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1.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 58(9): 706-708, 2022 Sep 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36069092

RESUMO

A 19-year-old patient with bilateral eyelid swelling for more than 2 years visited the Department of Ophthalmology. Physical examination disclosed a moderately active mass in the upper eyelid and lacrimal gland area in each eye. Orbital MRI showed that the lacrimal glands were significantly enlarged and moved forward in both eyes, and the enlargement was more severe in the left eye. The patient was admitted twice to the hospital for removal of orbital masses and was diagnosed as orbital Rosai-Dorfman disease by histopathological examination. During three months of follow-up, the patient was in good physical condition, and there was no tumor recurrence.


Assuntos
Histiocitose Sinusal , Aparelho Lacrimal , Doenças Orbitárias , Adulto , Pálpebras , Histiocitose Sinusal/diagnóstico , Histiocitose Sinusal/patologia , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Aparelho Lacrimal/patologia , Doenças Orbitárias/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
2.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 5096406, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36081428

RESUMO

Adenoid hypertrophy (AH) is a common disease in otorhinolaryngology. Children with chronic snoring and hypoxia are susceptible to long-term nasal obstruction, while long-term open-mouth breathing may cause craniofacial bone development disorders and dull facial expressions, the so-called adenoid face. The purpose of this work is to analyze the influence of AH-induced airway obstruction (AO) on the growth and development of craniomaxillofacial structure and respiratory function (RF) in children. The clinical data of 56 AH children (observation group) and 42 healthy children with physical examination (control group) who visited the Hebei Eye Hospital during the same period were retrospectively analyzed. All children received acoustic rhinometry and X-ray cephalometric measurements. The upper airway structure, sleep disorder score, and A/N value of nasopharyngeal lateral X-ray images were compared between cases and controls. For AH children, sleep tests were also performed to assess their RF. X-ray cephalometric measurements of facial morphology showed obvious vertical growth, mandibular retrognathia, and enlarged mandibular angle in AH children. AH mainly affects the size of the nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal airway. AH children presented with higher nasal airway resistance (5.11 ± 1.95 cmH2O/L min) and lower nasopharyngeal volume (NPV) (16.86 ± 3.93 cm3) than controls. Of the AH children, 45 had abnormal RF, including 4 with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The A/N value of nasopharyngeal lateral X-ray images was significantly higher in AH children than in controls. Besides, worse sleep quality was found in AH children. The above differences were all of statistical significance. The above indicates that AH can affect the size of the nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal airway, change children's respiratory mode and RF, increase nasal resistance, and decrease NPV, resulting in upper respiratory tract stenosis, as well as craniomaxillofacial and oral malformations, which affects children's normal growth and development.


Assuntos
Tonsila Faríngea , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias , Tonsila Faríngea/diagnóstico por imagem , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/etiologia , Criança , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
J Dance Med Sci ; 26(3): 202-203, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116003
4.
Physiol Rep ; 10(18): e15434, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117462

RESUMO

Chronic consumption of Western-type diet (WD) induces cardiac structural and functional abnormalities. Previously, we have shown that WD consumption in male ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase) deficient mice associates with accelerated body weight (BW) gain, cardiac systolic dysfunction with increased preload, and exacerbation of hypertrophy, apoptosis, and inflammation. This study investigated the role of ATM deficiency in WD-induced changes in functional and biochemical parameters of the heart in female mice. Six-week-old wild-type (WT) and ATM heterozygous knockout (hKO) female mice were placed on WD or NC (normal chow) for 14 weeks. BW gain, fat accumulation, and cardiac functional and biochemical parameters were measured 14 weeks post-WD. WD-induced subcutaneous and total fat contents normalized to body weight were higher in WT-WD versus hKO-WD. Heart function measured using echocardiography revealed decreased percent fractional shortening and ejection fraction, and increased LV end systolic diameter and volume in WT-WD versus WT-NC. These functional parameters remained unchanged in hKO-WD versus hKO-NC. Myocardial fibrosis, myocyte hypertrophy, and apoptosis were higher in WT-WD versus WT-NC. However, apoptosis was significantly lower and hypertrophy was significantly higher in hKO-WD versus WT-WD. MMP-9 and Bax expression, and Akt activation were higher in WT-WD versus WT-NC. PARP-1 (full-length) expression and mTOR activation were lower in WT-WD versus hKO-WD. Thus, ATM deficiency in female mice attenuates fat weight gain, preserves heart function, and associates with decreased cardiac cell apoptosis in response to WD.


