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1.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 120(9. Vyp. 2): 46-54, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076645

RESUMO

Sleep-disordered breathing is one of the most common sleep-associated disorders. At the same time, their prevalence tends to increase with age. One of the most common forms of respiratory failure during sleep is obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA), which is characterized by repeated episodes of cessation of breathing or a significant decrease in respiratory flow while maintaining respiratory effort as a result of obstruction of the upper respiratory tract. Drugs have different effects on OSA. There are drugs that worsen OSA, drugs that do not affect OSA, and drugs that improve OSA. Benzodiazepines, opioids, muscle relaxants, and male hormones adversely affect OSA. Also of clinical interest are drugs that do not affect OSA and can even potentially improve respiratory function during sleep. These include anti-inflammatory drugs, diuretics, bronchodilators, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, antiparkinsonian, decongestant drugs, drugs for intranasal use, topical soft tissue lubricant, female sex hormones. Finally, the effect of a number of drugs on OSA is not definitively established and requires further study (benzodiazepine receptor agonist hypnotics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, opiate receptor antagonists, antidepressants, proton-pump inhibitors, TNF-α antagonists, glutamate receptor antagonists, drugs for the treatment of acromegaly, drugs for the treatment of narcolepsy). Raising awareness of doctors of different specialties about the impact of various drugs on OSA can not only prevent the deterioration of respiratory distress during sleep, but also, with a rational individual approach, makes it possible to even improve the quality of sleep and blood saturation, thereby contributing to a more favorable course of OSA and the underlying disease.


Assuntos
Síndromes da Apneia do Sono , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Feminino , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Prevalência , Sono , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22288, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120732

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dexmedetomidine and midazolam have become important approaches for the sedation of dental surgery. However, the comparison of these 2 drugs for the sedation of dental surgery has not been well established. We conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of dexmedetomidine versus midazolam for dental surgery. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials are searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the influence of dexmedetomidine versus midazolam on dental surgery are included. Two investigators independently have searched articles, extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies. Meta-analysis is performed using the random-effect model. RESULTS: Five RCTs and 420 patients are included in the meta-analysis. Compared with midazolam intervention for dental surgery, dexmedetomidine intervention has similar lowest SpO2, lowest heart rate and lowest systolic blood pressure, duration of surgery, and total volume of local anesthetic, but is associated with stable and reduced lowest diastolic blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Similar benefits of dexmedetomidine and midazolam intervention are observed for the sedation of dental surgery in terms of SpO2, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and the volume of local anesthetic, but dexmedetomidine may result in more stable diastolic blood pressure.


Assuntos
Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Midazolam/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Bucais , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Diástole/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Duração da Cirurgia , Oxigênio/sangue , Sístole/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22561, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120743

RESUMO

Although sedation for bronchoscopy improves patient comfort, there is a risk of oversedation in elderly patients. Only a few studies have evaluated the efficacy and safety of sedation for bronchoscopy in elderly patients.This study retrospectively analyzed records of 210 patients who underwent transbronchial brushing and/or biopsy under midazolam sedation at National Hospital Organization Omuta National Hospital between June 2017 and October 2019. Patients were administered 1 mg midazolam following 10 mL 4% lidocaine inhalation. When sedation was insufficient, 0.5 mg midazolam was administered additionally. Diagnostic yield, incidence of complications, amount of oxygen supplementation, decreases in percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2), changes in blood pressure, and degree of comfort were analyzed.Patients were divided into the elderly (n = 102) and non-elderly (n = 108) groups. No significant differences were observed in diagnostic yield and procedure time between the 2 groups, and no severe adverse events were noted in the elderly group. The degree of comfort during bronchoscopy was significantly higher in the elderly group. In patients administered < 2 mg midazolam, the amount of oxygen supplementation and decreases in SpO2 were significantly smaller in the elderly group compared to the non-elderly group.The risk of adverse events related to midazolam sedation in bronchoscopy does not increase with age, and sedation improves comfort during flexible bronchoscopy in elderly patients. Moreover, a total dose of midazolam <2 mg is safe for elderly patients undergoing bronchoscopy.


