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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD010022, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High blood pressure constitutes one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity all over the world. At the same time, heavy drinking increases the risk for developing cardiovascular diseases, including cardiomyopathy, hypertension, atrial arrhythmias, or stroke. Several studies have already assessed specifically the relationship between alcohol intake and hypertension. However, the potential effect on blood pressure of alcohol intake reduction interventions is largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of any intervention to reduce alcohol intake in terms of blood pressure decrease in hypertensive people with alcohol consumption compared to a control intervention or no intervention at all. To determine additional effects related to mortality, major cardiovascular events, serious adverse events, or quality of life. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Hypertension Information Specialist searched the following databases for randomised controlled trials up to June 2020: the Cochrane Hypertension Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 5, 2020), MEDLINE Ovid (from 1946), MEDLINE Ovid Epub Ahead of Print, and MEDLINE Ovid In-Process, Embase Ovid (from 1974), ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. Trial authors were contacted when needed and no language restrictions were applied. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials with minimum 12 weeks duration and including 50 or more subjects per group with quantitative measurement of alcohol consumption and/or biological measurement of the outcomes of interest. Participants were adults (16 years of age or older) with systolic blood pressure (SBP) greater than 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) greater than 90 mmHg, and SBP ≥ 130 or DBP ≥ 80 mmHg in participants with diabetes. We included any intervention implemented to reduce their alcohol intake. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed search results and extracted data using standard methodological procedures adopted by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: A total of 1210 studies were screened. We included one randomised controlled trial involving a total of 269 participants with a two-year follow-up. Individual patient data for all participants were provided and used in this review. No differences were found between the cognitive-behavioural intervention group and the control group for overall mortality (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.16 to 3.17; low-certainty evidence), cardiovascular mortality (not estimable) and cardiovascular events (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.79; very low-certainty evidence). There was no statistical difference in systolic blood pressure (SBP) reduction (Mean Difference (MD) -0.92 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI) -5.66 to 3.82 mmHg; very low-certainty evidence) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) decrease (MD 0.98 mmHg, 95% CI -1.69 to 3.65 mmHg; low-certainty evidence) between the cognitive-behavioural intervention group and the control group. We also did not find any differences in the proportion of subjects with SBP < 140 mmHg and DBP < 90 mmHg (Risk Ratio (RR) 1.21, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.65; very low-certainty evidence). Concerning secondary outcomes, the alcohol intake was significantly reduced in the cognitive-behavioural intervention compared with the control group (MD 191.33 g, 95% CI 85.36 to 297.30 g). We found no differences between the active and control intervention in the proportion of subjects with lower-risk alcohol intake versus higher-risk and extreme drinkers at the end of the study (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.60). There were no estimable results for the quality of life outcome. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: An intervention for decreasing alcohol intake consumption did not result in differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressure when compared with a control intervention, although there was a reduction in alcohol intake favouring the active intervention. No differences were found either for overall mortality, cardiovascular mortality or cardiovascular events. No data on serious adverse events or quality of life were available to assess. Adequate randomised controlled trials are needed to provide additional evidence on this specific question.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/mortalidade , Viés , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21955, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a clinically common cardiovascular disease, resulting in many complications. Omega-3 might be beneficial in lowering blood pressure. This protocol will be performed to evaluate the effects of omega-3 on blood pressure in hypertensive patients. METHODS: We will search both the electronical databases and paper-published journals. Endnote software will be used to complete study screening and data extraction by 2 reviewers independently. Review Manager software will be used to synthesize the data. The primary outcomes are systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Secondary outcome is the adverse effects. RESULTS: The results of this study will propose a trustworthy evidence to evaluate the effects of omega-3 on blood pressure of hypertensive patients. CONCLUSION: The conclusion of our systematic review will reply whether omega-3 is an effectual intervention to lower blood pressure of hypertensive patients. ETHICS: This review does not require ethical approval because all of the data analyzed in this review have been published. REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202070103 (DOI number: 10.37766/inplasy2020.7.0103).