Assuntos
Ataxia Telangiectasia , Cardiopatias , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hipertrofia , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077382

RESUMO

Myocilin is an enigmatic glaucoma-associated glycoprotein whose biological role remains incompletely understood. To gain novel insight into its normal function, we used transposon-mediated transgenesis to generate the first zebrafish line stably overexpressing myocilin [Tg(actb1:myoc-2A-mCherry)]. qPCR showed an approximately four-fold increased myocilin expression in transgenic zebrafish embryos (144 hpf). Adult (13 months old) transgenic animals displayed variable and age-dependent ocular anterior segment alterations. Almost 60% of two-year-old male, but not female, transgenic zebrafish developed enlarged eyes with severe asymmetrical and variable abnormalities in the anterior segment, characterized by corneal limbus hypertrophy, and thickening of the cornea, iris, annular ligament and lens capsule. The most severe phenotype presented small or absent ocular anterior chamber and pupils, due to iris overgrowth along with dysplastic retinal growth and optic nerve hypertrophy. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased presence of myocilin in most altered ocular tissues of adult transgenic animals, as well as signs of retinal gliosis and expanded ganglion cells and nerve fibers. The preliminary results indicate that these cells contributed to retinal dysplasia. Visual impairment was demonstrated in all old male transgenic zebrafish. Transcriptomic analysis of the abnormal transgenic eyes identified disrupted expression of genes involved in lens, muscular and extracellular matrix activities, among other processes. In summary, the developed transgenic zebrafish provides a new tool to investigate this puzzling protein and provides evidence for the role of zebrafish myocilin in ocular anterior segment and retinal biology, through the influence of extracellular matrix organization and cellular proliferation.


Assuntos
Anormalidades do Olho , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Proteínas do Olho/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Hipertrofia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Retina/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077544

RESUMO

Doxorubicin (Dox) is a commonly used anthracycline chemotherapy with a side effect of cardiotoxicity, which may increase the risk of heart failure for cancer patients. Although various studies have demonstrated the cardioprotective property of dapagliflozin (DAPA), a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, the detailed mechanism underlying its effect on Dox-induced cardiomyopathy is still limited. In this study, we showed that DAPA induced the activation of AKT/PI3K signaling in cardiac myoblast H9c2 cells following Dox treatment, leading to the upregulation of antioxidant HO-1, NQO1, and SOD, as well as an improved mitochondrial dysfunction via Nrf2. In addition, the reduced oxidative stress resulted in the downregulation of hypertrophy (ANP and BNP) and fibrosis (phospho-Smad3, collagen I, fibronectin, and α-SMA) markers. Furthermore, the inflammatory IL-8 concentration was inhibited after DAPA, possibly through PI3K/AKT/Nrf2/p38/NF-κB signaling. Moreover, our results were validated in vivo, and echocardiography results suggested an improved cardiac function in DAPA-receiving rats. In summary, we demonstrated that the administration of DAPA could mitigate the Dox-elicited cardiotoxicity by reducing oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, fibrosis, hypertrophy, and inflammation via PI3K/AKT/Nrf2 signaling.


Assuntos
Cardiotoxicidade , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Animais , Apoptose , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Cardiotoxicidade/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Fibrose , Glucosídeos , Hipertrofia/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Remodelação Ventricular
7.
Clin J Sport Med ; 32(5): 531-545, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36083329