Assuntos
Broncoscopia , Sedação Consciente , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Midazolam/uso terapêutico , Conforto do Paciente , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oxigênio/sangue , Oxigenoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21684, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871884

RESUMO

Ultrasound-guided interscalene block (US-ISB) and nerve stimulator-guided interscalene block (NS-ISB) have both been commonly used for anesthesia in shoulder arthroscopic surgery.This study aims to compare which method provides surgical block as a sole anesthesia. In this retrospective study, 1158 patients who underwent shoulder arthroscopic rotator cuff tear repair surgery under ISB between October 2002 and March 2018 were classified into either the US-ISB or NS-ISB anesthesia groups. Demographic and anesthetic characteristics and intraoperative medications were analyzed after propensity score matching and compared between the 2 groups.There was a 0.5% rate of conversion to general anesthesia in the US-ISB group and a 6.7% rate in the NS-ISB group (P < .001). The volume of local anesthetics used for ISB was 29.7 ±â€Š8.9 mL in the US-ISB group versus 38.1 ±â€Š4.8 mL in the NS-ISB group (P < .001). The intraoperative use of analgesics and sedatives such as fentanyl, midazolam and propofol in combination was significantly lowered in the US-ISB group (P < .001).US-ISB is a more effective and safer approach for providing intense block to NS-ISB because it can decrease the incidence of conversion to general anesthesia and reduce the use of analgesics and sedatives during arthroscopic shoulder surgery.


Assuntos
Artroscopia , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anestesia Geral , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO5395, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935826

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of palliative sedation use and related factors. METHODS: An observational study based on data collected via electronic questionnaire comprising 23 close-ended questions and sent to physicians living and working in the state of São Paulo. Demographic data, prevalence and frequency of palliative sedation use, participant's familiarity with the practice and related motivating factors were analyzed. In order to minimize memory bias, questions addressing use frequency and motivating factors were limited to the last year prior to survey completion date. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data. RESULTS: In total, 20,168 e-mails were sent and 324 valid answers obtained, resulting in 2% adherence. The overall prevalence of palliative sedation use over the course of professional practice was 68%. However, only 48% of respondents reported having used palliative sedation during the last year, primarily to relieve pain (35%). The frequency of use ranged from one to six times (66%) during the study period and the main reason for not using was the lack of eligible patients (64%). Approximately 83% of physicians felt comfortable using palliative sedation but only 26% reported having specific academic training in this field. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of palliative sedation use is high, the primary indication being pain relief. However, frequency of use is low due to lack of eligible patients.


Assuntos
Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Paliativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Terminal , Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados/ética , Humanos , Dor , Cuidados Paliativos/ética , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Prevalência
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0234801, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Significant improvements in clinical outcome can be achieved by implementing effective strategies to optimise pain management, reduce sedative exposure, and prevent and treat delirium in ICU patients. One important strategy is the monitoring of pain, agitation and delirium (PAD bundle). We hypothesised that there is no sufficient financial benefit to implement a monitoring strategy in a Diagnosis Related Group (DRG)-based reimbursement system, therefore we expected better clinical and decreased economic outcome for monitored patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study using routinely collected data. We used univariate and multiple linear analysis, machine-learning analysis and a novel correlation statistic (maximal information coefficient) to explore the association between monitoring adherence and resulting clinical and economic outcome. For univariate analysis we split patients in an adherence achieved and an adherence non-achieved group. RESULTS: In total 1,323 adult patients from two campuses of a German tertiary medical centre, who spent at least one day in the ICU between admission and discharge between 1. January 2016 and 31. December 2016. Adherence to PAD monitoring was associated with shorter hospital LoS (e.g. pain monitoring 13 vs. 10 days; p<0.001), ICU LoS, duration of mechanical ventilation shown by univariate analysis. Despite the improved clinical outcome, adherence to PAD elements was associated with a decreased case mix per day and profit per day shown by univariate analysis. Multiple linear analysis did not confirm these results. PAD monitoring is important for clinical as well as economic outcome and predicted case mix better than severity of illness shown by machine learning analysis. CONCLUSION: Adherence to PAD bundles is also important for clinical as well as economic outcome. It is associated with improved clinical and worse economic outcome in comparison to non-adherence in univariate analysis but not confirmed by multiple linear analysis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov NCT02265263, Registered 15 October 2014.


