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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(9)2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511415

RESUMO

A 22-year-old woman presented with a 2-week history of decreased vision, a central scotoma and metamorphopsia in her right eye. Her presenting visual acuity was 6/75 in the right eye and 6/6 in the left eye. Anterior segment examination was normal. Fundus examination of both eyes showed features of bilateral congenital hypertrophy of retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE) lesions and choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) in the right eye. She was treated with intravitreal injection bevacizumab 1.25 mg/0.05 mL. One month later, there was regression of the CNV and subretinal fluid and her vision improved to 6/12. At the final follow-up visit, her vision was maintained at 6/9 with regression of CNV noted. To conclude, CNV is a rare association of CHRPE. It can lead to vision-threatening problem if it involves the macula and should be identified promptly and managed appropriately.


Assuntos
Neovascularização de Coroide , Adulto , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Neovascularização de Coroide/diagnóstico , Neovascularização de Coroide/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Humanos , Hipertrofia/tratamento farmacológico , Injeções Intravítreas , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Adulto Jovem
2.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 19: eAO5781, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of different resistance training programs on measures of muscle strength and hypertrophy. METHODS: Sixty-seven untrained subjects were randomized to one of two groups: Split Workout Routine (n=35), in which muscle groups were trained twice per week in an A/B split consisting of eight sets per session, or Full-Body Workout Routine (n=32), in which muscle groups were trained four times per week with four and eight sets per session. Both groups performed eight to 12 repetition maximum per set, with 60 seconds of rest between sets. Maximal strength and muscle thickness were assessed at baseline and after eight weeks of training. RESULTS: A significant main effect of time (pre versus post) was observed for maximal strength in the bench press and squat exercises and thickness of the elbow extensor, elbow flexor and quadriceps femoris muscles. Selected variables did not differ significantly between groups. CONCLUSION: Resistance training twice or four times per week has similar effects on neuromuscular adaptation, provided weekly set volume is equal.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético , Treinamento de Força , Adaptação Fisiológica , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Força Muscular
3.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(4): 11-12, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470196

RESUMO

Dandy-Walker variant consists of vermian hypoplasia and cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle, without enlargement of the posterior fossa is a distinctive entity believed to represent a mild subtype of Dandy-Walker complex. We report a case of 66 year male presented with right sided hemiparesis due to ischemic stroke whose imaging showed incidental findings Dandy walker variant. This Incidental Dandy Walker malformation finding in adult is rare with only a few cases reported till date.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Dandy-Walker , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Síndrome de Dandy-Walker/diagnóstico , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Masculino , Paresia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360888

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease characterized by irreversible cartilage damage, inflammation and altered chondrocyte phenotype. Transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) signaling via SMAD2/3 is crucial for blocking hypertrophy. The post-translational modifications of these SMAD proteins in the linker domain regulate their function and these can be triggered by inflammation through the activation of kinases or phosphatases. Therefore, we investigated if OA-related inflammation affects TGF-ß signaling via SMAD2/3 linker-modifications in chondrocytes. We found that both Interleukin (IL)-1ß and OA-synovium conditioned medium negated SMAD2/3 transcriptional activity in chondrocytes. This inhibition of TGF-ß signaling was enhanced if SMAD3 could not be phosphorylated on Ser213 in the linker region and the inhibition by IL-1ß was less if the SMAD3 linker could not be phosphorylated at Ser204. Our study shows evidence that inflammation inhibits SMAD2/3 signaling in chondrocytes via SMAD linker (de)-phosphorylation. The involvement of linker region modifications may represent a new therapeutic target for OA.


Assuntos
Condrócitos/metabolismo , Condrócitos/patologia , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteína Smad2/química , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/química , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Hipertrofia/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/farmacologia , Osteoartrite/genética , Osteoartrite/patologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação/genética , Domínios Proteicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Smad2/genética , Proteína Smad3/genética , Membrana Sinovial/metabolismo , Transfecção , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia
5.
J Med Food ; 24(8): 841-851, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342510