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237333, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776993

RESUMO

Hypertension is the leading risk factor for mortality and it is also one of the major risk factors for other non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of hypertension and its associated factors among adults residing in Arba Minch health and demographic surveillance site (HDSS), Southern Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2017 on the estimated sample size of 3,368 adults at Arba Minch Health and Demographic Surveillance site (HDSS). Data were collected using the WHO STEPS survey tools. Bivariate analysis was done to detect candidate variables at P-value less than 0.25 and entered into the final model to identify the independent predictors of hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was 18.92% (95% CI: 17.63-20.28). The magnitude increase among respondents in the older age group [AOR 1.39 (95%CI: 1.05-1.84), 1.68 (95% CI: 1.26-2.23) and 2.67 (95%CI: 2.01-3.56) for age group 35-44, 45-54 and 55-64, respectively, compared to 25-34 years old group] and those with the higher wealth index [AOR 1.86 (95%CI: 1.33-2.59), 2.68 (95% CI: 1.91-3.75) and 2.97 (95%CI: 2.08-4.25) for 3rd quantile, 4th quantile and 5th quantile, respectively, compared to 1st quantile]. The odds of hypertension reduce among married participants (AOR 0.66, 95%CI: 0.51-0.85). Respondents with overweight (AOR 1.44, 95%CI: 1.02-2.02), khat chewing (AOR3.31, 95%CI: 1.94-5.64), low fruit and/or vegetable consumption (AOR 1.27, 95%CI: 1.05-1.53) and those who do not use coffee and tea (AOR 1.52, 95%CI: 1.03-2.24) had significantly higher likelihood of hypertension. Nearly one out of five participants have hypertension in this population. As hypertension is one of the silent killers, it is advisable to develop a system for enabling early detection and monitoring in the older age groups and overweight individuals.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Catha/efeitos adversos , Café , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Chá , Verduras
4.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e157, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792035

RESUMO

AIMS: Optimism is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk; however, few prospective studies have considered optimism in relation to hypertension risk specifically. We investigated whether optimism was associated with a lower risk of developing hypertension in U.S. service members, who are more likely to develop high blood pressure early in life. We also evaluated race/ethnicity, sex and age as potential effect modifiers of these associations. METHODS: Participants were 103 486 hypertension-free U.S. Army active-duty soldiers (mean age 28.96 years, 61.76% White, 20.04% Black, 11.01% Hispanic, 4.09% Asian, and 3.10% others). We assessed optimism, sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions, health behaviours and depression status at baseline (2009-2010) via self-report and administrative records, and ascertained incident hypertension over follow-up (2010-2014) from electronic health records and health assessments. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and adjusted models for a broad range of relevant covariates. RESULTS: Over a mean follow-up of 3.51 years, 15 052 incident hypertension cases occurred. The highest v. lowest optimism levels were associated with a 22% reduced risk of developing hypertension, after adjusting for all covariates including baseline blood pressure (HR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.74-0.83). The difference in hypertension risk between the highest v. lowest optimism was also maintained when we excluded soldiers with hypertension in the first two years of follow-up and, separately, when we excluded soldiers with prehypertension at baseline. A dose-response relationship was evident with higher optimism associated with a lower relative risk (p < 0.001). Higher optimism was consistently associated with a lower risk of developing hypertension across sex, age and most race/ethnicity categories. CONCLUSIONS: In a diverse cohort of initially healthy male and female service members particularly vulnerable to developing hypertension, higher optimism levels were associated with reduced hypertension risk independently of sociodemographic and health factors, a particularly notable finding given the young and healthy population. Results suggest optimism is a health asset and a potential target for public health interventions.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Otimismo , Prevenção Primária , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Militares/psicologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
J Pregnancy ; 2020: 7864816, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802511

