospectively. No patients of C-LSED group required an intraoperative conversion to open surgery. Significantly shorter operating time, less blood loss, lower transfusion rates, shorter postoperative hospital stay, lower rates of complications were found in C-LSED group than in C-LSED group (P<0.05). No death and rebleeding were documented in both groups during the follow-up periods of one year. Postoperative endoscopy revealed that varices in the patients of both groups were alleviated significantly from severe to mild, and in a part of cases, the varices disappeared. The final results suggest that the C-LSED technique is superior to open procedure, due to slightly invasive, simplified operative procedure, significantly shorter operating time, less intraoperative bleeding and lower post-operative complication rates. And C-LSED offers comparable long-term effects to open surgery.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Portal/cirurgia , Laparoscopia/métodos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Esplenectomia/métodos , Adulto , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(4): 832-837, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067625

RESUMO

Hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (HSS) complicates portal hypertension, leading to life-threatening variceal bleeding. Variceal bleeding is associated with increased portal vein diameter (PVD). Beta-blockers prevent variceal bleeding. It is unclear whether beta-blockers such as propranolol can reduce PVD in HSS. We aimed to explore the effect of propranolol on PVD in HSS. A longitudinal study was conducted at the University Teaching Hospital, Zambia, as an extension of a clinical trial of rifaximin undertaken to test the hypothesis that rifaximin could reduce bacterial translocation in HSS. We randomized 85 adults to either rifaximin and standard care, or propranolol-based standard care only for 42 days. We then followed up all the patients on propranolol up to day 180. We used ultrasound to measure PVD at baseline and day 180. The primary outcome was reduction in PVD. Beta-blockade and splenic size reduction were secondary outcomes. Portal vein diameter reduced after 180 days of propranolol therapy from median 12 mm (interquartile range (IQR): 11-14) to median 10 mm (IQR: 9-13) (P < 0.001). The pulse rate reduced from baseline median 70 beats/minute (IQR: 66-80) to 65 beats/minute (IQR: 60-70) by day 180 (P = 0.006). Hemoglobin levels improved from baseline median 8 g/dL (IQR: 6-11) to 12 g/dL (10-14) (P < 0.001). Splenic size remained unchanged. Propranolol led to the reduction in PVD over 180 days. This suggests that ultrasound could be useful in monitoring response and compliance to beta-blockers, especially in resource-constraint areas where portal hypertension measurement facilities are unavailable.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatias/parasitologia , Propranolol/uso terapêutico , Esquistossomose/complicações , Adulto , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Veia Porta , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Rifaximina/uso terapêutico
15.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 5(1): 31-41, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statins have beneficial effects on intrahepatic circulation and decrease portal hypertension and rifaximin modulates the gut microbiome and might prevent bacterial translocation in patients with cirrhosis. Therefore, this drug combination might be of therapeutic benefit in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. However, there is concern regarding the safety of statins in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. We assessed the safety of two different doses of simvastatin, in combination with rifaximin, in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. METHODS: We did a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and moderate-to-severe liver failure from nine university hospitals in six European countries (Italy, France, Holland, Germany, the UK, and Spain). Patients older than 18 years with Child-Pugh class B or C disease were eligible. We randomly assigned patients (1:1:1) to receive either simvastatin 40 mg/day plus rifaximin 1200 mg/day, simvastatin 20 mg/day plus rifaximin 1200 mg/day, or placebo of both medications for 12 weeks. Randomisation was stratified according to Child-Pugh class (B vs C) and restricted using blocks of multiples of three. The primary endpoint was development of liver or muscle toxicity, as defined by changes in liver aminotransferases (aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT]), alkaline phosphastase, and creatine kinase. The study is registered with the European Union Clinical Trials Register, 2016-004499-23, and with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03150459. FINDINGS: The study recruitment period was between July 28, 2017, and Jan 2, 2018. Follow-up finished on March 12, 2018. 50 patients were randomly assigned to simvastatin 40 mg/day plus rifaximin 1200 mg/day (n=18), simvastatin 20 mg/day plus rifaximin 1200 mg/day (n=16), or placebo of both medications (n=16). Six patients (two from each group) were excluded. Therefore, the full analysis set included 44 patients (16 in the simvastatin 40 mg/day plus rifaximin 1200 mg/day group, 14 in the simvastatin 20 mg/day plus rifaximin mg/day group, and 14 in the placebo group). After a safety analyses when the first ten patients completed treatment, treatment was stopped prematurely in the simvastatin 40 mg/day plus rifaximin group due to recommendations by the data safety monitoring board. Patients in the simvastatin 40 mg/day plus rifaximin group showed a significant increase in AST and ALT compared with the placebo group (mean differences between the groups at the end of treatment for AST 130 IU/L [95% CI 54 to 205; p=0·0009] and for ALT 61 IU/L [22 to 100; p=0·0025]. We observed no significant differences at 12 weeks in AST and ALT between the simvastatin 20 mg/day plus rifaximin and placebo group (for AST -14 IU/L [-91 to 64; p=0·728] and for ALT -8 IU/L [-49 to 33; p=0·698]). We observed no significant differences in alkaline phosphatase between the the simvastatin 40 mg/day plus rifaximin or the simvastatin 20 mg/day plus rifaximin groups compared with placebo. Patients in the simvastatin 40 mg/day plus rifaximin group showed an increase in creatine kinase at the end of treatment compared with patients in the placebo group (1009 IU/L [208 to 1809]; p=0·014). We observed no significant changes in creatine kinase in the simvastatin 20 mg/day plus rifaximin group (4·2 IU/L [-804 to 813]; p=0·992). Three (19%) patients in the simvastatin 40 mg/day group developed liver and muscle toxicity consistent with rhabdomyolysis. The number of patients who stopped treatment because of adverse events was significantly higher in the simvastatin 40 mg/day plus rifaximin group (nine [56%] of 16 patients) compared with the other two groups (two [14%] of 14 for both groups; p=0·017). There were no serious unexpected adverse reactions reported during the study. INTERPRETATION: Treatment with simvastatin 40 mg/day plus rifaximin in patients with decompensated cirrhosis was associated with a significant increase in adverse events requiring treatment withdrawal, particularly rhabdomyolysis, compared with simvastatin 20 mg/day plus rifaximin. We recommend simvastatin 20 mg/day as the dose to be used in studies investigating the role of statins in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. FUNDING: Horizon 20/20 European programme.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Portal/prevenção & controle , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Rifaximina/administração & dosagem , Sinvastatina/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Seguimentos , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Hipertensão Portal/fisiopatologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Pressão na Veia Porta/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 13(1): 90-96, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292842

