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1.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 82(7): 1-6, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338010

RESUMO

Pulmonary embolism remains a common and potentially deadly disease, despite advances in diagnostic imaging, treatment and prevention. Managing pulmonary embolism requires a multifactorial approach involving risk stratification, determining appropriate diagnostics and selecting individualised therapy. The first part of this article reviewed the pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic management and early outpatient management of pulmonary embolism. This second part summarises pulmonary embolism in the setting of pregnancy, COVID-19, recurrent disease and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/patologia , COVID-19/patologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/patologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Torácica , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/patologia
2.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 82(7): 1-16, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338014

RESUMO

Pulmonary embolism remains a common and potentially deadly disease, despite advances in diagnostic imaging, treatment and prevention. Managing pulmonary embolism requires a multifactorial approach involving risk stratification, determining appropriate diagnostics and selecting individualised therapy. This article reviews the pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic management and early outpatient management of pulmonary embolism. The second part summarises pulmonary embolism in the setting of pregnancy, COVID-19, recurrent disease and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/patologia , Biomarcadores , COVID-19/patologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/patologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/patologia
3.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(8): 2058-2066, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353467

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of pulmonary hypertension (PH) on percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) outcomes and 30-day all-cause readmissions by analyzing a national database. METHODS: We queried the 2014 National Readmissions Database to identify patients undergoing PCI using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. These patients were then subcategorized based on the coded presence or absence of PH and further analyzed to determine the impact of PH on clinical outcomes, health care use, and 30-day readmissions. RESULTS: Among 599,490 patients hospitalized for a PCI in 2014, 19,348 (3.2%) had concomitant PH. At baseline, these patients were older with a higher burden of comorbidities. Patients with PH had longer initial hospitalizations and higher 30-day readmission rates and mortality than their non-PH counterparts. This was largely driven by cardiac causes, most commonly heart failure (20.3% vs 9.0%, P<.001) and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Recurrent coronary events (17.5% vs 9.5%, P<.05) including ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction predominated in the non-PH group. CONCLUSION: Patients with PH undergoing PCI are a high-risk group in terms of mortality and 30-day readmission rates. Percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with PH is associated with higher rates of recurrent heart failure and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, rather than recurrent coronary events or ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. This perhaps indicates a predominance of demand ischemia and heart failure syndromes rather than overt atherothrombosis in the etiology of chest pain in these patients.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Readmissão do Paciente/tendências , Medição de Risco/métodos , Idoso , Comorbidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Período Pós-Operatório , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD012671, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonates born through meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) are at risk of developing meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Neonates who are non-vigorous due to intrapartum asphyxia are at higher risk of developing MAS. Clearance of meconium from the airways below the vocal cords by tracheal suction before initiating other steps of resuscitation may reduce the risk of development of MAS. However, conducting tracheal suction may not only be ineffective, it may also delay effective resuscitation, thus prolonging and worsening the hypoxic-ischaemic insult.  OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of tracheal suctioning at birth in preventing meconium aspiration syndrome and other complications among non-vigorous neonates born through meconium-stained amniotic fluid. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2020, Issue 11) in the Cochrane Library; Ovid MEDLINE(R) and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Daily and Versions(R) (1946 to 25 November 2020) for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials. We also searched clinical trials databases and the reference lists of retrieved articles for RCTs and quasi-randomised trials (up to November 2020). SELECTION CRITERIA: We included studies enrolling non-vigorous neonates born through MSAF, if the intervention being tested included tracheal suction at the time of birth with an intent to clear the trachea of meconium before regular breathing efforts began. Tracheal suction could be performed with an endotracheal tube or a wide-gauge suction catheter. Neonates in the control group should have been resuscitated at birth with no effort made to clear the trachea of meconium. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data, consulting with a third review author about any disagreements. We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures, including assessment of risk of bias for all studies. Our primary outcomes were: MAS; all-cause neonatal mortality; and incidence of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). Secondary outcomes included: need for mechanical ventilation; incidence of pulmonary air leaks; culture-positive sepsis; and persistent pulmonary hypertension. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included four studies (enrolling 581 neonates) in the review. All four studies were conducted in tertiary care hospitals in India. Three of the four studies included neonates born at and beyond term gestation, whereas one included neonates born at and beyond 34 weeks of gestation. Due to the nature of the intervention, it was not possible to blind the healthcare personnel conducting the intervention. Tracheal suction compared to no suction in non-vigorous neonates born through MSAF In non-vigorous infants, no differences were noted in the risks of MAS (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.25; RD 0.00, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.08; 4 studies, 581 neonates) or all-cause neonatal mortality (RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.76 to 2.02; RD 0.02, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.07; 4 studies, 575 neonates) with or without tracheal suctioning. No differences were reported in the risk of any severity HIE (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.63; 1 study, 175 neonates) or moderate to severe HIE (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.09; 1 study, 152 neonates) among non-vigorous neonates born through MSAF. We are also uncertain as to the effect of tracheal suction on other outcomes such as incidence of mechanical ventilation (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.44; RD 0.00, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.06; 4 studies, 581 neonates), pulmonary air leaks (RR 1.22, 95% CI 0.38 to 3.93; RD 0.00, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.03; 3 studies, 449 neonates), persistent pulmonary hypertension (RR 1.29, 95% CI 0.60 to 2.77; RD 0.02, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.06; 3 studies, 406 neonates) and culture-positive sepsis (RR 1.32, 95% CI 0.48 to 3.57; RD 0.01, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.05; 3 studies, 406 neonates). All reported outcomes were judged as providing very low certainty evidence. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We are uncertain about the effect of tracheal suction on the incidence of MAS and its complications among non-vigorous neonates born through MSAF. One study awaits classification and could not be included in the review. More research from well-conducted large trials is needed to conclusively answer the review question.