Assuntos
Delírio/terapia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/economia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/economia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/economia , Manejo da Dor/economia , Respiração Artificial/economia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 493, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Administration of dexmedetomidine has been reported to improve inflammatory response in animals. We explored the effects of administering dexmedetomidine on the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin, and thus on inflammation, in patients with sepsis enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. METHODS: The DESIRE trial was a multicenter randomized clinical trial in which adult patients with sepsis were sedated with (DEX group) or without (non-DEX group) dexmedetomidine while on mechanical ventilators. As a prespecified sub-analysis, we compared CRP and procalcitonin levels during the first 14 days of treatment between the two groups. The 14-day mortality rate, albumin level, and the number of patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) were also assessed. We used generalized linear models to estimate the differences in these outcomes between groups. We also used the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate the 14-day mortality rate and the log-rank test to assess between-group differences. RESULTS: Our study comprised 201 patients: 100 in the DEX group and 101 in the non-DEX group. CRP and procalcitonin levels were lower in the DEX vs. non-DEX group during the 14-day treatment period [CRP-range, 5.6-20.3 vs. 8.3-21.1 mg/dL (P = 0.03); procalcitonin-range, 1.2-37.4 vs. 1.7-52.9 ng/mL (P = 0.04)]. Albumin levels were higher in the DEX group (range, 2.3-2.6 g/dL) than in the non-DEX group (range, 2.1-2.7 g/dL; P = 0.01). The percentage of patients with DIC did not significantly differ between the groups (range, 21-59% and 17-56% for the DEX and non-DEX groups, respectively; P = 0.49). The 14-day mortality rates in the DEX and non-DEX groups were 13 and 21%, respectively (P = 0.16). CONCLUSION: Sedation using dexmedetomidine reduced inflammation in patients with sepsis requiring mechanical ventilation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01760967 . Registered on 4 January 2013.


Assuntos
Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Respiração Artificial , Sepse/terapia , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pró-Calcitonina/sangue , Sepse/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21008, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine (Dex) and chloral hydrate (CH) are the most frequently used sedative agents in pediatric patients. We aimed to systematically review the literature comparing the efficacy and safety of Dex and CH for sedation in pediatric patients. METHODS: Seven electronic databases and 3 clinical trial registry platforms were searched for articles published prior to October 2019. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy and safety of Dex versus CH for sedation in children were examined by 2 reviewers. The extracted information included the success rate of sedation, sedation latency, sedation duration, sedation recovery time, and adverse events. Moreover, the extracted data included 5 subgroups: the effects of 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 µg/kg doses of Dex were compared with the effect of CH on the success rate of sedation. We also formed separate subgroups for different types of adverse events (incidence of vomiting, hypotension, bradycardia, etc). The outcomes were analyzed by Review Manager 5.3 software and are expressed as relative risks (RR) or the mean difference (MD) with the 95% confidence interval (CI). Heterogeneity was assessed with I-squared (I) statistics. RESULTS: A total of 15 RCTs involving 2128 children with Dex versus CH for sedation were included in the meta-analysis. The dose range of Dex ranged from 1 to 3 µg/kg. Compared with CH, the Dex group had a significantly higher success rate of sedation (RR = 1.14, 95% CI [1.05, 1.25], I = 79%, P = .003). Additionally, subgroup analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in the success rate of sedation between the CH group and the 1, 1.5, 2.5, and 3 µg/kg Dex groups; only the 2 µg/kg Dex group had a significantly higher success rate than the CH group (RR = 1.15, 95% CI [1.03, 1.29], I = 80%, P = .02). There was no significant difference in the number of subjects who required 2 doses or the duration of sedation between the CH and Dex groups. Furthermore, compared with the Dex group, the CH group had a significantly longer sedation latency (MD = -3.54, 95% CI [-5.94, -1.15], I = 95%, P = .004), sedation recovery time (MD = -30.08, 95% CI [-46.77, -13.39], I = 99%, P = .0004), and total time from sedative administration to discharge (MD = -12.73, 95% CI [-15.48, -9.97], I = 0%, P < .05), as well as a higher number of adverse events in total (RR = 0.25, 95% CI [0.11, 0.61], I = 89%, P = .002). Moreover, the subgroup analysis of adverse events revealed that CH was associated with higher risks of vomiting (RR = 0.07, 95% CI [0.03, 0.17], I = 0%, P < .0001), crying or resisting (RR = 0.22, 95% CI [0.07, 0.71], I = 60%, P = .01), and cough (RR = 0.15, 95% CI [0.05, 0.44], I = 0%, P = .0006); there was no significant difference in the risk of hypotension, supplemental oxygen, or respiratory events between CH and Dex. However, Dex was associated with a higher risk of bradycardia (RR = 4.08, 95% CI [1.63, 10.21], I = 0%, P = .003). CONCLUSIONS: Dex is an appropriate effective alternative to CH for sedation in pediatrics. However, considering the possibility of bradycardia, Dex should be used with caution.