RESUMO

A 44-year-old woman with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was referred by a primary care doctor and admitted to our hospital because of worsening dyspnea on exertion and right atrial and ventricular enlargement. The patient was diagnosed with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) associated with portal hypertension induced by chronic HCV infection. This diagnosis was based on a cardiological examination and findings related to liver cirrhosis with portal hypertension. After the prescription of anti-PAH medicine and a slight improvement in her respiratory symptoms, 12-week direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment for HCV was started. Serum HCV RNA levels rapidly decreased and HCV elimination was confirmed 24 weeks after completing DAA treatment. Before confirmation of a sustained virological response at 24 weeks after completing DAA treatment, a remarkable improvement in her cardiac markers was found in a right heart catheter study. This study was performed 6 weeks after the end of DAA administration. Therefore, we considered that HCV infection was involved in the development of PAH and that elimination of HCV by interferon-free treatment was important for this patient.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Endotelina/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Ecocardiografia , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Feminino , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Pirimidinas , Sulfonamidas , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Tadalafila , Resultado do Tratamento , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia
17.
J Invest Surg ; 33(2): 118-122, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29856668

RESUMO

Purpose: Despite refinements in surgical techniques for liver resection, evaluation of hepatic reserve disparity remains one of the most common problems in liver surgery, especially for hepatic malignancies such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Portal venous pressure (PVP) is regarded one of the important factors in selecting treatment strategy, although its measurement can be invasive and complex. Methods: To establish a formula for calculating PVP preoperatively, intraoperative directly measured PVP was used in 177 patients with preoperative factors and liver function tests such as age, sex, virus status, platelet count, prothrombin time, albumin, total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Child-Pugh grade, liver damage defined by the Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan, indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min (ICG-R15), and the aspartate transaminase (AST)-platelet ratio index (APRI). Results: Although 90% of the patients were classified as Child-Pugh A, median direct PVP was 16.5 cm H2O (5.5-37.0) and the percentage of PVP greater than 20 cm H2O was 27.1%, reflecting portal hypertension due to liver damage. After multiple regression analysis, the formula PVP (cmH2O) = EXP[2.606 + 0.01 × (ICG-R15) + 0.015 × APRI] was established from the measured data. Conclusion: Considering its simplicity of use, we have adopted this formula for predicting PVP in determining treatment strategy for HCC and other hepatic malignancies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Hepatectomia/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão Portal/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/complicações , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/sangue , Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Hipertensão Portal/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Pressão na Veia Porta/fisiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Eur J Haematol ; 104(1): 15-25, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661175

