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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 315-324, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to utilize tilapia skin gelatin hydrolysate protein, which is normally discarded as industrial waste in the process of fish manufacture, we study the in vivo and in vitro angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of the peptide Leu-Ser-Gly-Tyr-Gly-Pro (LSGYGP). The aim was to provide a pharmacological basis of the development of minimal side effects of ACE inhibitors by comparative analysis with captopril in molecular docking. RESULTS: This peptide from protein-rich wastes showed excellent ACE inhibitory activity (IC50  = 2.577 µmol L-1 ) and exhibited a mixed noncompetitive inhibitory pattern with Lineweaver-Burk plots. Furthermore, LSGYGP and captopril groups both showed significant decreases in blood pressure after 6 h and maintained good digestive stability over 4 h. Molecular bond interactions differentiate competitive captopril upon hydrogen bond interactions and Zn(II) interaction. The C-terminal Pro generates three interactions (hydrogen bonds, hydrophilic interactions and Van der Waals interactions) in the peptide and effectively interacts with the S1 and S2 pockets of ACE. CONCLUSION: LSGYGP, with an IC50 value of 2.577 µmol L-1 , has an antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Through comparison with captopril, this study revealed that LSGYGP may be a potential food-derived ACE inhibitory peptide and could act as a functional food ingredient to prevent hypertension. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/química , Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Captopril/química , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Captopril/administração & dosagem , Ciclídeos , Digestão , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Humanos , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Cinética , Masculino , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(50): e18100, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852069

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pulse wave analysis is an emerging approach that analyzes parameters comprising strong predictors of cardiovascular (CV) events and all-cause mortality, especially in patients with high CV risk based on established risk factors. This study used the oscillometric method, provided by the Mobil-o-Graph (PWA-EMI GmbH, Stolberg, Germany) device, to compare data regarding the pulse wave analysis parameters in hypertensive nondiabetic and diabetic patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 276 individuals were examined in the academic hypertension outpatient care unit of the Federal University of the Triângulo, in Mineiro, Brazil, from January to December 2016. The pulse wave analysis was performed by oscillometry, and its parameters were acquired from all patients. RESULTS: Of the 276 patients, 99 were diabetic and 177 nondiabetic. The mean systolic and pulse central blood pressure were significantly higher in diabetic patients than in nondiabetic patients (P = .008 and.0003, respectively). The mean peripheral systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were also significantly higher in the diabetic group (P = .001 and P < .0001, respectively). The average pulse wave velocity (PWV, m/s) was 9.4 ±â€Š1.6 and 8.8 ±â€Š1.6 in the diabetic and nondiabetic groups, respectively (P = .003). CONCLUSION: The group of hypertensive diabetic patients had significantly higher central blood pressure, peripheral blood pressure, and PWV than the hypertensive nondiabetic patients. The patients with overlapping established CV risk factors presented values of the pulse wave analysis parameters consistent with higher central pressure and greater arterial stiffness.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Oscilometria/métodos , Análise de Onda de Pulso/métodos , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Sístole
3.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 15: 551-558, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853180

RESUMO

Introduction: As hypertension is a chronic cardiovascular disease that contributes to a high proportion of morbidity and mortality worldwide, favorable knowledge is crucial to control it. Objective: The objective of this study was thus to assess knowledge and associated factors of blood pressure control among hypertensive patients at the chronic illness follow-up Clinic of the University of Gondar comprehensive-specialized hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April 2018. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select participants. Bi-variable and multivariable logistic regressions were done to assess the relationship between dependent and independent variables. The adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval was used to determine the presence and strength of association between covariates and the outcome variable. Results: A total of 404 participants took part in the study with a response rate of 97.3%. The overall good knowledge about blood pressure control was 51.7% (95% CI=46.3-56.8). Females were 3.79 (AOR= 3.79, 95% CI: (1.55, 9.28)) more knowledgeable about blood pressure control than males. In the multivariable analysis, the odds of being knowledgeable were 2.80 (AOR= 2.80, 95% CI (1.44, 5.46)), 8.05 (AOR=8.05, 95% CI (2.93, 22.10)), and 7.53 (AOR=7.53, 95% CI (2.52, 22.49)) for can read and write, secondary, preparatory and above education, respectively, compared to cannot read and write. Occupation was significantly associated with the knowledge of plod pressure control. For example, merchants 7.66 (AOR=7.66, 95% CI (3.01, 19.47)), government employee 6.33 (AOR=6.33, 95% CI (1.90, 22.07)), and self-employed 4.58 (AOR=4.58, 95% CI (1.80, 11.70)) times more likely to be knowledgeable than farmers, respectively. Participants with family history of hypertension were 2.36 (AOR=2.36, 95% CI (1.42, 3.92)) times more knowledgeable than their counterparts. Conclusion: In this study, knowledge of blood pressure control was lower compared to the finding of a study done at Bishoftu hospital, Ethiopia. But it is higher than studies in other African countries. Both pharmacological and non-pharmacological awareness is vital for blood pressure control.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Hospitais Universitários , Hipertensão/terapia , Ambulatório Hospitalar , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
4.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 27: e20180574, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596365