RESUMO

Obesity is a relevant health hazard characterized as a chronic noncommunicable disease, with severe comorbidities that cause mortality worldwide. Acrocomia aculeata is a Brazilian palm with edible fruits. Its pulp contains fibers, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), such as oleic acid and carotenoids. In this context, our study aimed to elucidate the protective effect of the lyophilized A. aculeata pulp added at the rates of 1%, 2%, and 4% to a high-fat (HF) diet (rich in saturated fats and cholesterol), for 90 days, in mice. The treatment with 4% pulp induced a significant increase in the biochemical parameters of serum cholesterol HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein) compared with the control. According to the evaluation of the epididymal tissue, the groups treated with A. aculeata pulp exhibited smaller fat deposits compared with the HF diet group. Therefore, we infer that the predominant components in A. aculeata, particularly fibers and MUFAs, promote beneficial effects on health parameters during simultaneous exposure to food rich in saturated fat and cholesterol, typical of the Western diet. This is the first study to correlate the presence of fatty acids from A. aculeata pulp in different proportions added in a HF diet with metabolic and histological parameters in Swiss mice.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Gorduras na Dieta , Adipócitos , Animais , Colesterol , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Hipertrofia , Lipoproteínas HDL , Camundongos
6.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 467, 2021 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertrophy is a critical process for chondrocyte differentiation and maturation during endochondral ossification, which is responsible for the formation of long bone and postnatal longitudinal growth. Increasing evidence suggests that melatonin, an indole hormone, plays a pivotal role in chondrogenesis. However, little is known about the effects of melatonin on the terminal differentiation of chondrocytes. METHODS: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived chondrocytes generated by a high-density micromass culture system were induced to undergo hypertrophic differentiation. Melatonin-mediated hypertrophic differentiation was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis (RT-PCR) analysis, histological staining and immunohistochemistry. Activation of the Wnt signaling pathway was evaluated by PCR array, RT-PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence. XAV-939, a Wnt signaling pathway antagonist, was further used to determine whether the effect of melatonin on chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation was mediated occurred by activation of Wnt signaling pathway. RESULTS: Histological staining showed melatonin increased chondrocyte cell volume and the expression of type X collagen but decreased the expression of type II collagen compared with the control group. RT-PCR showed that melatonin significantly up-regulated the gene expressions of biomarkers of hypertrophic chondrocytes, including type X collagen, alkaline phosphatase, runt-related transcription factor 2, Indian hedgehog and parathyroid hormone-related protein receptor, and melatonin down-regulated the mRNA expression of hallmarks of chondrocytes, including parathyroid hormone-related protein. PCR array showed that the effect of melatonin on chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation was accompanied by the up-regulation of multiple target genes of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, and this effect was blocked by XAV-939. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings demonstrate that melatonin enhances the hypertrophic differentiation of MSC-derived chondrocytes through the Wnt signaling pathway. Our findings add evidence to the role of melatonin in promoting bone development and highlight the positive effects of melatonin on terminal differentiation of chondrocytes.


Assuntos
Melatonina , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Condrócitos , Condrogênese/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Melatonina/farmacologia , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt
7.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(8): 903-909, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320705

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the inflammatory pattern in terms of inflammatory cells and cytokines expression in children with adenoid hypertrophy (AH) and coexistent allergic rhinitis (AR). STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional analytical study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Shandong Provincial ENT Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong P. R. China, from October 2018 to August 2020. METHODOLOGY: A sample of 102 children with AH, who underwent adenoidectomy were enrolled. They were divided into two groups of AH, alone and AH with AR (AH+AR). A routine complete blood count, and the number of eosinophils in adenoid tissue was measured using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The tissue expression of cytokines was carried out using real-time quantitative PCR. RESULTS: Forty-eight children (47%) were diagnosed with AR. The number and percentage of eosinophils in peripheral blood and adenoid tissue were statistically (p <0.05) higher in the group of AH+AR than AH alone. Furthermore, in patients with AH+AR, the mRNA expression levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ decreased, while IL-4, IL-8, IL-18, IL-33, H2R, LTR1, LTR2 and GCR all increased in adenoid tissue. CONCLUSION: The pathological mechanism underlying adenoid hypertrophy in children with comorbid allergic rhinitis can be involved with predominant tissue eosinophilia and type 2 (or Th 2) inflammation. Key Words: Adenoid hypertrophy, Allergic rhinitis, Inflammatory features, Cytokines, Eosinophils.