RESUMO

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy complicate up to 10% of pregnancies worldwide, constituting one of the most significant causes of maternal morbidity and mortality. Hypertensive disorders, specifically gestational hypertension, chronic hypertension, and preeclampsia, throughout pregnancy are contributors to the top causes of maternal mortality in the United States. Diagnosis of hypertensive disorders throughout pregnancy is challenging, with many disorders often remaining unrecognized or poorly managed during and after pregnancy. Moreover, the research has identified a strong link between the prevalence of maternal hypertensive disorders and racial and ethnic disparities. Factors that influence the prevalence of maternal hypertensive disorders among racially and ethnically diverse women include maternal age, level of education, United States-born status, nonmetropolitan residence, prepregnancy obesity, excess weight gain during pregnancy, and gestational diabetes. Examination of the factors that increase the risk for maternal hypertensive disorders along with the current interventions utilized to manage hypertensive disorders will assist in the identification of gaps in prevention and treatment strategies and implications for future practice. Specific focus will be placed on disparities among racially and ethnically diverse women that increase the risk for maternal hypertensive disorders. This review will serve to promote the development of interventions and strategies that better address and prevent hypertensive disorders throughout a pregnant woman's continuum of care.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Fatores Etários , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Diabetes Gestacional , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etnologia , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Prevalência , Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ganho de Peso
6.
Neurology ; 95(7): e839-e846, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Increasing evidence supports an association between midlife cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and risk of dementia, but less is known about whether CVRFs influence cognition in midlife. We examined the relationship between CVRFs and midlife cognitive decline. METHODS: In 2,675 black and white middle-aged adults (mean age 50.2 ± 3.6 years, 57% female, 45% black), we measured CVRFs at baseline: hypertension (31%), diabetes mellitus (11%), obesity (43%), high cholesterol (9%), and current cigarette smoking (15%). We administered cognitive tests of memory, executive function, and processing speed at baseline and 5 years later. Using logistic regression, we estimated the association of CVRFs with accelerated cognitive decline (race-specific decline ≥1.5 SD from the mean change) on a composite cognitive score. RESULTS: Five percent (n = 143) of participants had accelerated cognitive decline over 5 years. Smoking, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus were associated with an increased likelihood of accelerated decline after multivariable adjustment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-2.71; AOR 1.87, 95% CI 1.26-2.75; AOR 2.45, 95% CI 1.54-3.88, respectively), while obesity and high cholesterol were not associated with risk of decline. These results were similar when stratified by race. The likelihood of accelerated decline also increased with greater number of CVRFs (1-2 CVRFs: AOR 1.77, 95% CI 1.02-3.05; ≥3 CVRFs: AOR 2.94, 95% CI 1.64-5.28) and with Framingham Coronary Heart Disease Risk Score ≥10 (AOR 2.29, 95% CI 1.21-4.34). CONCLUSIONS: Midlife CVRFs, especially hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking, are common and associated with accelerated cognitive decline at midlife. These results identify potential modifiable targets to prevent midlife cognitive decline and highlight the need for a life course approach to cognitive function and aging.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235756, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702059

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have routinely detected human quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for complex traits. Viewing that most GWAS single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are found in non-coding regions unrelated to the physiology of a polygenic trait of interest, a vital question to answer is whether or not any of these SNPs can functionally alter the phenotype with which it is associated. The study of blood pressure (BP) is a case in point. Conserved mechanisms in controlling BP by modularity is now unifying differing mammalian orders in that understanding mechanisms in rodents is tantamount to revealing the same in humans, while overcoming experimental limitations imposed by human studies. As a proof of principle, we used BP QTLs from Dahl salt-sensitive rats (DSS) as substitutes to capture distinct human functional orthologs. 3 DSS BP QTLs are located into distinct genome regions and correspond to several human GWAS genes. Each of the QTLs independently exerted a major impact on BP in vivo. BP was functionally changed by normotensive alleles from each of these QTLs, and yet, the human GWAS SNPs do not exist in the rat. They cannot be responsible for physiological alterations in BP caused by these QTLs. These SNPs are genome emblems for QTLs nearby, rather than being QTLs per se, since they only emerged during primate evolution after BP-regulating mechanisms have been established. We then identified specific mutated coding domains that are conserved between rodents and humans and that may implicate different steps of a common pathway or separate pathways.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Animais , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Dahl
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481572