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hypertension is one of the main causes of premature death in the world; also, it is associated with several bone alterations. Preclinical studies have demonstrated delayed alveolar bone healing in hypertensive rats. However, losartan has been favorable for consolidation of bone grafts and reduction in active periodontitis. Therefore, losartan is suggested to be effective in bone formation stages, as well as in the synthesis of matrix proteins and mineralization. To evaluate the alveolar bone dynamics in hypertensive rats treated with losartan by laser confocal microscopy and histological analysis. METHODOLOGY: Thirty-two rats, 16 spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and 16 Wistar albinus rats, treated or not with losartan (30 mg/kg/day) were used. Calcein fluorochrome at 21 days and alizarin red fluorochrome at 49 days were injected in rats (both 20 mg/kg). The animals were submitted to euthanasia 67 days after treatment, and then the right maxilla was removed for laser confocal microscopy analysis and the left maxilla for histological analysis. RESULTS: This study showed a greater calcium marking in normotensive animals treated with losartan in relation to the other groups. Laser confocal microscopy parameters showed higher values of bone volume formed, mineralized surface, active surface of mineralization and bone formation rate in normotensive animals treated with losartan. However, a smaller mineralized surface was observed in all hypertensive animals. CONCLUSION: Losartan can improve bone mineralization parameters under normal physiological conditions, but the same anabolic effect does not occur under hypertension.


Assuntos
Processo Alveolar/efeitos dos fármacos , Processo Alveolar/fisiopatologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Losartan/farmacologia , Processo Alveolar/patologia , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoresceínas/análise , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Wistar , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17287, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574848

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that mental health is associated with multiple factors such as physical activity, sedentary behavior, and physical function in older adults. The present study used latent profile analysis to identify classes of older adults based on their health profile among a representative sample of Korean older adults with hypertension. Differences in mental health between these classes were also examined.Seven hundred and sixty seven participants (mean age = 70.23, SD = 6.08; men 45.6%) were included in the analysis.There were 3 latent classes (class 1: a physically inactive lifestyle with low physical function and body perception; class 2: a physically moderate lifestyle with moderate physical function and low body perception; class 3: a physically active lifestyle with high physical function and body perception). According to class comparisons, older adults in class 3 had significantly lower anxiety/depression levels than classes 1 and 2. Older adults in class 3 had significantly lower stress levels than class 1.It is possible that among older adults, having a positive attitude of one's body shape may also be important for improving anxiety/depression along with having a physically active lifestyle and maintaining physical function.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Força da Mão , Hipertensão/psicologia , Postura Sentada , Caminhada , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Análise de Classes Latentes , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Percepção , República da Coreia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17297, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574853

RESUMO

As a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, presence of hypertension (HT) necessitates the awareness of asymptomatic organ damage (AOD). The aim of this study was to measure plasma micro RNA-21 (miR-21) and the parameters that reflect AOD such as carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), microalbuminuria (MAU) in hypertensive patients compared with healthy controls. In addition, the aim of this study was to evaluate plasma miR-21 levels in HT patients with AOD.This study was designed as a cross-sectional observational study. The study includes 2 groups: 32 patients with HT and 32 healthy controls. First, we compared these 2 groups. Then, to underline the relationship between plasma miR-21 and HT, hypertensive patients were divided into 2 groups: with AOD and without AOD.Sixteen patients with HT had AOD. MiR-21 levels significantly correlated with clinical systolic and diastolic blood pressure, MAU, C-reactive protein, and CIMT. CIMT, miR-21, and MAU levels were significantly higher in patients with AOD.Our study showed increased miR-21 levels in HT patients with AOD.