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Blood flow restriction (BFR) training is an increasingly applied tool with potential benefits in muscular hypertrophy, strength, and endurance. This study investigates the effectiveness of BFR training relative to other forms of training on muscle strength, hypertrophy, and endurance. DATA SOURCES: We performed systematic searches of MEDLINE, Embase, and PubMed and assessed the methodological quality of included studies using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. MAIN RESULTS: We included 53 randomized controlled trials with 31 included in meta-analyses. For muscular strength comparing low-intensity BFR (LI-BFR) training with high-intensity resistance training (HIRT), the pooled mean difference (MD) for 1 repetition maximum was 5.34 kg (95% CI, 2.58-8.09; P < 0.01) favoring HIRT. When comparing LI-BFR training with HIRT for torque, the MD was 6.35 N·m (95% CI, 0.5-12.3; P = 0.04) also favoring HIRT. However, comparing LI-BFR with low-intensity resistance training (LIRT) for torque, there was a MD of 9.94 N·m (95% CI, 5.43-14.45; P < 0.01) favoring BFR training. Assessing muscle hypertrophy, the MD in cross-sectional area was 0.96 cm2 (95% CI, 0.21-1.7; P = 0.01) favoring pooled BFR training compared with nonocclusive training. Assessing endurance, V̇o2 maximum demonstrated a greater mean increase of 0.37 mL/kg/min (95% CI, -0.97 to 3.17; P = 0.64) in BFR endurance training compared with endurance training alone. CONCLUSION: Blood flow restriction training produced increases in muscular strength, hypertrophy, and endurance. Comparing LI-BFR training with HIRT, HIRT was a significantly better training modality for increasing muscle hypertrophy and strength. However, LI-BFR was superior when compared with a similar low-intensity protocol. Blood flow restriction training is potentially beneficial to those unable to tolerate the high loads of HIRT; however, better understanding of its risk to benefit ratio is needed before clinical application. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 1.


Assuntos
Terapia de Restrição de Fluxo Sanguíneo , Treinamento de Força , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força/métodos
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(36): e30171, 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086706

RESUMO

Ligamentum flavum hypertrophy (LFH) is a known contributor to lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS). However, the clinical significance and quantitative role of LFH compared to other components, such as disc bulging and facet hypertrophy, have not yet been examined. We investigated the correlation between the quantitative radiological factors, clinical symptoms, and outcomes in patients with LSCS. In total, 163 patients diagnosed with single-level (L4-L5) stenosis were included. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to claudication severity: >100 m for mild (n = 92) and < 100 m for severe (n = 71). The visual analog scale (VAS) was used to quantify back and leg pain, and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Short form-36 (SF-36) physical component summary (PCS) scores, and Macnab criteria were evaluated as clinical factors 6 months after treatment. We measured the baseline canal cross-sectional area, ligamentum flavum (LF) area, disc herniation area, dural sac area, fat area, and LF thickness using MRI. A comparative analysis was performed to evaluate the association between radiologic and clinical factors. Additionally, further comparative analyses between the types of surgeries were performed. Among various radiologic factors, the baseline LF thickness (odds ratio [OR] 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25-2.41) was the only major contributing factor to the severity of claudication in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. The types of surgery (decompression alone vs fusion) did not significantly differ in terms of their clinical outcomes, including back and leg VAS, ODI, SF-36 PCS, and satisfaction with the MacNab classification. LF thickness is a major factor contributing to claudication severity.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Ligamento Amarelo , Estenose Espinal , Dor nas Costas , Constrição Patológica , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Claudicação Intermitente/etiologia , Perna (Membro) , Ligamento Amarelo/cirurgia , Canal Medular , Estenose Espinal/complicações , Estenose Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Espinal/cirurgia
9.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 17(1): 415, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety profile of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) augmentation in chondral procedures are controversial. This systematic review updated the current evidence on MSCs augmentation for chondral procedures in patients with symptomatic chondral defects of the knee. METHODS: This study followed the PRISMA guidelines. The literature search was updated in August 2022. Two independent authors accessed PubMed, Google scholar, Embase, and Scopus. No additional filters or time constrains were used for the search. A cross reference of the bibliographies was also performed. All the clinical studies investigating surgical procedures for chondral defects of the knee augmented with MSCs were accessed. Defects of both tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints were included. The following patient reported outcomes measures (PROMs) were retrieved at baseline and last follow-up: Visual Analogic Scale (VAS), Tegner Activity Scale, Lysholm Knee Scoring System, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC). Return to daily activities and data on hypertrophy, failure, revision surgery were also collected. Failures were defined as the recurrence of symptoms attributable to the index procedure. Revisions were defined as any reoperation at the site of the index procedure. RESULTS: A total of 15 clinical studies (411 procedures) were included. Patients returned to their prior sport activity at 2.8 ± 0.4 months. All the PROMs improved at last follow-up: Tegner (P = 0.0002), Lysholm (P < 0.0001), the IKDC (P < 0.0001), VAS (P < 0.0001). At a mean of 30.1 ± 13.9 months, 3.1% (2 of 65 patients) reported graft hypertrophy, 3.2% (2 of 63) were considered failures. No surgical revision procedures were reported. Given the lack of available quantitative data for inclusion, a formal comparison of surgical procedures was not conducted. CONCLUSION: MSCs augmentation in selected chondral procedures could be effective, with a low rate of complications. Further investigations are required to overcome the current limitations to allow the clinical translation of MSCs in regenerative medicine.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cartilagens , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Doenças das Cartilagens/cirurgia , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Joelho , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 42: 94, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36034044