Assuntos
Líquido Amniótico , Síndrome de Aspiração de Mecônio/prevenção & controle , Sucção/métodos , Traqueia , Viés , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Causas de Morte , Intervalos de Confiança , Epinefrina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Incidência , Índia , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Intubação Intratraqueal/instrumentação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sucção/instrumentação
5.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 1873-1885, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34188464

RESUMO

Background: Disease heterogeneity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) often complicates the systematic study of disease, management of patients and clinical investigations. Objective: To describe combined pulmonary fibrosis emphysema (CPFE) phenotype in a rural Appalachian IPF cohort with the highest smoking rates in the United States. Methods: CPFE patients (n = 60) in a developed IPF cohort (n = 153) were characterized. Groups (CPFE vs IPF without emphysema) were categorized based on the predominant HRCT patterns of UIP (n = 109). Demographics, clinical variables, and treatment details were recorded. Kaplan-Meier survival and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed. Results: The prevalence of CPFE in our IPF cohort was 45% (n = 49). The CPFE group was younger (73.9 vs 78.2), had a more extensive smoking history (93.9% vs 53.3%) with greater mean smoking pack years (49.09 vs 15.39) and had lower percentage predicted DLCO on presentation (38.35 vs 51.09) compared to IPF without emphysema group. Both groups shared equivalent higher burden of comorbidities, including pulmonary hypertension (PH) (46.9% vs 33.3%). One-fifth of patients were prescribed antifibrotics and only a subset (5%) of patients underwent lung transplantation. There was a non-significant trend towards reduced survival in CPFE (p = 0.076). Smoking status and DLCO predicted CPFE in our cohort. Body mass index (BMI), PH, and pirfenidone use were significant predictors of mortality. Conclusion: CPFE was highly prevalent in our rural IPF cohort. In contrast to previous studies, CPFE group was older and had higher female (approx. 30%) occurrence. A greater exposure to cigarette smoke and reduced DLCO at diagnosis predicted CPFE. Lower BMI and PH predicted higher mortality whereas use of pirfenidone improved survival in our cohort. This study highlights a complex interaction of cigarette smoking, advanced fibrosis of UIP, PH and potential utility of antifibrotic agents in CPFE phenotype. Substantial burden of comorbidities, older age, and the limited utilization of advanced therapeutics in the cohort emphasize the challenges faced by rural Appalachian patients.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Enfisema , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Enfisema Pulmonar , Idoso , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Enfisema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5595614, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987440