Assuntos
Albuminúria , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , MicroRNAs/sangue , Adulto , Albuminúria/diagnóstico , Albuminúria/etiologia , Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , MicroRNA Circulante/análise , Correlação de Dados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Turquia/epidemiologia
7.
Hypertension ; 74(5): 1181-1191, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564162

RESUMO

Brain renin angiotensin system within the paraventricular nucleus plays a critical role in balancing excitatory and inhibitory inputs to modulate sympathetic output and blood pressure regulation. We previously identified ACE2 and ADAM17 as a compensatory enzyme and a sheddase, respectively, involved in brain renin angiotensin system regulation. Here, we investigated the opposing contribution of ACE2 and ADAM17 to hypothalamic presympathetic activity and ultimately neurogenic hypertension. New mouse models were generated where ACE2 and ADAM17 were selectively knocked down from all neurons (AC-N) or Sim1 neurons (SAT), respectively. Neuronal ACE2 deletion revealed a reduction of inhibitory inputs to AC-N presympathetic neurons relevant to blood pressure regulation. Primary neuron cultures confirmed ACE2 expression on GABAergic neurons synapsing onto excitatory neurons within the hypothalamus but not on glutamatergic neurons. ADAM17 expression was shown to colocalize with angiotensin-II type 1 receptors on Sim1 neurons, and the pressor relevance of this neuronal population was demonstrated by photoactivation. Selective knockdown of ADAM17 was associated with a reduction of FosB gene expression, increased vagal tone, and prevented the acute pressor response to centrally administered angiotensin-II. Chronically, SAT mice exhibited a blunted blood pressure elevation and preserved ACE2 activity during development of salt-sensitive hypertension. Bicuculline injection in those models confirmed the supporting role of ACE2 on GABAergic tone to the paraventricular nucleus. Together, our study demonstrates the contrasting impact of ACE2 and ADAM17 on neuronal excitability of presympathetic neurons within the paraventricular nucleus and the consequences of this mutual regulation in the context of neurogenic hypertension.


Assuntos
Proteína ADAM17/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/genética , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios GABAérgicos/metabolismo , Neurônios GABAérgicos/fisiologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Optogenética/métodos , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/patologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Hypertension ; 74(5): 1152-1159, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564164

RESUMO

Microarray comparison of the transcriptomes of human adrenal zona glomerulosa (ZG) and zona fasciculata found several ZG-specific genes that negatively regulate aldosterone secretion. The third and most significantly upregulated ZG-gene (19.9-fold compared with zona fasciculata, P=6.58×10-24) was ANO4, a putative Ca2+-activated chloride channel. We have investigated the role of ANO4 in human adrenal, and whether it functions like the prototype anoctamin, ANO1. We evaluated ANO4 mRNA and protein expression in human adrenal by qPCR and immunohistochemistry, compared the effects of ANO4 and ANO1 overexpression on baseline and stimulated aldosterone secretion and cell proliferation in H295R cells, and analyzed ANO4 activity as a Ca2+-activated chloride channel in comparison with other anoctamins by a fluorescence-based functional assay. The expression of ANO4 in ZG was confirmed by qPCR as 23.21-fold upregulated compared with zona fasciculata (n=18; P=4.93×10-7). Immunohistochemistry found cytoplasmic, ZG-selective expression of ANO4 (anoctamin 4) protein. ANO4 overexpression in H295R cells attenuated calcium-mediated aldosterone secretion and cell proliferation in comparison to controls. The latter effects were in a different direction to those of ANO1. The functional assay showed that, in contrast to ANO1, ANO4 expression results in low levels of calcium-dependent anion transport. In conclusion, ANO4 is one of the most highly expressed genes in ZG. It attenuates stimulated aldosterone secretion and cell proliferation. Although belonging to a family of Ca2+-activated chloride channels, it does not generate significant plasma membrane chloride channel activity.


Assuntos
Aldosterona/biossíntese , Anoctaminas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hiperaldosteronismo/genética , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Córtex Suprarrenal/citologia , Córtex Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Córtex Suprarrenal/patologia , Análise de Variância , Comunicação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/patologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos , Transcriptoma/genética , Regulação para Cima , Zona Fasciculada/metabolismo , Zona Fasciculada/patologia , Zona Glomerulosa/metabolismo , Zona Glomerulosa/patologia
9.
Pol Merkur Lekarski ; 47(279): 95-98, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557137