RESUMO

Introduction: otolaryngological disorders vary among children due to diverse underlying aetiologies and pathologic processes.This study audits the pattern of paediatric ear, nose and throat diseases seen at the Rivers State University Teaching Hospital. Methods: a cross-sectional retrospective review of medical records of children (aged 0 - 17 years) seen between 1st January 2018 and 31st December 2020 were retrieved and analysed using IBM SPSS version 25.0. Results were presented as frequencies and percentages for categorical variables and mean and standard deviation for continuous variables. Results: a total of 5,533 paediatric visits were documented over the study period, making up 36.7% of all patients seen. There were 2,516 completed paediatric medical records. Males slightly predominated, accounting for 1,369 (54.5%), mean age was 6.77 years (SD ± 5.10) and ranged 2 weeks to 17 years. Age groups 0-4 years were the most affected. Ear disorders were the commonest disorders found (1637, 65.1%), followed by throat/neck disorders (650, 25.8%) and then nose disorders (229, 9.1%). The top 2 disorders based on regions were as follows: Cerumen Auris (426, 16.9%) and Otitis Externa (252, 10.2%) for ear disorders; Chronic / Allergic rhinosinusitis (107, 4.3%) and foreign body in the nose (72, 2.9%) for nose disorders and Adenotonsillar hypertrophy (544, 21.6%) and speech disorders (23, 0.9%) for throat disorders respectively. Conclusion: among the paediatric group of patients, ear disorders predominated. Cerumen Auris, Adenotonsillar hypertrophy and chronic/allergic rhinosinusitis were the commonest ENT disorders.


Assuntos
Otopatias , Otorrinolaringopatias , Rinite Alérgica , Criança , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Nigéria , Estudos Retrospectivos , Universidades
11.
Cells ; 11(16)2022 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36010581

RESUMO

Improvements in growth-related traits reduce fish time and production costs to reach market size. Feed deprivation and refeeding cycles have been introduced to maximize aquaculture profits through compensatory growth. However, the molecular compensatory growth signature is still uncertain in Nile tilapia. In this study, fish were subjected to two weeks of fasting followed by two weeks of refeeding. The growth curve in refed tilapia was suggestive of a partial compensatory response. Transcriptome profiling of starved and refed fish was conducted to identify genes regulating muscle atrophy and compensatory growth. Pairwise comparisons revealed 5009 and 478 differentially expressed (differential) transcripts during muscle atrophy and recovery, respectively. Muscle atrophy appears to be mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy/lysosome systems. Autophagy-related 2A, F-box and WD repeat domain containing 7, F-box only protein 32, miR-137, and miR-153 showed exceptional high expression suggesting them as master regulators of muscle atrophy. On the other hand, the muscle compensatory growth response appears to be mediated by the continuous stimulation of muscle hypertrophy which exceeded normal levels found in control fish. For instance, genes promoting ribosome biogenesis or enhancing the efficiency of translational machinery were upregulated in compensatory muscle growth. Additionally, myogenic microRNAs (e.g., miR-1 and miR-206), and hypertrophy-associated microRNAs (e.g., miR-27a-3p, miR-29c, and miR-29c) were reciprocally expressed to favor hypertrophy during muscle recovery. Overall, the present study provided insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating muscle mass in fish. The study pinpoints extensive growth-related gene networks that could be used to inform breeding programs and also serve as valuable genomic resources for future mechanistic studies.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , MicroRNAs , Animais , Ciclídeos/genética , Ciclídeos/metabolismo , Hipertrofia/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular/genética , Atrofia Muscular/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(16)2022 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36012332