Assuntos
Hidrato de Cloral/uso terapêutico , Sedação Consciente/métodos , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Humanos
9.
Palliat Med ; 34(9): 1249-1255, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The literature contains limited information on the problems faced by dying patients with COVID-19 and the effectiveness of interventions to manage these. AIM: The aim of this audit was to assess the utility of our end-of-life care plan, and specifically the effectiveness of our standardised end-of-life care treatment algorithms, in dying patients with COVID-19. DESIGN: The audit primarily involved data extraction from the end-of-life care plan, which includes four hourly nursing (ward nurses) assessments of specific problems: patients with problems were managed according to standardised treatment algorithms, and the intervention was deemed to be effective if the problem was not present at subsequent assessments. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: This audit was undertaken at a general hospital in England, covered the 8 weeks from 16 March to 11 May 2020 and included all inpatients with COVID-19 who had an end-of-life care plan (and died). RESULTS: Sixty-one patients met the audit criteria: the commonest problem was shortness of breath (57.5%), which was generally controlled with conservative doses of morphine (10-20 mg/24 h via a syringe pump). Cough and audible respiratory secretions were relatively uncommon. The second most common problem was agitation/delirium (55.5%), which was generally controlled with standard pharmacological interventions. The cumulative number of patients with shortness of breath, agitation and audible respiratory secretions increased over the last 72 h of life, but most patients were symptom controlled at the point of death. CONCLUSION: Patients dying of COVID-19 experience similar end-of-life problems to other groups of patients. Moreover, they generally respond to standard interventions for these end-of-life problems.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Delírio/tratamento farmacológico , Tratamento Farmacológico/normas , Dispneia/tratamento farmacológico , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/normas , Cuidados Paliativos/normas , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Assistência Terminal/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/enfermagem , Tratamento Farmacológico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Paliativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/enfermagem , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Assistência Terminal/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678526

RESUMO

The Psychiatric Consultation Service at Massachusetts General Hospital sees medical and surgical inpatients with comorbid psychiatric symptoms and conditions. During their twice-weekly rounds, Dr Stern and other members of the Consultation Service discuss diagnosis and management of hospitalized patients with complex medical or surgical problems who also demonstrate psychiatric symptoms or conditions. These discussions have given rise to rounds reports that will prove useful for clinicians practicing at the interface of medicine and psychiatry.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Desprescrições , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Delírio do Despertar/diagnóstico , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/diagnóstico , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Delírio do Despertar/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Exame Neurológico , Pandemias , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Propofol/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/terapia
12.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(8): 1698.e1-1698.e4, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601006

RESUMO

The clinical therapy for severe 2019 coronavirus disease (i.e., COVID-19) sufferers is relatively challenging. Herein, the processes involving salvage of a critical COVID-19 patient were retrospectively analyzed. The condition of an obese female critical COVID-19 sufferer progressively worsened in the initial period after admission. According to her symptoms and examination reports, endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation were timely conducted and meanwhile high-dose sedatives and analgesics were administrated. In the later therapeutic phase, however, sedative and analgesic dosages were gradually reduced, and psychological and rehabilitative therapies were conducted, concomitantly with enhancement of airway care to facilitate sputum expectoration. Eventually, the endotracheal tube was feasibly removed after intubation for 18 days and subsequently replaced with noninvasive ventilation and a high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy. Intensive airway care alongside psychological and rehabilitative therapies can shorten the mechanical ventilation time and improve the prognosis of COVID-19 sufferers.