RESUMO

Background and Aims: There are few studies on the prevalence and clinical characteristics of portopulmonary hypertension (POPH) in patients with portal hypertension. In addition, invasive right heart catheterization further limits the clinical diagnosis of POPH patients. Methods: From January 2018 to December 2019, 1004 patients with portal hypertension were treated in the Department of Hepatology, the First Hospital of Jilin University. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 188 patients with portal hypertension were finally included. We collected complete clinical data, laboratory examinations, and imaging examinations. Patients were divided into a POPH group and a non-POPH group based on echocardiographic results. We calculated the prevalence of POPH in patients with portal hypertension. The differences in clinical characteristics of the two groups of patients were compared. Results: The prevalence of POPH in patients with portal hypertension was 2.8%. Among the 188 patients with portal hypertension with fingertip oxygen saturation < 95% at rest, 28 patients had POPH (12 males and 16 females), with an average age of 63 ± 8, and 160 patients did not have POPH (110 males, 50 women), with an average age of 59 ± 11. The proportion of women in the POPH group (P < 0.01) and patients without liver cancer (P = 0.044) was high. Compared to patients without POPH, patients with POPH had lower hemoglobin (related to the severity of anemia, P < 0.01), higher creatinine (P < 0.05), and lower partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide (P < 0.05). Patients with POPH had a higher incidence of atrial enlargement, ventricular enlargement, mitral valve regurgitation, tricuspid regurgitation, pulmonary artery widening, pericardial effusion, and aortic regurgitation than those without POPH. The risk of POPH did not increase with the aggravation of the Child-Pugh classification. Conclusion: The prevalence of POPH in patients with portal hypertension is 2.8%. The proportion of women and nonliver cancer in POPH patients was higher than that in non-POPH patients. In addition, the POPH group had higher creatinine and lower hemoglobin, and echocardiography showed that POPH patients had more cardiac structural changes. In patients with portal hypertension, the risk in patients with POPH has nothing to do with the Child-Pugh classification and MELD score.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Hipertensão Portal/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/complicações , Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
9.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 196, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, most of the health care systems suspended their non-urgent activities. This included the cancellation of consultations for patients with rare diseases, such as severe pulmonary hypertension (PH), resulting in potential medication shortage and loss of follow-up. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate PH patient health status evolution, access to health care and mental health experience during the early phase of the pandemic. METHODS: We conducted an online patient survey, available in 16 languages, between 22/05/2020 and 28/06/2020. The survey included questions corresponding to demographic, COVID-19 and PH related information. RESULTS: 1073 patients (or relatives, 27%) from 52 countries all over the world participated in the survey. Seventy-seven percent (77%) of responders reported a diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension and 15% of chronic thromboembolic PH. The COVID-19 related events were few: only 1% of all responders reported a diagnosis of COVID-19. However, 8% of patients reported health deterioration possibly related to PH, and 4% hospitalization for PH. Besides, 11% of the patients reported difficulties to access their PH expert centre, and 3% interruption of treatment due to shortage of medication. Anxiety or depression was reported by 67% of the participants. CONCLUSION: Although COVID-19 incidence in PH patients was low, PH related problems occurred frequently as the pandemic progressed, including difficulties to have access to specialized care. The importance of primary health care was emphasized. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term consequences of COVID-related PH care disruption.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Ansiedade , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Am J Med Sci ; 361(6): 731-735, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between the presence of pleural and pericardial effusion in reference to hemodynamic parameters remains unclear in ambulatory patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent right catheterization (RHC) for the evaluation of pulmonary hypertension were enrolled. Point-of- care ultrasound was performed prior to the RHC to determine the presence of pleural effusion and pericardial effusion. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the association between presence of pericardial and pleural effusion with pulmonary hemodynamic variables. RESULTS: Twenty-five (78.1%) of 32 patients had evidence of PH by RHC. Mean pulmonary artery pressure of the population was 40.6 mmHg, and 68% (17/25) had WHO group I PH. Six (24.0%) of 25 PH patients had pleural effusions identified, of which 4 out of 6 (66.7%) had a pulmonary artery wedge pressure >15 mmHg. Eleven (44.0%) of the 25 PH patients were also found to have pericardial effusions, and most of those patients 10/11(90.9%) had an elevated right atrial pressure >10 mmHg. The presence of a pleural effusion was associated with a pulmonary artery wedge pressure >15 mmHg (p = 0.032) and the presence of a pericardial effusion was associated with a right atrial pressure >10 mmHg (p = 0.004). Detection of pleural effusion had a poor positive predictive value (67%) for the presence of pulmonary venous hypertension, whereas presence of a pericardial effusion was highly predictive (89%) of the presence of systemic venous hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic venous hypertension was associated with the presence of pericardial effusions, while pulmonary venous hypertension is associated with pleural effusion development in ambulatory patients with pulmonary hypertension.