RESUMO

The reason for the exceptional longevity of the naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) remains a mystery to researchers. We assumed that evolutionarily, H. glaber acquired the ability to quickly stabilize the functioning of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to adjust metabolism to external challenges. To test this, a comparison of the hepatic mitochondria and ER of H. glaber and C57BL/6 mice was done. Electron microscopy showed that 2-months-old mice have more developed rough ER (RER) than smooth ER (SER), occupying ~17 and 2.5% of the hepatocytic area correspondingly, and these values do not change with age. On the other hand, in 1-week-old H. glaber, RER occupies only 13% constantly decreasing with age, while SER occupies 35% in a 1-week-old animal, constantly rising with age. The different localization of mitochondria in H. glaber and mouse hepatocytes was confirmed by confocal and electron microscopy: while in H. glaber, mitochondria were mainly clustered around the nucleus and on the periphery of the cell, in mouse hepatocytes they were evenly distributed throughout the cell. We suggest that the noted structural and spatial features of ER and mitochondria in H. glaber reflect adaptive rearrangements aimed at greater tolerance of the cellular system to challenges, primarily hypoxia and endogenous and exogenous toxins. Different mechanisms of adaptive changes including an activated hepatic detoxification system as a hormetic response, are discussed considering the specific metabolic features of the naked mole rat.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias , Ratos-Toupeira , Animais , Retículo Endoplasmático , Hepatócitos , Hipertrofia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
13.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 595, 2022 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35971074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Longissimus muscle samples were collected from lambs exposed in utero to mycotoxins [E-, endophyte-free tall fescue seed without ergot alkaloids (negative control) or E + , endophyte-infected tall fescue seed containing ergot alkaloids] during mid-gestation (MID; E + /E-) or late-gestation (LATE; E-/E +) harvested at two developmental stages (FETAL, gestational d133) or (MAT, near maturity, 250 d of age; n = 3/treatment/developmental stage). Muscle samples were examined to determine the impact of in utero mycotoxin exposure on skeletal muscle fiber hypertrophy and the miRNA profile at FETAL and MAT. RESULTS: Longissimus weight was greater (P < 0.05) in E + /E- lambs compared to E-/E + lambs at MAT; however, FETAL longissimus weight did not differ (P > 0.10) between fescue treatments. Type I fiber cross sectional area was larger (P < 0.10) for E + /E- than E-/E + at MAT but did not differ (P > 0.10) between fescue treatments at FETAL. Type II fiber area was larger (P < 0.05) at MAT in E + /E- compared to E-/E + but did not differ (P < 0.05) between fescue treatments at FETAL. Cross-sectional Type I and Type II longissimus muscle fiber area increased (P < 0.05) from FETAL to MAT by 6.86-fold and 10.83-fold, respectively. The ratio of Type II:Type I muscle fibers was lower (P = 0.04) at MAT compared to FETAL. There were 120 miRNA differentially expressed (q < 0.05) between FETAL and MAT. Maternal fescue treatment did not alter (q > 0.05) expression of miRNAs in the longissimus muscle. miR-133, -29a, -22-3p, and -410-3p were identified as highly significant with a log2 fold change > 4. In vitro satellite cell cultures showed that selected miRNAs (miR-22-3p, 29a, 27a, and 133a) are differentially regulated during proliferation and differentiation indicating a role of miRNA in muscle hypertrophy. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to mycotoxins did not alter fiber type but had long-term impacts on postnatal muscle hypertrophy and cross-sectional area. The miRNA profile of the longissimus was not altered by Maternal mycotoxin exposure at FETAL or MAT. Developmental age altered the miRNA transcriptome and mRNA expression of known genes related to muscle growth. These results indicate that Maternal exposure to E + fescue seed during LATE gestation can alter postnatal muscle hypertrophy in sheep; however, these changes are not regulated by the miRNA transcriptome of the longissimus muscle.


Assuntos
Alcaloides de Claviceps , Festuca , MicroRNAs , Micotoxinas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Feminino , Peso Fetal , Hipertrofia/induzido quimicamente , MicroRNAs/genética , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Gravidez , Ovinos
14.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 152(1): 429, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931508

RESUMO

The male and female southern black drum possess highly specialized, bilateral, striated sonic muscles used in sound production during courtship by males and in the production of disturbance calls by both males and females. Androgen-driven hypertrophy of the sonic muscles in males during the late spring spawning period results in increased growth of sonic muscle mass followed by post-spawning atrophy of sonic muscles. We examined changes in sonic muscle morphology and in the sound characteristics of males and females underlying seasonal changes in sonic muscle mass and muscle contraction as measured by sound production. In males, the sound pressure level increased while sound pulse duration decreased with increasing sonic muscle mass, indicating that sonic muscle fibers contract with greater force and shorter duration during the spawning season. Interpulse interval and the total number of pulses varied seasonally with muscle mass, which suggests that the effects of steroids on male southern black drum sound characteristics are more pronounced peripherally than in the central nervous system. In females, no increase in sonic muscle mass was found, and therefore, a change was not observed in the acoustic variables analyzed. Seasonal sonic muscle hypertrophy in males likely functions as a secondary sexual characteristic that maximizes vocalization amplitude or loudness during the spawning period.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Animais , Atrofia , Feminino , Hipertrofia , Masculino , Músculos , Perciformes/fisiologia , Som , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia
17.
J Strength Cond Res ; 36(8): 2176-2185, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35916746