Assuntos
Tonsila Faríngea , Rinite Alérgica , Tonsila Faríngea/cirurgia , Criança , China , Estudos Transversais , Citocinas , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia
8.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304468

RESUMO

Objective:To analyze the bacteriological distribution and drug resistance of nasopharynx in patients with adenoid hypertrophy complicated with secretory otitis media, and to clarify the distribution of pathogenic bacteria, so as to provide guidance and basis for antibiotic use in clinical treatment. Methods:A retrospective analysis was performed on 311 patients with adenoid hypertrophy and secretory otitis media who underwent surgical treatment in the department of otolaryngology head and neck surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University from February 2013 to January 2020. They were divided into 3 groups by age: Group A(0-5 years old), Group B(6-10 years old), and Group C(11-16 years old). The secretions from deep adenoid near the eustachian tube of the affected ear were collected during the surgery for bacterial culture and drug resistance analysis. Results:One hundred and forty-two strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated and cultured, with a detection rate of 45.66%. Staphylococcus aureus (63 strains), streptococcus pneumoniae (15 strains) ,streptococcus pyogenes (13 strains) and moraxella cachinella(28 strains)was the main strain.Staphylococcus aureus had high drug resistance rate to penicillin, erythromycin and clindamycin.Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenic had high resistance rates to erythromycin,clindamycin and tetracycline. The resistance rate of Moraxella catarrhalis to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole was higher. Conclusion:The main pathogens detected in patients with adenoid hypertrophy complicated with secretory otitis media are staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus pneumoniae, streptococcus pyogenes and moraxella catarrhalis. Drug resistance of different pathogens is quite different. So it is recommended to carry out extensive bacteriological detection, and select antibiotics according to the principle of rational drug use and the results of drug resistance test, so as to achieve good therapeutic effect.


Assuntos
Tonsila Faríngea , Otite Média com Derrame , Otite Média , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Resistência a Medicamentos , Haemophilus influenzae , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nasofaringe , Otite Média/tratamento farmacológico , Otite Média com Derrame/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304480

RESUMO

Airway obstruction caused by adenotonsillar hypertrophy is one of the most common otolaryngological diseases in children. In recent years, Epstein Barr virus has been found to be closely related to adenotonsillar hypertrophy. This review summarizes the mechanism and epidemiology of adenotonsillar hypertrophy and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome caused by Epstein Barr virus.


Assuntos
Tonsila Faríngea , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Criança , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Tonsila Palatina
10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304528

RESUMO

Objective:To investigate the effect of preventive measures in reducing postoperative bleeding, which is made for children day surgery on tonsils and adenoids in our hospital, and to clarify its safety and feasibility. Methods:A retrospective analysis of 649 patients with children day surgery due to obstructive sleep apnea(OSA) caused by adenoid hypertrophy of tonsil was conducted. All of the patients were admitted to Shanghai Children's Hospital from February 2021 to April 2021. According to whether preventive measures were taken or not, they were divided into the control group and the observation group. The postoperative bleeding rate, bleeding time, and bleeding-related factors of the two groups were compared. Results:There were 4 cases(1.22%) in the observation group and 12 cases(3.74%) in the control group, the postoperative bleeding rate of the observation group was lower than that of the control group(χ²=4.28, P=0.039). The postoperative bleeding in the observation group occurred(8.25±2.75) days after surgery while the control group(7.42±1.98) days, which shows no significant difference in postoperative bleeding time between the two groups(χ²=2.601, P=0.321). There was no case of postoperative infection in the observation group while 7 cases(58.3%) in the control group(χ²=7.658, P=0.036). Conclusion:For children with day surgery of tonsils and adenoids, appropriate optimization measures can be taken for hospital admission evaluation, infection prevention, postoperative observation, publicity and education, which can effectively reduce the incidence of postoperative complications and improve the treatment effect of day surgery.