RESUMO

The relationships between regular participation in annual physical examinations and the risk factors for noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) among adults with disabilities remains unclear. To address this gap, we used data from 130,899 individuals with disabilities in Shanghai (2014-2016) and evaluated four risk factors for NCDs: hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and being overweight. Overall, 4540 individuals participated in annual physical examinations across all three years and 11,388 missed examinations in 2015 (group without regular participation). Chi-squared tests and binary logistic regression were used to assess differences in patient characteristics and explore correlations between variables. Significant differences in age (χ2 = 102.620, p < 0.01), place of residence (χ2 = 94.308, p < 0.01), educational level (χ2 = 59.884, p < 0.01), marital status (χ2 = 16.414, p < 0.01) and disability type (χ2 = 56.499, p < 0.01) and severity (χ2 = 45.464, p < 0.01) were found between those who participated in regular physical examinations and those who did not. Regular participation was associated with reduced incidences of hypertension (odds ratio 0.799, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.733-0.871) and hyperlipidemia (0.347, 95% CI: 0.307-0.392), but not with the incidence of diabetes (1.049, 95% CI: 0.944-1.166) or being overweight (0.907, 95% CI: 0.812-1.014). Hence, regular participation in annual physical examinations had different associations with risk factors for NCDs.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Adulto , China , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/epidemiologia , Hiperlipidemias/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
10.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 23, 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571202

RESUMO

The aim in this literature review was (1) to explore the physiologically and psychologically therapeutic benefits of forest bathing on adults suffering from pre-hypertension or hypertension, and (2) to identify the type, duration, and frequency of an effective forest bathing intervention in the management of pre-hypertension and hypertension, so as to provide directions for future interventions or research. The electronic databases PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, PsyINFO, and the China Academic Journals (CAJ) offered through the Full-text Database (CNKI) were searched for relevant studies published from the inception of the databases to April 2019. Of the 364 articles that were identified, 14 met the criteria for inclusion in this review. The synthesis of the findings in the included studies revealed that forest bathing interventions were effective at reducing blood pressure, lowering pulse rate, increasing the power of heart rate variability (HRV), improving cardiac-pulmonary parameters, and metabolic function, inducing a positive mood, reducing anxiety levels, and improving the quality of life of pre-hypertensive or hypertensive participants. Forest walking and forest therapy programs were the two most effective forest bathing interventions. Studies reported that practicing a single forest walking or forest therapy program can produce short-term physiological and psychological benefits. It is concluded that forest bathing, particularly forest walking and therapy, has physiologically and psychologically relaxing effects on middle-aged and elderly people with pre-hypertension and hypertension.


Assuntos
Florestas , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Pré-Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Terapia de Relaxamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
11.
Am Heart J ; 226: 94-113, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526534

RESUMO

Disparities in the control of hypertension and other cardiovascular disease risk factors are well-documented in the United States, even among patients seen regularly in the healthcare system. Few existing approaches explicitly address disparities in hypertension care and control. This paper describes the RICH LIFE Project (Reducing Inequities in Care of Hypertension: Lifestyle Improvement for Everyone) design. METHODS: RICH LIFE is a two-arm, cluster-randomized trial, comparing the effectiveness of enhanced standard of care, "Standard of Care Plus" (SCP), to a multi-level intervention, "Collaborative Care/Stepped Care" (CC/SC), for improving blood pressure (BP) control and patient activation and reducing disparities in BP control among 1890 adults with uncontrolled hypertension and at least one other cardiovascular disease risk factor treated at 30 primary care practices in Maryland and Pennsylvania. Fifteen practices randomized to the SCP arm receive standardized BP measurement training; race/ethnicity-specific audit and feedback of BP control rates; and quarterly webinars in management practices, quality improvement and disparities reduction. Fifteen practices in the CC/SC arm receive the SCP interventions plus implementation of the collaborative care model with stepped-care components (community health worker referrals and virtual specialist-panel consults). The primary clinical outcome is BP control (<140/90 mm Hg) at 12 months. The primary patient-reported outcome is change from baseline in self-reported patient activation at 12 months. DISCUSSION: This study will provide knowledge about the feasibility of leveraging existing resources in routine primary care and potential benefits of adding supportive community-facing roles to improve hypertension care and reduce disparities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.govNCT02674464.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Comparativa da Efetividade/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234485, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525916