Assuntos
Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Derrame Pericárdico/diagnóstico por imagem , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Derrame Pericárdico/epidemiologia , Derrame Pericárdico/fisiopatologia , Derrame Pleural/epidemiologia , Derrame Pleural/fisiopatologia , Testes Imediatos
12.
Neonatology ; 118(2): 147-154, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849011

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is the major pathophysiologic consequence of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). We aimed to evaluate the association between early CDH-associated PH (CDH-PH) and inpatient outcomes. METHODS: The CDH Study Group registry was queried for infants born 2015-2019 with echocardiograms before 48h of life. PH was categorized using echocardiographic findings: none, mild (right ventricular systolic pressure <2/3 systemic), moderate (between 2/3 systemic and systemic), or severe (supra-systemic). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Adjusted Poisson regression was used to assess the primary composite outcome of mortality or oxygen support at 30 days. RESULTS: Of 1,472 patients, 86.5% had CDH-PH: 13.9% mild (n = 193), 44.4% moderate (n = 631), and 33.2% severe (n = 468). On adjusted analysis, the primary outcome of mortality or oxygen support at 30 days occurred more frequently in infants with moderate (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.6) and severe CDH-PH (IRR 2.0, 95% CI, 1.3-2.9). Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) utilization was associated only with severe CDH-PH after adjustment (IRR 1.8, 95% CI, 1.0-3.3). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Early, postnatal CDH-PH is independently associated with increased risk for mortality or oxygen support at 30 days and utilization of ECLS. Early echocardiogram is a valuable prognostic tool for early, inpatient outcomes in neonates with CDH.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/complicações , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/terapia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pacientes Internados , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120(9): 1740-1748, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is complex, and the modality of treatment is surgery and targeted medication. Patients with CTEPH could have a poor prognosis if their diagnosis or treatment is delayed. The incidence of CTEPH and its clinical features are largely unknown in Taiwan, even among other Asian populations. In this study, we aimed to investigate the geodemographics of CTEPH in Taiwan and describe the practical management and treatment outcomes in patients with CTEPH. METHODS: This study retrospectively enrolled patients in the Taiwan cohort - Registry of CTEPH. The study was conducted over 2 years inclusive of follow-up. The enrolment criteria depended on the current global guideline. RESULTS: From January 2018 to March 2020, 107 CTEPH patients enrolled in the Taiwan registry. All patients received right heart catheterisation examinations. The overall median age was 61.4 ± 16.5 years, and the cohort was dominated by female patients (75/107). Risk factors included pulmonary embolism (81.3%), deep vein thrombosis (22.4%), and previous major surgery (20.6%). Twenty-one (19.6%) patients underwent pulmonary endarterectomy operation alone, and 38 (35.5%) patients underwent balloon pulmonary angioplasty alone. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first national cohort study that demonstrated the raw CTEPH incidence in Taiwan. It also showed the CTEPH incidence between male and female patients in the Asian population was different from the Caucasian population.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar , Embolia Pulmonar , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Endarterectomia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
14.
Int J Cardiol ; 334: 116-122, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies addressed the issue of risk stratification in patients with residual pulmonary hypertension (PH) after pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA). This study tested the potential added value of parameters that have not been included in existing risk models. METHODS: We evaluated 546 consecutive patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension who underwent PEA and were followed-up for a median period of 58 months. RESULTS: Among the 242 with residual PH, 27 died and had 127 a clinical worsening event. At univariable analysis, the parameters associated with poor survival were pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) ≥425 dyn·s·cm-5 (p ≤ 0.001), mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) ≥38 mmHg (p = 0.003) and pulmonary artery compliance (CPA) ≤1.8 ml/mmHg (p = 0.014). In the bivariable models including either PVR or mPAP as first parameter, the addition of CPA was not statistically significant. The parameters associated with poor clinical worsening were CPA ≤1.8 ml/mmHg (p < 0.001), PVR ≥425 dyn·s·cm-5 (p = 0.002), arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) ≤ 75 mmHg (p = 0.003), mPAP ≥38 mmHg (p = 0.008). In a multivariable analysis which included PVR ≥425 as the first parameter, the addition of both CPA ≤1.8 ml/mmHg and of PaO2 ≤ 75 mmHg significantly improved prognostic stratification (Harrel's C of the model = 0.64, p < 0.001). Noticeably, the lower tertile of the model's predictor index identified a subgroup of 91 patients who had an event rate numerically similar to that of patients without residual PH. CONCLUSIONS: Risk stratification in residual PH can be refined if CPA and PaO2 are considered in association with standard hemodynamic parameters.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar , Embolia Pulmonar , Doença Crônica , Endarterectomia/efeitos adversos , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/cirurgia , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Pulmonar/cirurgia , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/cirurgia , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Int J Cardiol ; 335: 105-110, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension (WSPH) in 2018 recommended new definitions of pulmonary hypertension (PH). We investigated the impact of the updated definition on prevalence of PH due to left heart disease (PH-LHD). METHODS: The data of right heart catheterizations in patients with suspected PH-LHD between January 2008 and July 2015 was retrospectively analyzed applying different definitions. The number of patients diagnosed by the updated WSPH hemodynamic criteria of a mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) > 20 mmHg was compared to the number of patients using mPAP ≥ 25 mmHg. The differentiation between patients with isolated post-capillary (Ipc) and combined post-capillary and pre-capillary (Cpc) PH was analyzed comparing the ESC/ERS guidelines, the recommendation of Cologne Consensus Conference (CCC) and WSPH. RESULTS: Of the 726 patients with a suspected PH, 58 patients met the diagnostic criteria of the ESC/ERS guidelines for PH-LHD with 32.8% Ipc-cases, 34.4% Cpc-PH-cases and 32.8% unclassifiable cases. Overall, 58 patients were diagnosed by the CCC criteria, with 34.5% classified as Cpc-PH and 65.5% as Icp-PH. Using the criteria of WSPH, the number of PH-LHD rose by one patient. According to the new definition, 64.4% of the patients were classified as Cpc-PH and had a significantly higher right to left atrial area (RA/LA) ratio than Ipc-PH patients. CONCLUSION: Applying the new recommendation, the number of diagnosed patients with PH-LHD increases marginally. There is, however, a relevant shift in the number of Cpc-PH cases. An elevated RA/LA ratio might help to identify patients for invasive diagnostic work-up.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 81(2): 180-190, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906136