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Davies, TB, Halaki, M, Orr, R, Mitchell, L, Helms, ER, Clarke, J, and Hackett, DA. Effect of set structure on upper-body muscular hypertrophy and performance in recreationally trained men and women. J Strength Cond Res 36(8): 2176-2185, 2022-This study explored the effect of volume-equated traditional-set and cluster-set structures on muscular hypertrophy and performance after high-load resistance training manipulating the bench press exercise. Twenty-one recreationally trained subjects (12 men and 9 women) performed a 3-week familiarization phase and were then randomized into one of two 8-week upper-body and lower-body split programs occurring over 3 and then progressing to 4 sessions per week. Subjects performed 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 85% one repetition maximum (1RM) using a traditional-set structure (TRAD, n = 10), which involved 5 minutes of interset rest only, or a cluster-set structure, which included 30-second inter-repetition rest and 3 minutes of interset rest (CLUS, n = 11). A 1RM bench press, repetitions to failure at 70% 1RM, regional muscle thickness, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were used to estimate changes in muscular strength, local muscular endurance, regional muscular hypertrophy, and body composition, respectively. Velocity loss was assessed using a linear position transducer at the intervention midpoint. TRAD demonstrated a significantly greater velocity loss magnitude (g = 1.50) and muscle thickness of the proximal pectoralis major (g = -0.34) compared with CLUS. There were no significant differences between groups for the remaining outcomes, although a small effect size favoring TRAD was observed for the middle region of the pectoralis major (g = -0.25). It seems that the greater velocity losses during sets observed in traditional-set compared with cluster-set structures may promote superior muscular hypertrophy within specific regions of the pectoralis major in recreationally trained subjects.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético , Treinamento de Força , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
18.
Adipocyte ; 11(1): 510-528, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946137

RESUMO

Metabolic disorders related to obesity are largely dependent on adipose tissue hypertrophy, which involves adipocyte hypertrophy and increased adipogenesis. Adiposize is regulated by lipid accumulation as a result of increased lipogenesis (mainly lipid uptake in mature adipocytes) and reduced lipolysis. Using realtime 2D cell culture analyses of lipid uptake, we show (1) that high glucose concentration (4.5 g/L) was required to accumulate oleic acid increasing lipid droplet size until unilocularization similar to mature adipocytes in few days, (2) oleic acid reduced Peroxisome-Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARG) gene transcription and (3) insulin counteracted oleic acid-induced increase of lipid droplet size. Although the lipolytic activity observed in high versus low glucose (1 g/L) conditions was not altered, insulin was found to inhibit oleic acid induced gene transcription required for lipid storage such as Cell Death Inducing DFFA Like Effectors (CIDEC) and G0S2 (G0 switch gene S2), possibly through PPARA activity. Although this signalling pathway requires more detailed investigation, the results point out the differential mechanisms involved in the pro-adipogenic effect of insulin in absence versus its protective effect on adiposity in presence of oleic acid uptake.Abbreviations: AICAR, 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-D-ribofuranoside; AMPK, AMP-Activated protein kinase, ASCs, adipose stem cell; ATGL, adipose triglyceride lipase; BSA, Bovine serum albumin; CEBPA, CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha; CIDEs, Cell Death Inducing DFFA Like Effectors; dA, differentiated adipocyte; DMEM, Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium; FABPs, Fatty Acid Binding Proteins; FAT/CD36, Fatty acid translocase; FCS, Foetal calf serum; FN1, fibronectin 1; FFA, free fatty acid; G0S2, G0 switch gene S2; GLUTs, Glucose transporters; GPR120, G protein-coupled receptor 120; HG, high glucose; HSL, hormone sensitive lipase; INSR, insulin receptor; LG, low glucose; OA, oleic acid; PBS, Phosphate buffer saline; PPARs, Peroxisome-Proliferator Activated Receptors; PKA, Protein kinase cyclic AMP-dependent; PKG, Protein kinase cyclic GMP dependent; PTGS2, cytochrome oxidase 2; RTCA, realtime cell analysis; TG, triglyceride.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Insulina , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertrofia/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Lipólise , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ácido Oleico/metabolismo , Ácido Oleico/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo
19.
Acta Biomater ; 150: 83-95, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917912