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hypertension is the leading cause of death and disability in adult populations globally. Its prevalence is increasing rapidly in Ethiopia. Studies conducted to date address different population categories. However, there is lack of data on the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension among civil servants working in various sectors and levels. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension among civil servants in Sidama Zone, south Ethiopia. METHODS AND MATERIALS: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 1-30, 2019 on a sample of 546 civil servants selected randomly from different departments of Sidama Zone Administration. Data were collected using structured, face-to-face interviewer-administered questionnaire and standard physical measurements. The data were entered using Epi Data 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with hypertension. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were computed to assess the presence and strength of associations. RESULTS: A total of 546 civil servants responded resulting in a response rate of 94.9%. The prevalence of hypertension was 24.5% [95% CI: 23.3% - 25.6%]. The identified risk factors of hypertension were male sex (AOR 4.31[95% CI: 1.84-10.09]), moderate current alcohol consumption (AOR: 4.85; [95% CI: 1.73-13.61]), current khat chewing (AOR 2.97[95% CI: 1.38-6.40]), old age (AOR: 4.41[95% CI: 1.19-16.26]), being obese (AOR 5.94 [95% CI: 1.26-27.86]) and central obesity (AOR 3.57 [95% CI: 1.80-7.07]). CONCLUSIONS: One in four civil servants are hypertensive. Different demographic, behavioral and metabolic factors increase the odds of hypertension among civil servants. Prevention and control of hypertension shall involve promotion of healthy lifestyles such as weight management, regular physical activity and quitting or cutting down on harmful use of substances such as alcohol and khat.


Assuntos
Empregados do Governo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Governo Local , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234049, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502169

RESUMO

The literature on the global burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) contrasts a spiraling epidemic centered in low-income countries with low levels of awareness, risk factor control, infrastructure, personnel and funding. There are few data-based reports of broad and interconnected strategies to address these challenges where they hit hardest. Kisoro district in Southwest Uganda is rural, remote, over-populated and poor, the majority of its population working as subsistence farmers. This paper describes the 10-year experience of a tri-partite collaboration between Kisoro District Hospital, a New York teaching hospital, and a US-based NGO delivering hypertension services to the district. Using data from patient and pharmacy registers and a random sample of charts reviewed manually, we describe both common and often-overlooked barriers to quality care (clinic overcrowding, drug stockouts, provider shortages, visit non-adherence, and uninformative medical records) and strategies adopted to address these barriers (locally-adapted treatment guidelines, patient-clinic-pharmacy cost sharing, appointment systems, workforce development, patient-provider continuity initiatives, and ongoing data monitoring). We find that: 1) although following CVD risk-based treatment guidelines could safely allocate scarce medications to the highest-risk patients first, national guidelines emphasizing treatment at blood pressures over 140/90 mmHg ignore the reality of "stockouts" and conflict with this goal; 2) often-overlooked barriers to quality care such as poor quality medical records, clinic disorganization and local employment practices are surmountable; 3) cost-sharing initiatives partially fill the gap during stockouts of government supplied medications, but still may be insufficient for the poorest patients; 4) frequent prolonged lapses in care may be the norm for most known hypertensives in rural SSA, and 5) ongoing data monitoring can identify local barriers to quality care and provide the impetus to ameliorate them. We anticipate that our 10-year experience adapting to the complex challenges of hypertension management and a granular description of the solutions we devised will be of benefit to others managing chronic disease in similar rural African communities.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Hospitais de Distrito , Humanos , Hipertensão/patologia , Conhecimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reorganização de Recursos Humanos , Risco , População Rural , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
15.
Life Sci ; 256: 117915, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504752