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and arterial hypertension (AH) is closely related to oxidative stress, which is characterized by an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antioxidant defense. AIM: The aim of the study was to assess the parameters of free-radical oxidation and to establish their correlation to spirogram findings in patients with COPD without comorbidity and in patients with COPD and AH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Detection of intracellular ROS levels was performed by EPICS XL cytometer (Beckman Coulter, USA) with DCFH-DA and DHE. Serum levels of 8-isoprostane were assayed with ELISA, Cayman Chemicals (USA). RESULTS: Intracellular ROS levels suggest a probable increase in production of O2•- in patients with COPD and in patients with COPD+AH vs control. The direction of changes in production of H2O2 in the assessed patients was also identical. Serum levels of 8-isoprostane were found to be significantly increased in patients with COPD and in patients with COPD+AH. High levels of H2O2, O2•- and 8-isoprostane were significantly associated with low values of spirometry parameters in patients of both test groups, which suggested bronchial obstruction. In this respect, oxidative stress parameters were significantly negatively correlated with the values characteristic of impaired patency of largeand medium-sized bronchi. CONCLUSIONS: Oxidative stress is playing an important role in the mechanisms of COPD/AH comorbidity, since intracellular ROS levels were found to increase, leading to destruction of cell membrane. In the meantime, the degree of oxidative stress correlates with the severity of bronchial obstruction.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Estresse Oxidativo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Oxirredução , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia
10.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(12): 756-761, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476782

RESUMO

We studied the effects of supramaximal interval exercise (SIE) with or without antihypertensive medication (AHM) on 21-hr blood pressure (BP) response. Twelve hypertensive patients chronically medicated with AHM, underwent three trials in a randomized order: a) control trial without exercise and substituting their AHM with a placebo (PLAC); b) placebo medicine and a morning bout of SIE (PLAC+SIE), and c) combining AHM and exercise (AHM+SIE). Acute and ambulatory blood pressure responses were measured for 21-hr after treatment. 20 min after treatment, systolic blood pressure (SBP) readings were reduced, similar to readings after PLAC+SIE (-9.7±6.0 mmHg, P<0.001) and AHM+SIE (-10.4±7.9 mmHg, P=0.001). 21 h after treatment, SBP remained reduced after PLAC+SIE (125±12 mmHg, P=0.022) and AHM+SIE (122±12 mmHg, P=0.013) compared to PLAC (132±16 mmHg). The BP reduction in PLAC+SIE faded out at 4 a.m., while in AHM+SIE it continued overnight. At night, BP reduction was larger in AHM+SIE than PLAC+SIE (-5.6±4.0 mmHg, P=0.006). Our data shows that a bout of supramaximal aerobic interval exercise in combination with ARB medication in the morning elicits a sustained blood pressure reduction lasting at least 21-h. Thus, the combination of exercise and angiotensin receptor blocker medication seems superior to exercise alone for acutely decreasing blood pressure.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipotensão Pós-Exercício/fisiopatologia , Actigrafia/métodos , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Postura/fisiologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
11.
Hypertension ; 74(4): 1041-1051, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476904

RESUMO

Transient hypertension is a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD), but the effects of this interaction on brain vasculature are understudied. Addressing vascular pathology is a promising avenue to potentiate the efficacy of treatments for AD. We used arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging to longitudinally assess brain vascular function and immunohistopathology to examine cerebrovascular remodeling and amyloid load. Hypertension was induced for 1 month by administration of l-NG-nitroarginine-methyl-ester in TgF344-AD rats at the prodromal stage. Following hypertension, nontransgenic rats showed transient cerebrovascular changes, whereas TgF344-AD animals exhibited sustained alterations in cerebrovascular function. Human umbilical cord perivascular cells in combination with scyllo-inositol, an inhibitor of Aß oligomerization, resulted in normalization of hippocampal vascular function and remodeling, in contrast to either treatment alone. Prodromal stage hypertension exacerbates latter AD pathology, and the combination of human umbilical cord perivascular cells with amyloid clearance promotes cerebrovascular functional recovery.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/terapia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Ratos , Marcadores de Spin
12.
Hypertension ; 74(4): 726-732, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476906