Assuntos
Tonsila Faríngea , Tonsilectomia , Adenoidectomia , Tonsila Faríngea/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios , Criança , China , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Tonsila Palatina/cirurgia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304542

RESUMO

Adenoid and tonsil hypertrophy in children are closely related to asthma. Their pathogenesis and clinical symptoms are interacted on each other. The unified airway theory believes that the upper and lower respiratory tracts are connected through the release of systemic inflammatory factors. Studies have shown that adenoid and tonsillectomy surgery have a positive effect on the control and development of asthma. The symptoms of postoperative asthma, frequency of attacks, control medication and asthma severity related indicators in children were significantly reduced compared with those before surgery. It has been shown that asthma can increase the incidence of respiratory complications after adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy, so postoperative care after adenotonsillectomy is also important to control asthma. Understanding the relationship between diseases can help clinicians make a more comprehensive diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Tonsila Faríngea , Asma , Tonsilectomia , Adenoidectomia , Tonsila Faríngea/cirurgia , Criança , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Tonsila Palatina/cirurgia
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299206

RESUMO

Despite the intensive investigation of the molecular mechanism of skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the underlying signaling processes are not completely understood. Therefore, we used an overload model, in which the main synergist muscles (gastrocnemius, soleus) of the plantaris muscle were surgically removed, to cause a significant overload in the remaining plantaris muscle of 8-month-old Wistar male rats. SIRT1-associated pro-anabolic, pro-catabolic molecular signaling pathways, NAD and H2S levels of this overload-induced hypertrophy were studied. Fourteen days of overload resulted in a significant 43% (p < 0.01) increase in the mass of plantaris muscle compared to sham operated animals. Cystathionine-ß-synthase (CBS) activities and bioavailable H2S levels were not modified by overload. On the other hand, overload-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscle was associated with increased SIRT1 (p < 0.01), Akt (p < 0.01), mTOR, S6 (p < 0.01) and suppressed sestrin 2 levels (p < 0.01), which are mostly responsible for anabolic signaling. Decreased FOXO1 and SIRT3 signaling (p < 0.01) suggest downregulation of protein breakdown and mitophagy. Decreased levels of NAD+, sestrin2, OGG1 (p < 0.01) indicate that the redox milieu of skeletal muscle after 14 days of overloading is reduced. The present investigation revealed novel cellular interactions that regulate anabolic and catabolic processes in the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle.