RESUMO

AIMS: Autonomic dysfunction in arterial hypertension affects cardiorespiratory control and gastric motility and has been characterized by increased sympathetic and reduced parasympathetic activity. In the present work we investigated the effects of anticholinesterase drugs [donepezil (DON) or pyridostigmine (PYR)] on cardiovascular, autonomic, and gastric parameters in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Daily oral gavage of L-NAME (70 mg/kg/day) was performed over 14 days in male Wistar rats (180-220 g), whereas daily oral gavage of DON or PYR (1.6 and 22 mg/kg/day, respectively) started 2 days after the L-NAME treatment initiation and lasted 12 days. The development of hypertension was verified by tail plethysmography technique. After the end of treatments, the animals were subjected to experimental protocols (6-12 animals per group; total number of animals used: 78). KEY FINDINGS: L-NAME hypertensive animals had no alterations in heart rate (HR) and intrinsic HR, but showed reduction in baroreflex sensitivity, parasympathetic tone, and gastric motility; and the sympathetic tone, chemoreflex sensitivity, and the LF (low frequency) band of systolic arterial pressure (SAP) variability were increased. DON or PYR attenuated the increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) induced by L-NAME. Both anticholinesterase drugs were effective in preventing the decrease in baroreflex sensitivity, parasympathetic tone and gastric motility, and also prevented the increases in peripheral chemoreflex response and cardiac sympathetic tone. SIGNIFICANCE: Acetylcholinesterase inhibition with DON or PYR is a promising pharmacological approach to increase parasympathetic function, thus preventing the hypertension-induced alterations in the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and autonomic systems.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/efeitos adversos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Brometo de Piridostigmina/farmacologia , Animais , Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/efeitos dos fármacos , Barorreflexo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Colinesterase/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Donepezila/metabolismo , Donepezila/farmacologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Masculino , Substâncias Protetoras/metabolismo , Brometo de Piridostigmina/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Volume Sistólico
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235088, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574228

RESUMO

Understanding health beliefs is important to facilitate health promotion and disease prevention as they influence health behaviors, outcomes, and disease management. Given the rise of hypertension-related diseases in the Dominican Republic, the purpose of our study was to identify hypertension-related health beliefs of Dominicans in order to inform the development of culturally appropriate interventions for hypertension prevention, care, and treatment. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 Dominicans, 15 of whom were receiving treatment for hypertension. Operating within the interpretative paradigmatic framework, we conducted thematic analyses of interview data to identify hypertension-related health beliefs and practices. Iterative data analysis revealed the following themes: 1) Negative emotions are a primary cause of hypertension, 2) Medication is the best treatment but adherence is challenging, 3) Systemic barriers impede treatment access, 4) Hypertension negatively impacts mental and physical well-being, and 5) Lifestyle changes, relaxation, and social support help manage hypertension. Data gathered from member checking validated these findings. This study enhances understanding of the beliefs and experiences of Dominicans and emphasize the importance of implementing culturally competent health programming and care.


Assuntos
Cultura , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , República Dominicana , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipertensão/psicologia , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Entrevistas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apoio Social
17.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 22(7): 48, 2020 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472363