RESUMO

Hypertension is a major determinant of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and is highly prevalent in the general population. While the relationship between sleep apnea and increased blood pressure has been well documented, less recognized is emerging evidence linking sleep-related movement disorders such as restless legs syndrome/periodic limb movements of sleep and sleep-related bruxism with blood pressure (BP) dysregulation and hypertension. There is also recent literature linking narcolepsy-cataplexy with elevated BP and altered pressor responses, and there are data suggesting abnormal BP control in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. It is thought that neural circulatory mechanisms, sympathetic activation in particular, comprise the predominant mediator underlying elevated BP in these neurological sleep disorders. There is very limited evidence that treating these sleep disorders may be beneficial in lowering BP primarily because this question has received very little attention. In this review, we discuss the potential pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying elevated BP in restless legs syndrome/periodic limb movements of sleep, sleep-related bruxism, narcolepsy-cataplexy, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. We also examine the relationship between these sleep disorders and elevated BP and the impact of treatment of these conditions on BP control. Last, we discuss gaps in the literature evaluating the associations between these sleep disorders and elevated BP and identify areas for further research.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Narcolepsia/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Comportamento do Sono REM/fisiopatologia , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Narcolepsia/complicações , Transtorno do Comportamento do Sono REM/complicações , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/complicações
13.
Hypertension ; 74(4): 826-832, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476911

RESUMO

We aimed to estimate the effects of a lifelong exposure to high systolic blood pressure (SBP) on left ventricular (LV) structure and function using Mendelian randomization. A total of 5596 participants of the UK Biobank were included for whom cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging and genetic data were available. Major exclusion criteria included nonwhite ethnicity, major cardiovascular disease, and body mass index >30 or <18.5 kg/m2. A genetic risk score to estimate genetically predicted SBP (gSBP) was constructed based on 107 previously established genetic variants. Manual cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging postprocessing analyses were performed in 300 individuals at the extremes of gSBP (150 highest and lowest). Multivariable linear regression analyses of imaging biomarkers were performed using gSBP as continuous independent variable. All analyses except myocardial strain were validated using previously derived imaging parameters in 2530 subjects. The mean (SD) age of the study population was 62 (7) years, and 52% of subjects were female. Corrected for age, sex, and body surface area, each 10 mm Hg increase in gSBP was significantly (P<0.0056) associated with 4.01 g (SE, 1.28; P=0.002) increase in LV mass and with 2.80% (SE, 0.97; P=0.004) increase in LV global radial strain. In the validation cohort, after correction for age, sex, and body surface area, each 10 mm Hg increase in gSBP was associated with 5.27 g (SE, 1.50; P<0.001) increase in LV mass. Our study provides a novel line of evidence for a causal relationship between SBP and increased LV mass and with increased LV global radial strain.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Coração/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10313-10320, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502448

RESUMO

A peptide fraction with molecular masses below 3 kDa (PSH-3 kDa) from a peach seed hydrolysate demonstrated high angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity (concentration to inhibit 50% ACE (IC50) = 16.4 µg/mL) in our previous work. This work proposes a further study of this highly active fraction. RP-HPLC enabled two fractions (F3 and F4) with high inhibitory activity (IC50 = 2.0 ± 0.5 and 1.2 ± 0.2 µg/mL, respectively) to be isolated. Peptide analysis by LC-Q-TOF-MS/MS using reverse-phase and hydrophilic interaction chromatography enabled 33 peptides within both fractions to be identified. Among them, peptide isoleucine-tyrosine-serine-proline-histidine (IYSPH) showed the highest capacity. The lack of cytotoxicity of peptides was demonstrated in three different cell lines (HeLa, HT-29, and HK-2). Oral administration of PSH-3 kDa fraction or peptide IYSPH caused a significant systolic blood pressure reduction (-30 mmHg) on spontaneously hypertensive rats after 3-6 h treatment.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/química , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Prunus persica/química , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/isolamento & purificação , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipertensão/enzimologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Sementes/química
15.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(662): 1608-1613, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508912

RESUMO

After numerous years of research and development of effective anti-hypertensive drugs, it is regrettable to note that less than half of hypertensive patients reach the blood pressure targets that are known to reduce their cardiovascular risks and mortality. Poor adherence to treatment is one of the main causes of insufficient blood pressure control. Furthermore, non-adherence to anti-hypertensive therapy correlates with higher risks of cardiovascular events. The objective of health professionals is to identify non adherent patients and to offer them appropriate solutions to support their treatment self-management. Innovative approaches like using electronic pillboxes combined with an interprofessional medication adherence support program should allow a more appropriate and effective care.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia
16.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(662): 1620-1624, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508913

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and arterial hypertension (HT) are two frequent, often concomitant diseases, who are both associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. In the last years, an association between these two entities has been established. The purpose of this article is to review the current knowledge about the link between HT and OSAS, the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the common genesis of the two conditions and the characteristics suggesting an underlying OSAS in a hypertensive subject. We will also update readers about the current screening of OSAS in which primary care physicians are directly involved, and review the pros and cons of different treatment options for HT in OSAS.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/terapia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia
17.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(662): 1625-1628, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508914