Assuntos
Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adulto , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Intubação Intratraqueal , Ventilação não Invasiva , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Respiração Artificial , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
14.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 212, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insomnia continues to be neglected globally, despite its high prevalence. Guidelines by the health regulatory agencies call for studies to evaluate the effect of sedative-hypnotics on sleep quality. METHODS: We conducted a pre-post observational study to evaluate sleep quality among 186 inpatients receiving short-term oral sedative-hypnotic therapy in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Kozhikode (Kerala), India. Using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index_Past-Week (PSQI_PW) questionnaire, patients were interviewed upon hospital admission and at follow up after ≥1-week of sedative-hypnotic therapy. Additionally, we interviewed 36 physicians to understand the current clinical perception about sedative-hypnotics. RESULTS: Mean (SD) age of the study patients was 59 (7.5) years. Majority (63.4%) of the patients were men. Of the various primary diagnoses for hospitalization, cardiovascular disease was the most common (22.6%, n = 49). Sedative-hypnotic therapy improved the mean (SD) PSQI_PW overall score by 6.79 points (pre: 12.70 (3.5) vs. post: 5.91 (2.8); p < 0.0001). Statistically significant improvements in sleep duration, latency, efficacy, and day dysfunction were observed. Higher proportion of study patients were prescribed benzodiazepines (73.7%) compared to zolpidem (26.3%). Patients treated with zolpidem reported higher improvements in mean overall PSQI_PW scores compared to those treated with benzodiazepines, however these differences were not statistically significant upon adjusting for age, gender and primary diagnosis for hospitalization. Qualitative interviews indicate that that physicians consider zolpidem to be safer and more efficacious. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, sedative-hypnotic therapy helped improve sleep quality among the hospitalized patients. More studies evaluating the comparative efficacy and safety of zolpidem vs. benzodiazepines - including among patient groups with varying demographic and clinical characteristics - are needed. India must develop evidence-based treatment guidelines to inform the clinical practice around the use of sedative-hypnotics.


Assuntos
Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Zolpidem/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Neurology ; 95(6): e653-e661, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651293

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the additional value of EEG reactivity (EEG-R) testing to EEG background pattern for prediction of good outcome in adult patients after cardiac arrest (CA). METHODS: In this post hoc analysis of a prospective cohort study, EEG-R was tested twice a day, using a strict protocol. Good outcome was defined as a Cerebral Performance Category score of 1-2 within 6 months. The additional value of EEG-R per EEG background pattern was evaluated using the diagnostic odds ratio (DOR). Prognostic value (sensitivity and specificity) of EEG-R was investigated in relation to time after CA, sedative medication, different stimuli, and repeated testing. RESULTS: Between 12 and 24 hours after CA, data of 108 patients were available. Patients with a continuous (n = 64) or discontinuous (n = 19) normal voltage background pattern with reactivity were 3 and 8 times more likely to have a good outcome than without reactivity (continuous: DOR, 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97-12.0; p = 0.06; discontinuous: DOR, 8.0; 95% CI, 1.0-63.97; p = 0.0499). EEG-R was not observed in other background patterns within 24 hours after CA. In 119 patients with a normal voltage EEG background pattern, continuous or discontinuous, any time after CA, prognostic value was highest in sedated patients (sensitivity 81.3%, specificity 59.5%), irrespective of time after CA. EEG-R induced by handclapping and sternal rubbing, especially when combined, had highest prognostic value. Repeated EEG-R testing increased prognostic value. CONCLUSION: EEG-R has additional value for prediction of good outcome in patients with discontinuous normal voltage EEG background pattern and possibly with continuous normal voltage. The best stimuli were clapping and sternal rubbing.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Parada Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dano Encefálico Crônico/epidemiologia , Dano Encefálico Crônico/etiologia , Dano Encefálico Crônico/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/complicações , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Hospitais de Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estimulação Física , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Esterno , Resultado do Tratamento , Suspensão de Tratamento
17.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(4): 506-511, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530890