Assuntos
Cistationina beta-Sintase/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Animais , Hipertrofia/genética , Hipertrofia/metabolismo , Hipertrofia/patologia , Masculino , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas/genética , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/genética , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Sirtuínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Sirtuínas/genética , Sirtuínas/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
13.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 506, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Teleosts display a spectacular diversity of craniofacial adaptations that often mediates ecological specializations. A considerable amount of research has revealed molecular players underlying skeletal craniofacial morphologies, but less is known about soft craniofacial phenotypes. Here we focus on an example of lip hypertrophy in the benthivorous Lake Tangnayika cichlid, Gnathochromis permaxillaris, considered to be a morphological adaptation to extract invertebrates out of the uppermost layer of mud bottom. We investigate the molecular and regulatory basis of lip hypertrophy in G. permaxillaris using a comparative transcriptomic approach. RESULTS: We identified a gene regulatory network involved in tissue overgrowth and cellular hypertrophy, potentially associated with the formation of a locally restricted hypertrophic lip in a teleost fish species. Of particular interest were the increased expression level of apoda and fhl2, as well as reduced expression of cyp1a, gimap8, lama5 and rasal3, in the hypertrophic lip region which have been implicated in lip formation in other vertebrates. Among the predicted upstream transcription factors, we found reduced expression of foxp1 in the hypertrophic lip region, which is known to act as repressor of cell growth and proliferation, and its function has been associated with hypertrophy of upper lip in human. CONCLUSION: Our results provide a genetic foundation for future studies of molecular players shaping soft and exaggerated, but locally restricted, craniofacial morphological changes in fish and perhaps across vertebrates. In the future, we advocate integrating gene regulatory networks of various craniofacial phenotypes to understand how they collectively govern trophic and behavioural adaptations.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Lábio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transcriptoma , Animais , Ciclídeos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead , Hipertrofia , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM , Proteínas Musculares , Filogenia , Proteínas Repressoras , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Vácuo
14.
Am J Sports Med ; 49(9): 2371-2378, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence, mainly from animal models, suggests that exercise during periods of pubertal growth can produce a hypertrophied anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and improve its mechanical properties. In humans, the only evidence of ACL hypertrophy comes from a small cross-sectional study of elite weight lifters and control participants; that study had methodological weaknesses and, thus, more evidence is needed. PURPOSE: To investigate bilateral differences in the ACL cross-sectional area (CSA) for evidence of unilateral hypertrophy in athletes who have habitually loaded 1 leg more than the other. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: We recruited 52 figure skaters and springboard divers (46 female and 6 male; mean age, 20.2 ± 2.7 years) because the former always land/jump on the same leg while the latter always drive the same leg into the board during their hurdle approach. Sport training for all participants began before puberty and continued throughout as well as after. Using oblique axial- and oblique sagittal-plane magnetic resonance imaging, we measured the ACL CSA and the anteroposterior diameter of the patellar tendon, respectively. In addition, isometric and isokinetic knee extensor and flexor peak torques were acquired using a dynamometer. Bilateral differences in the ACL CSA, patellar tendon diameter, and knee muscle strength were evaluated via 2-sided paired-samples t tests. Correlations between the bilateral difference in the ACL CSA and age of training onset as well as between the bilateral difference in the ACL CSA and years of training were also examined. RESULTS: A significantly larger ACL CSA (mean difference, 4.9% ± 14.0%; P = .041), as well as patellar tendon diameter (mean difference, 4.7% ± 9.4%; P = .002), was found in the landing/drive leg than in the contralateral leg. The bilateral difference in the ACL CSA, however, was not associated with the age of training onset or years of training. Last, the isometric knee flexor peak torque was significantly greater in the landing/drive leg than the contralateral leg (mean difference, 14.5% ± 33.8%; P = .019). CONCLUSION: Athletes who habitually loaded 1 leg more than the other before, during, and after puberty exhibited significant unilateral ACL hypertrophy. This study suggests that the ACL may be able to be "trained" in athletes. If done correctly, it could help lower the risk for ACL injuries.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Adolescente , Adulto , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Atletas , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
Inflamm Res ; 70(8): 847-858, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recognizing only sharp elevation in a short period of time, the COVID-19 SARS-CoV-2 propagation is more and more marked in the whole world. Induced inflammation afterwards infection engenders a high infiltration of immune cells and cytokines that triggers matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activation. These endopeptidases are mediators of the lung extracellular matrix (ECM), a basic element for alveoli structure and gas exchange. METHODS: When immune cells, MMPs, secreted cytokines and several other mediators are gathered a pathological matrix remodeling occurs. This phenomenon tends to tissue destruction in the first place and a pulmonary hypertrophy and fibrosis in the second place. FINDINGS: After pathological matrix remodeling establishment, pathological diseases take place even after infection state. Since post COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis is an emerging complication of the disease, there is an urge to better understand and characterize the implication of ECM remodeling during SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSION: Targeting MMPs and their inhibitors could be a probable solution for occurred events since there are many cured patients that remain with severe sequels even after the end of infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2 , Comunicação Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Fibrose/imunologia , Homeostase , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Sistema Imunitário , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Alvéolos Pulmonares/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar
16.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(5)2021 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063658

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle atrophy in an inevitable occurrence with advancing age, and a consequence of disease including cancer. Muscle atrophy in the elderly is managed by a regimen of resistance exercise and increased protein intake. Understanding the signaling that regulates muscle mass may identify potential therapeutic targets for the prevention and reversal of muscle atrophy in metabolic and neuromuscular diseases. This review covers the major anabolic and catabolic pathways that regulate skeletal muscle mass, with a focus on recent progress and potential new players.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Envelhecimento/patologia , Animais , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
17.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 163: 103371, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Muscle wasting has a negative effect on treatment toxicity and cancer prognosis. Resistance training appears to be a promising approach to counteract the loss of muscle mass. METHODS: Pubmed, Cochrane Library, SportDiscus and CINAHL. Randomized controlled resistance training trials with cancer survivros where eligible if lean body mass (LBM) or muscle mass were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 34 trials were included into the primary analysis. Compared to the control individuals, the intervention groups show a superiority in LBM of 0.85 kg (95 % CI = 0.26-1.43, p = .004). Isolated, the participants in the intervention groups show an increase in LBM of 0.51 kg (95 % CI = -0.05-1.06, p = .072); the control groups displayed a decrease of -0.59 kg (95 % CI= -1.04 to 0.06, p = .078). Supervision displayed an mediating role. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance training can counteract the loss of muscle mass in cancer patients. Especially in a supervised setting.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Treinamento de Força , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Músculos , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/terapia , Sobreviventes
18.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 147: 110799, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153930