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the clinical evidence of the effect of aspirin as primary prevention for patients with diabetes mellitus and in healthy elderly. RECENT FINDINGS: Two trials were performed to study these two patient populations: ASCEND showed that the use of low-dose aspirin in persons with diabetes, who did not have prior cardiovascular disease, led to a lower risk of cardiovascular events than placebo (8.5% vs 9.6%, rate ratio 0.88, 95% CI 0.79-0.97; p = 0.01). However, it showed a similar magnitude of increased risk of major bleeding among the aspirin group compared with placebo (4.1% vs 3.2%, rate ratio 1.29, 95% CI 1.09-1.52; p = 0.003). ASPREE showed that the use of low-dose aspirin in healthy elderly did not prolong disability-free survival (21.5% vs 21.2%, HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.92-1.11; p = 0.79); however, the rate of major hemorrhage was higher in the aspirin group than in the placebo group (3.8% vs 2.8%, HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.18-1.62; p < 0.001). Additionally, further analyses of secondary end points of death, cardiovascular disease, and major hemorrhage were also studied. Higher all-cause mortality was seen among healthy elderly who received aspirin compared with placebo (12.7% vs 11.1%, HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.29) and was primarily attributed to cancer-related deaths. Similar risk of cardiovascular disease was seen among elderly who received aspirin compared with placebo (10.7% vs 11.3%, HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.83-1.08) and resulted in a significantly higher risk of major hemorrhage (8.6% vs 6.8%, HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.18-1.62; p < 0.001). These studies show that the use of low-dose aspirin as primary prevention in patients with diabetes and in the elderly does not have overall beneficial effect compared with its use in secondary prevention. In patients with diabetes without prior cardiovascular disease, the benefits of aspirin use were counterbalanced by the bleeding risk. Additionally, in healthy elderly, the use of aspirin did not prolong disability-free survival and instead led to a higher rate of major hemorrhage.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Complicações do Diabetes/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus , Pessoas com Deficiência , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária
18.
Brasília; Fiocruz Brasília;Instituto de Saúde de São Paulo; maio 6, 2020. 61 p.
Não convencional em Português | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, MOSAICO - Saúde integrativa, PIE | ID: biblio-1118190

RESUMO

A acupuntura se caracteriza pela estimulação de pontos cutâneos específicos por meio do uso de agulhas. A auriculoterapia consiste na estimulação mecânica de pontos específicos do pavilhão auricular com esferas de aço, ouro, prata, plástico, agulhas ou sementes de mostarda. A acupuntura é recomendada para promoção, manutenção e recuperação da saúde, bem como prevenção de agravos e doenças. Além disso, parece propiciar a liberação de neurotransmissores e outras substâncias responsáveis pela promoção da analgesia. A auriculoterapia promove a regulação psíquico-orgânica do indivíduo. Ambas as práticas foram incorporadas no SUS mediante Portaria nº 971, de 03 de maio de 2006. Qual a eficácia/efetividade e a segurança da acupuntura e da auriculoterapia para o tratamento da hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) em adultos e/ou idosos? As buscas foram realizadas em cinco base de dados sem restrição de ano de publicação. Foram incluídas revisões sistemáticas em inglês, português e espanhol que avaliaram os efeitos de ambas tecnologias no tratamento da HAS na população adulta e idosa. A avaliação da qualidade metodológica foi realizada por meio do AMSTAR 2, feita por uma profissional e revisada por outra. Nesta revisão rápida, produzida em dez dias, foram utilizados atalhos metodológicos, de maneira que apenas o processo de seleção foi realizado em duplicidade e de forma independente e a avaliação foi realizada por uma pesquisadora e revisada por outra. Dos 279 relatos encontrados nas bases, foram incluídas onze revisões sistemáticas que atenderam aos critérios de elegibilidade, sendo nove com metanálise. A avaliação da qualidade indica que uma revisão é de alta qualidade metodológica, sete de baixa qualidade e três de qualidade criticamente baixa. Todas as revisões apresentaram resultados sobre o uso de acupuntura no tratamento de hipertensão, mas houve poucos resultados sobre auriculoterapia. O uso da acupuntura, da eletroacupuntura e da associação de acupuntura com anti-hipertensivos ou com mudanças no estilo de vida mostraram efeito na redução e controle das pressões arteriais sistólica e diastólica em pacientes hipertensos. Uma revisão abordou o uso da auriculoterapia, observando resultados benéficos na redução e controle das pressões arteriais sistólica e diastólica. Foram encontrados eventos adversos leves e graves com a prática de acupuntura. A acupuntura foi a tecnologia avaliada em todas as revisões selecionadas e mostrou resultados favoráveis na redução da pressão arterial, particularmente sistólica. No entanto, há divergências entre alguns estudos e a heterogeneidade entre eles é elevada, comprometendo dos resultados da maioria das meta análises apresentadas. Além disso, estas evidências devem ser vistas com cautela, uma vez que a confiança nos resultados da maioria das revisões foi considerada baixa ou criticamente baixa na avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Embora, poucos estudos tenham relatado eventos adversos, houve casos de eventos graves que precisam ser considerados.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Eletroacupuntura/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Acupuntura Auricular/métodos , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle
19.
Life Sci ; 251: 117625, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to investigate whether the novel peptide cysteine-based peptide (Cys-peptide) had protective effects on preeclamptic animal and cell models. METHODS: We investigated effects of Cys-peptide on (1) preeclamptic symptoms (e.g. hypertension, proteinuria, fetal growth restriction (FGR)) in preeclampia-like rat models induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS), (2) TNFα-induced cytotoxicity of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) and HTR-8 cells (an immortalised human trophoblast cell line), (3) endothelial dysfunction and injured angiogenesis, (4) migration and invasion of trophoblast cells induced by TNFα. RESULTS: Cys-peptide ameliorated LPS-induced hypertension, proteinuria and FGR and other PE symptoms in preeclampia-like rat models. In addition, Cys-peptide attenuated TNFα-induced cytotoxicity by decreasing soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) mRNA expression in both cells. Furthermore, Cys-peptide restored endothelial dysfunction and rescued angiogenesis caused by TNFα in vitro. Importantly, Cys-peptide could reverse insufficient ability to invade and migrate of trophoblast cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest Cys-peptide can play beneficial roles in preeclampsia-like rat and cell models. Therefore, we propose that Cys-peptide is probably a novel therapeutic candidate for PE.