RESUMO

The epidemiology of pulmonary hypertension (PH), especially pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), has not been evaluated in our country, therefore there is no reference parameter to establishing the representativeness of this information in the national order. This registry represents the first collaborative effort to provide a knowledge base of this disease, including 5 scientific societies that represent different specialties (pediatrics, rheumatology, pulmonology and cardiology) with data from 23 Argentine provinces. These efforts involved five societies of various adult (cardiology, rheumatology, and pulmonology) and pediatric (cardiology) specialties. Subjects were grouped (1-5) in accord with the 2013 Nice classification. A total of 627 patients (mean age, 50.8 ± 18 years; women, 69.2%) were recruited. Incident cases accounted for 53%. Functional class III-IV accounted for 69% at time of diagnosis and 33.4% at time of inclusion. Distributions in groups 1-5 were 63.6%, 15.9%, 8.3%, 9.7%, and 2.4%, respectively. Treatment consisted of diuretics (51.2%), mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (44.7%), digoxin (16.6%), anticoagulants (39.2%), renin-angiotensin antagonists (15.5%), beta blockers (15.6%), and calcium channel blockers (8%). Rates of specific therapies usage in PAH vs. non-PAH group were 80.5% vs. 40.8% (phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors: 71% vs. 38.6%; endothelin receptor antagonists: 54.4% vs. 14.5%; prostanoids: 14.3 vs. 3.1%; all p < 0.001). Three-year survival in PAH and non-PAH differed significantly (82.8% vs. 73.3%; p = 0.001). In the Argentine RECOPILAR registry, the clinic-epidemiologic profile was that of advanced-stage disease. Diagnostic workups and therapeutics interventions, including use of specific therapy for PAH, were consistent with current recommendations. Despite delays in diagnosis, survival was aligned with other contemporary registries.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar , Adulto , Idoso , Anticoagulantes , Argentina/epidemiologia , Criança , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Endotelina , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros
18.
Int J Cardiol ; 334: 110-115, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrhythmias are considered a prominent phenomenon in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Older studies reported that 8% to 35% of patients with PH had supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), associated with adverse outcomes. Still, these arrhythmias have only been investigated via short-term monitoring or limited electrocardiogram recordings. METHODS: Patients without previous arrhythmias diagnosed with PH at a tertiary facility received an insertable cardiac monitor as part of a prospective cohort study. Baseline assessments included World Health Organization functional class, six-minute walk test, echocardiography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients with PH were included. Twenty-four patients had pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and 10 had chronic thromboembolic PH (CTEPH). During 46 patient-years of continuous monitoring (median: 594 (range: 334-654) days per patient), 70 arrhythmia episodes were recorded in 13 patients (38%), with a median of two (range: 1-3) episodes and an arrhythmic burden median of 1.6 (range: 0.1-228) minutes per patient. SVTs were the most common arrhythmias, with 16% of episodes being atrial fibrillation and 84% being other types of SVTs. Additionally, three patients experienced bradycardias, including one resulting in syncope and subsequent pacemaker implantation. None of the patients had sustained ventricular arrhythmias. CONCLUSIONS: Arrhythmias were seen in 38% of contemporary patients with PH during long-term continuous monitoring; however, the vast majority of episodes were short and self-limiting. Modern therapy may alleviate the development of arrhythmias in stable patients with PH. This study is the first study to deploy long-term continuous monitoring in patients with PH.