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are ideal candidates for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine because of their proliferative capacity and differentiation potential. However, the hypertrophic phenotype occurring in late MSCs chondrogenic differentiation severely limits their clinical translation. While hypertrophy inhibition strategies have been explored, the role of cell metabolism in MSCs chondrogenesis has rarely been studied. In this study, we found that hypertrophy occurred in the late stage of MSCs chondrogenesis with increased fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and decreased glycolysis, as well as cell-cell junctions impairment. Therefore, a N-cadherin mimetic hydrogel was developed to enhance cell-cell junctions via N-cadherin mimetic peptides and high seeding density. The N-cadherin mimetic hydrogel attenuated hypertrophy through regulating glycolysis and FAO. The regulation of cell-cell junctions mechanotransduction on cell metabolism was partly mediated by Hif-1α. In addition, 2D and 3D culture of N-cadherin mimetic hydrogel had similar functions on N-cadherin expression and chondrogenesis in MSCs. Our study is the first to reveal that metabolic remodeling induced hypertrophy during MSCs chondrogenesis, and indicate the effect of N-cadherin mimetic hydrogel on hypertrophy inhibition of MSCs. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: The development of hypertrophy during MSCs chondrogenesis severely limits its clinical translation. Various strategies have been explored to inhibit hypertrophy by chemical and/or mechanical stimulation. However, the role of cell metabolism in MSCs chondrogenesis has rarely been studied. In this study, we developed an RNA sequencing at day 0, 7, and 21 of MSCs chondrogenesis to clarify the mechanisms that mediate hypertrophy. We found that hypertrophy occurred in the late stage of MSCs chondrogenesis with increased FAO and decreased glycolysis, as well as impaired cell-cell junctions. We also found that N-cadherin mimetic hydrogel attenuated hypertrophy and enhanced chondrogenesis through regulating glycolysis and FAO. Our finding provides new insights into the application of MSCs in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.


Assuntos
Condrogênese , Hidrogéis , Caderinas/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Hipertrofia , Mecanotransdução Celular
20.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 47(7): 895-901, 2022 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36039586

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nasal congestion is often the main symptom of the patients with non-allergic rhinitis, who have inferior turbinate hypertrophy if getting poor treatment effect. Plasma treatment for inferior turbinate hypertrophy can effectively improve nasal obstruction. Generally, plasma treatment with multiple puncture sites, makes patients intraoperative painful and postoperative bleeding, which let patients often fear of surgery. Postoperative nasal adhesion or lower turbinate scar and other complications sometimes happened, and some patients still feel nasal obstruction due to severe mucosal damage and scar formation. We innovatively used one-point-three-side plasma turbinate volume reduction in the treatment of inferior turbinate hypertrophy, in order to reduce complication, improve symptoms, and enhance curative effect. METHODS: A total of 111 patients with non-allergic rhinitis with complete data due to hypertrophy of inferior turbinate and poor drug treatment from Nov. 2011 to Oct. 2019. The hypertrophic inferior turbinate of patients with non-allergic rhinitis was ablated by plasma turbinate volume reduction, and the symptom scores of patients were evaluated by visual analog scales (VAS) before surgery, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. The intraoperative pain was scored by VAS. The pathological morphology of nasal mucosa was observed before and after operation in some patients. RESULTS: The nasal obstruction score of the patients was significantly lower at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months after the operation (all P<0.05). The distribution of submucosal blood vessels and glands was improved by postoperative pathological observation. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma turbinate volume reduction with one-point-three-side is effective with minimally invasion, and less complication, which is worthy of clinical promotion.


Assuntos
Obstrução Nasal , Doenças dos Seios Paranasais , Rinite , Cicatriz/patologia , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Obstrução Nasal/complicações , Obstrução Nasal/cirurgia , Doenças dos Seios Paranasais/patologia , Rinite/complicações , Rinite/patologia , Rinite/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Conchas Nasais/patologia , Conchas Nasais/cirurgia
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