RESUMO

Bleeding related to portal hypertension and coagulopathy is a common complication in patients with cirrhosis. Complications and management of bleeding is a significant source of healthcare cost and utilization, as well as morbidity and mortality. Due to the scarcity of evidence surrounding transfusion strategies and hemostatic interventions in patients with cirrhosis, there has been significant debate regarding the best practice. Emerging data suggest that evidence supporting transfusion of packed red blood cells to a hemoglobin threshold of 7-8 g/dL is strong. thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonists have shown promise in increasing platelet levels and reducing transfusions preprocedurally, although have not specifically been found to reduce bleeding risk. Data for viscoelastic testing (VET)-guided transfusions appear favorable for reducing blood transfusion requirements prior to minor procedures and during orthotopic liver transplantation. Hemostatic agents such as recombinant factor VIIa, prothrombin complex concentrates, and tranexamic acid have been examined but their role in cirrhotic patients is unclear. Other areas of growing interest include balanced ratio and whole blood transfusion. In the following manuscript, we summarize the most up to date evidence for threshold-guided, VET-guided, balanced-ratio, and whole blood transfusions as well as the use of hemostatic agents in cirrhotic patients to provide practice guidance to clinicians.


Assuntos
Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/uso terapêutico , Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Fator VIIa/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia , Hipertensão Portal , Cirrose Hepática , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/terapia , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/sangue , Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Hipertensão Portal/terapia , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Receptores de Trombopoetina/agonistas , Receptores de Trombopoetina/sangue , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico
19.
Ann Pharmacother ; 54(4): 322-330, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701773

RESUMO

Background: Data regarding safety of nonselective ß-blockers (NSBBs) in patients with end-stage cirrhosis are conflicting, making it difficult for practitioners to justify if benefits outweigh the risks. Objective: Evaluate the effect of NSBB use on mortality in patients with end-stage cirrhosis. Methods: We performed a dual-center retrospective study of patients who received octreotide for a variceal bleed. Patients were stratified into 2 groups based on whether or not a NSBB was prescribed at hospital discharge. The primary outcome was 24-month mortality. Multivariable logistic regression, with 24-month mortality as the dependent variable, was performed to identify independent risk factors for the primary outcome. Results: 255 patients met inclusion criteria; 24-month mortality was 32.8%. The NSBB and no-NSBB groups had similar mortality rates at 24 months (32.0% vs 38.5%, P = 0.51). Mortality at 3 months (11.6% vs 23.3%, P = 0.08) and 12 months (22.2% vs 30.0%, P = 0.36) were similar, and there were no differences in rate of variceal bleeding (22.7% vs 13.3%, P = 0.34) or cirrhosis-related cause of death (20.4% vs 23.3%, P = 0.81). In the multivariable model, age, model for end-stage liver disease with sodium and hepatocellular carcinoma were independent risk factors for 24-month mortality. NSBB therapy had no effect on 24-month mortality (adjusted odds ratio = 1.05; 95% CI = 0.32 to 3.40). Conclusion and Relevance: In patients with end-stage cirrhosis, use of NSBBs did not affect 24-month mortality. More research is needed to determine when, and if, NSBBs should be discontinued in end-stage cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/mortalidade , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/mortalidade , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol ; 41(1): 75-77, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714290

RESUMO

Ruptured esophageal varices can present as sudden death from gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The most common underlying pathology causing esophageal varices is cirrhosis leading to portal hypertension. However, not all esophageal varices arise from portal hypertension, and not all portal hypertensions are caused by cirrhosis. We present a rare case of ruptured esophageal varices casing death in an individual with metastatic tumor (high-grade) neuroendocrine tumor in the liver causing portal hypertension. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case report in the literature reporting a neuroendocrine tumor causing esophageal varices. This case report aims to document this rather rare entity, highlight another mechanism on how metastatic disease can result in sudden death, and give a brief review of literature on metastatic tumor in the liver causing esophageal varices.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/patologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/patologia , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Ruptura Espontânea/etiologia , Ruptura Espontânea/patologia
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