RESUMO

The salt sensitivity of the blood pressure (SSBP) is defined as a rise or fall in blood pressure induced by a change in sodium intake. There is an interindividual variation and no strong diagnostic criteria exist to date. The SSBP may lead to underestimation of the beneficial effect of sodium restriction in some patients in meta-analyzes. High sodium intake in salt sensitive patients results in an increase in the prevalence of hypertension and target organ damage. The etiology seems to be a failure of one or more natriuretic mechanisms. Some environmental, genetic and epidemiological factors increase its susceptibility. Per se, SSBP cannot be treated, but its identification may help in preventing hypertension and adapt the treatment in some populations.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica Individual , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico
19.
Life Sci ; 235: 116862, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513814

RESUMO

Dysregulation of miR-29 has been revealed in multiple diseases, but its role in the development of hypertension and vascular endothelial dysfunction has not been defined. Here, we found that, compared with the wild-type (WT) Wistar rats, miR-29b was robustly upregulated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), while CTRP6 was distinctly downregulated. There were two miRNA-responding-elements (MREs) for miR-29 in the 3'-UTR of CTRP6 mRNA, and the luciferase activity assay revealed that miR-29b directly targeted CTRP6 mRNA. Intraventricular injection was applied to deliver the miR-29b mimic or miR-29b inhibitor (4 mg/kg) into SHRs once two weeks from 10th week. Downregulation of miR-29b could increase serum CTRP6 content in SHRs, decrease the arterial systolic pressure, reduce serum concentrations of Ang II and ET-1, and enhance serum NO content. Meanwhile, we demonstrated that inhibition of miR-29b increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 to activate PPARγ, an inducer of Ang II. Finally, miR-29b expression was manipulated in, and CTRP6 recombinant protein was applied to incubate with the primary aortic endothelial cells. Inhibition of miR-29b increased CTRP6 expression, improved cell proliferation and migration, suppressed secretion of Ang II and ET-1, and decreased ROS accumulation and LDH release, displaying a similar effect to the CTRP6 recombinant protein. Moreover, the CTRP6 recombinant protein could antagonize the suppressive effect of miR-29b on activation of the ERK/PPARγ axis and function of aortic endothelial cells. In conclusion, miR-29b antagonism can alleviate Ang II-induced hypertension and vascular endothelial dysfunction through activating the CTRP6/ERK/PPARγ axis.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/efeitos adversos , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , Adipocinas/sangue , Angiotensina II/sangue , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotelina-1/sangue , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Masculino , MicroRNAs/agonistas , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , MicroRNAs/genética , Óxido Nítrico/sangue , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Hypertension ; 74(5): 1200-1214, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542964

RESUMO

Endothelial cells line all blood vessels and are critical regulators of vascular tone. In hypertension, disruption of endothelial function alters the release of endothelial-derived vasoactive factors and results in increased vascular tone. Although the release of endothelial-derived vasodilators occurs in a Ca2+-dependent manner, little is known on how Ca2+ signaling is altered in hypertension. A key element to endothelial control of vascular tone is Ca2+ signals at specialized regions (myoendothelial projections) that connect endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. This work describes disruption in the operation of this key Ca2+ signaling pathway in hypertension. We show that vascular reactivity to phenylephrine is increased in hypertensive (spontaneously hypertensive rat) when compared with normotensive (Wistar Kyoto) rats. Basal endothelial Ca2+ activity limits vascular contraction, but that Ca2+-dependent control is impaired in hypertension. When changes in endothelial Ca2+ levels are buffered, vascular contraction to phenylephrine increased, resulting in similar responses in normotension and hypertension. Local endothelial IP3(inositol trisphosphate)-mediated Ca2+ signals are smaller in amplitude, shorter in duration, occur less frequently, and arise from fewer sites in hypertension. Spatial control of endothelial Ca2+ signaling is also disrupted in hypertension: local Ca2+ signals occur further from myoendothelial projections in hypertension. The results demonstrate that the organization of local Ca2+ signaling circuits occurring at myoendothelial projections is disrupted in hypertension, giving rise to increased contractile responses.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Fenilefrina/farmacologia , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/metabolismo , Animais , Sinalização do Cálcio/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Valores de Referência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Vasoconstrição/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasoconstrição/fisiologia
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