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: allergy may be an important risk factor for adenotonsillar disease in children, although conflicting results have been reported in the literature. In previous articles, authors often failed in distinguishing between adeno-tonsillar hypertrophy and recurrent tonsillitis and in not discriminating between isolated or combined adenoid and tonsillar hypertrophy. AIM: to evaluate clinical evidence and biomarkers linking allergy to different phenotypes of adeno-tonsillar disease. Furthermore, we questioned whether anti-allergy treatment might prevent occurrence of adeno-tonsillar disease or improve its specific management. METHODS: our systematic review, in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) process, yielded 1010 articles finally screened. This resulted in 21 full texts that were included in a qualitative analysis. RESULTS: literature data support the association between allergy and combined adeno-tonsillar hypertrophy and isolated adenoid hypertrophy, whereas describe a mainly negative correlation between allergy and isolated tonsillar hypertrophy. The results of this review suggest that local allergic inflammation may play a role in adeno-tonsillar hypertrophy. Data correlating bacterial recurrent tonsillitis and allergy are few, although evidence from the lab revealed that allergy might suppress innate immunity in tonsillar tissue by reducing levels of anti-microbial proteins. CONCLUSION: basing on our qualitative analyses allergy should not be misdiagnosed in children with combined adenotonsillar hypertrophy or isolated adenoid hypertrophy, whereas evidence do not support a link between allergy and isolated tonsil hypertrophy. Finally, some data support a link between allergy and recurrent adeno-tonsillar infection although future studies are required to confirm this data. We summarized our conclusions in a practical algorithm.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Tonsilectomia , Tonsilite , Biomarcadores , Criança , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/complicações , Hipersensibilidade/diagnóstico , Hipertrofia , Tonsila Palatina , Tonsilite/complicações , Tonsilite/diagnóstico , Tonsilite/terapia
19.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 131(1): 339-351, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080919

RESUMO

Vitamin D deficiency, which is highly prevalent in the general population, exerts similar deleterious effects on skeletal muscles to those induced by cigarette smoking. We examined whether cigarette smoke (CS) exposure and/or vitamin D deficiency impairs the skeletal muscle hypertrophic response to overload. Male C57Bl/6JolaH mice on a normal or vitamin D-deficient diet were exposed to CS or room air for 18 wk. Six weeks after initiation of smoke or air exposure, sham surgery or denervation of the agonists of the left plantaris muscle was performed. The right leg served as internal control. Twelve weeks later, the hypertrophic response was assessed. CS exposure instigated loss of body and muscle mass, and increased lung inflammatory cell infiltration (P < 0.05), independently of diet. Maximal exercise capacity, whole body strength, in situ plantaris muscle force, and key markers of hypertrophic signaling (Akt, 4EBP1, and FoxO1) were not significantly affected by smoking or diet. The increase in plantaris muscle fiber cross-sectional area in response to overload was attenuated in vitamin D-deficient CS-exposed mice (smoking × diet interaction for hypertrophy, P = 0.03). In situ fatigue resistance was elevated in hypertrophied plantaris, irrespective of vitamin D deficiency and/or CS exposure. In conclusion, our data show that CS exposure or vitamin D deficiency alone did not attenuate the hypertrophic response of overloaded plantaris muscles, but this hypertrophic response was weakened when both conditions were combined. These data suggest that current smokers who also present with vitamin D deficiency may be less likely to respond to a training program.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Plantaris hypertrophy caused by compensatory overload after denervation of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles showed increased mass and fiber dimensions, but to a lesser extent when vitamin D deficiency was combined with cigarette smoking. Fatigue resistance was elevated in hypertrophied plantaris, irrespective of diet or smoking, whereas physical fitness, hypertrophic markers, and in situ plantaris force were similar. These data showed that the hypertrophic response to overload is attenuated when both conditions are combined.


Assuntos
Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Animais , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Esquelético , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações
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