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Taquicardia Supraventricular , Bradicardia , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247398, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several forms of pulmonary hypertension (PH) disproportionately affect women. Animal and human studies suggest that estradiol exerts mixed effects on the pulmonary vasculature. Whether premature menopause represents a risk factor for PH is unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this cohort study, women in the UK Biobank aged 40-69 years who were postmenopausal and had complete data available on reproductive history were included. Premature menopause, defined as menopause occurring before age 40 years. Postmenopausal women without premature menopause served as the reference group. The primary outcome was incident PH, ascertained by appearance of a qualifying ICD code in the participant's UK Biobank study record. Of 136,715 postmenopausal women included, 5,201 (3.8%) had premature menopause. Participants were followed up for a median of 11.1 (interquartile range 10.5-11.8) years. The primary outcome occurred in 38 women (0.73%) with premature menopause and 409 (0.31%) without. After adjustment for age, race, ever-smoking, body-mass index, systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive medication use, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, cholesterol-lowering medication use, C-reactive protein, prevalent type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, heart failure, mitral regurgitation, aortic stenosis, venous thromboembolism, forced vital capacity (FVC), the forced expiratory volume in 1 second-to-FVC ratio, use of menopausal hormone therapy, and hysterectomy status, premature menopause was independently associated with PH (hazard ratio 2.13, 95% CI 1.31-3.23, P<0.001). In analyses of alternate menopausal age thresholds, risk of PH appeared to increase progressively with younger age at menopause (Ptrend <0.001), with 4.8-fold risk in women with menopause before age 30 years (95% CI 1.82-12.74, P = 0.002). Use of menopausal hormone therapy did not modify the association of premature menopause with PH. CONCLUSIONS: Premature menopause may represent an independent risk factor for PH in women. Further investigation of the role of sex hormones in PH is needed in animal and human studies to elucidate pathobiology and identify novel therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Menopausa Precoce/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Achados Incidentais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
20.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 39 Suppl 131(4): 43-51, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734968

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the primary reason for hospitalisations in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and impact of underlying interstitial lung disease (ILD) in a tertiary scleroderma centre. METHODS: A retrospective analysis on a subset of a scleroderma cohort from 2011-2019 was performed to assess causes for hospitalisations and mortality. A chart review was performed to extract demographics, primary reason for hospitalisation and inpatient mortality. Admissions were classified as SSc (if hospitalisation reason was related to primary organ dysfunction) and non-SSc related causes. RESULTS: The mean age of the cohort was 53.1 years, 78% were women, and the mean disease duration was 5.2 years. Among 484 patients, 182 (37.6%) were admitted for a total of 634 admissions. In 382 SSc-related admissions, pulmonary hypertension (12.0%) and gastrointestinal dysmotility (11.0%), were major causes of urgent admissions; management of digital vasculopathy (26.1%) was the major reason for elective admissions. In 252 non-SSc related admissions, infection (respiratory:11.5%, skin and soft tissue: 6.3%) was the major reason for urgent admissions, and elective surgery (21.4%) was the major reason for elective admissions. We found 65% of all patients had underlying ILD and a greater proportion of patients with ILD were hospitalised (122 patients). Overall inpatient mortality was 9.3% and the leading cause for mortality was progressive pulmonary hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Among a large cohort of SSc patients who are followed at a tertiary scleroderma centre, 37.6 % had hospital admissions, while worsening pulmonary hypertension, ILD, cardiac involvement and infectious complications were the major cause of mortality and morbidity.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais , Escleroderma Sistêmico , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/terapia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/epidemiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escleroderma Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Escleroderma Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/terapia
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