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Anaesthesia and sedation are ubiquitous in contemporary medical practice. Developments in anaesthetic pharmacology are targeted on reducing physiological disturbance whilst maintaining or improving titrateability, recovery profile and patient experience. Remimazolam is a new short-acting benzodiazepine in the final stages of clinical development. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical experience with remimazolam comprises volunteer studies and a limited number of clinical investigations. In addition, laboratory investigations explore the implications of its 'soft drug' pharmacology. SUMMARY: Remimazolam provides effective procedural sedation with superior success rates and recovery profile when compared to midazolam. Comparisons with propofol are required. Preliminary studies suggest potential for using remimazolam as the hypnotic component of general anaesthesia. Definitive studies are awaited. As a benzodiazepine, remimazolam could be evaluated as an anticonvulsant and for intensive care sedation.


Assuntos
Benzodiazepinas/farmacologia , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Sedação Consciente , Humanos , Midazolam , Propofol
19.
Palliat Med ; 34(9): 1235-1240, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospital clinicians have had to rapidly develop expertise in managing the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 including symptoms common at the end of life, such as breathlessness and agitation. There is limited evidence exploring whether end-of-life symptom control in this group requires new or adapted guidance. AIM: To review whether prescribing for symptom control in patients dying with COVID-19 adhered to existing local guidance or whether there was deviation which may represent a need for revised guidance or specialist support in particular patient groups. DESIGN/SETTING: A retrospective review of the electronic patient record of 61 hospital inpatients referred to the specialist palliative care team with swab-confirmed COVID-19 who subsequently died over a 1-month period. Intubated patients were excluded. RESULTS: In all, 83% (40/48) of patients were prescribed opioids at a starting dose consistent with existing local guidelines. In seven of eight patients where higher doses were prescribed, this was on specialist palliative care team advice. Mean total opioid dose required in the last 24 h of life was 14 mg morphine subcutaneous equivalent, and mean total midazolam dose was 9.5 mg. For three patients in whom non-invasive ventilation was in place higher doses were used. CONCLUSION: Prescription of end-of-life symptom control drugs for COVID-19 fell within the existing guidance when supported by specialist palliative care advice. While some patients may require increased doses, routine prescription of higher starting opioid and benzodiazepine doses beyond existing local guidance was not observed.


Assuntos
Biofarmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Delírio/tratamento farmacológico , Dispneia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Assistência Terminal/métodos , Assistência Terminal/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Midazolam/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Anaesthesia ; 75(11): 1461-1468, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533791

RESUMO

Children may develop changes in their behaviour following general anaesthesia. Some examples of negative behaviour include temper tantrums and nightmares, as well as sleep and eating disorders. The aim of this study was to determine whether dexmedetomidine reduces the incidence of negative behaviour change after anaesthesia for day case surgery in children aged two to seven years. Children were randomly allocated to one of three groups: a premedication group received 2 mg.kg-1 intranasal dexmedetomidine; an intra-operative group received 1 mg.kg-1 intravenous dexmedetomidine; and a control group. The primary outcome was the incidence of negative behaviour on postoperative day 3 using the Post-Hospitalisation Behaviour Questionnaire for Ambulatory Surgery (PHBQ-AS) and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Secondary outcomes included: the incidence of negative behaviour on postoperative days 14 and 28; anxiety at induction; emergence delirium; pain; length of recovery and hospital stay; and any adverse events. The data for 247 patients were analysed. Negative behaviour change on postoperative day 3 was similar between all three groups when measured with the PHBQ-AS (47%, 44% and 51% respectively; adjusted p=0.99) and the SDQ (median scores 7.5, 6.0 and 8.0 respectively; adjusted p=0.99). The incidence of negative behaviour in the group who received dexmedetomidine intra-operatively was less at postoperative day 28 (15% compared with 36% in the dexmedetomidine premedication group and 41% in the control group, p<0.001). We conclude that dexmedetomidine does not reduce the incidence of negative behaviour on postoperative day 3 in two to seven-year olds having day case procedures.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Pré-Medicação/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
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