Assuntos
Cisteína/química , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/prevenção & controle , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Proteinúria/prevenção & controle , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/administração & dosagem
20.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 27(3): 239-249, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266707

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study examined the prevalence of pre-hypertension (PHT) and hypertension (HT) in urban youth, and assessed the effects of sodium intake and obesity on blood pressure (BP) by ethnicity. METHODS: A convenience sample of 557 multiethnic youth, aged 11-23 years, was recruited from 12 schools and institutions in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Participants were divided by self-identified ethnicity into four groups (Indigenous, African and Middle Eastern (AME), Asian, and European). RESULTS: Between October 2013 and March 2014, one-on-one interviews were conducted to collect data on demographics, physical activity, diet, and Body Mass Index (BMI). BP was obtained at two different times during the interview and measured a third time in cases of high variability. The standard deviation scores (SDS) of systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were used to estimate associations with sodium intake (per 1000 mg/day). Overall, 18.2% and 5.4% of the participants had PHT and HT, respectively. Indigenous and AME participants showed the highest rates of PHT (23.1%). Indigenous and European participants showed higher rates of HT (8.3% and 5.3%, respectively) than other ethnic groups (AME = 4.4%, Asian = 3.9%). There was a positive association between 1000 mg/day increase in sodium intake and SDS of SBP by 0.041 (95% CI 0.007-0.083; p = 0.04) among pre-hypertensive participants. Over 85% of participants exceeded the recommended dietary sodium intake. Mean BMI and dietary sodium intake were higher among pre-hypertensive participants (4219 mg/day) than normotensive (3475 mg/day). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HT varied by ethnicity. High dietary sodium intake was of concern. There is a need for culturally-tailored, population-based interventions to reduce sodium intake.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/etnologia , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Pré-Hipertensão/etnologia , Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Saúde da População Urbana/etnologia , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Fatores Etários , Alberta/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Hipossódica/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Índios Norte-Americanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/etnologia , Pré-Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Pré-Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Pré-Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Fatores Raciais , Recomendações Nutricionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto Jovem
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