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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4395, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879322

RESUMO

The formation and maintenance of spatial representations within hippocampal cell assemblies is strongly dictated by patterns of inhibition from diverse interneuron populations. Although it is known that inhibitory synaptic strength is malleable, induction of long-term plasticity at distinct inhibitory synapses and its regulation of hippocampal network activity is not well understood. Here, we show that inhibitory synapses from parvalbumin and somatostatin expressing interneurons undergo long-term depression and potentiation respectively (PV-iLTD and SST-iLTP) during physiological activity patterns. Both forms of plasticity rely on T-type calcium channel activation to confer synapse specificity but otherwise employ distinct mechanisms. Since parvalbumin and somatostatin interneurons preferentially target perisomatic and distal dendritic regions respectively of CA1 pyramidal cells, PV-iLTD and SST-iLTP coordinate a reprioritisation of excitatory inputs from entorhinal cortex and CA3. Furthermore, circuit-level modelling reveals that PV-iLTD and SST-iLTP cooperate to stabilise place cells while facilitating representation of multiple unique environments within the hippocampal network.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/fisiologia , Interneurônios/metabolismo , Células Piramidais/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Região CA1 Hipocampal/citologia , Região CA1 Hipocampal/fisiologia , Canais de Cálcio Tipo T/metabolismo , Channelrhodopsins/metabolismo , Hipocampo/citologia , Camundongos , Optogenética/métodos , Parvalbuminas/metabolismo , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Transdução de Sinais , Somatostatina/metabolismo , Sinapses/metabolismo
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4388, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873805

RESUMO

Presynaptic spike timing-dependent long-term depression (t-LTD) at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses is evident until the 3rd postnatal week in mice, disappearing during the 4th week. At more mature stages, we found that the protocol that induced t-LTD induced t-LTP. We characterized this form of t-LTP and the mechanisms involved in its induction, as well as that driving this switch from t-LTD to t-LTP. We found that this t-LTP is expressed presynaptically at CA3-CA1 synapses, as witnessed by coefficient of variation, number of failures, paired-pulse ratio and miniature responses analysis. Additionally, this form of presynaptic t-LTP does not require NMDARs but the activation of mGluRs and the entry of Ca2+ into the postsynaptic neuron through L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels and the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Nitric oxide is also required as a messenger from the postsynaptic neuron. Crucially, the release of adenosine and glutamate by astrocytes is required for t-LTP induction and for the switch from t-LTD to t-LTP. Thus, we have discovered a developmental switch of synaptic transmission from t-LTD to t-LTP at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses in which astrocytes play a central role and revealed a form of presynaptic LTP and the rules for its induction.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Hipocampo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Potenciação de Longa Duração/fisiologia , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Hipocampo/citologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Receptores de Glutamato Metabotrópico/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo
3.
J Toxicol Sci ; 45(9): 559-567, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879255

RESUMO

Lead is a main threat to human health due to its neurotoxicity and the astrocyte is known to be a common deposit site of lead in vivo. However, the detailed mechanisms related to lead exposure in the astrocytes were unclear. In order to deeply investigate this issue, we used Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and astrocytes isolated from the hippocampus of SD rats to establish the lead-exposed animal and cell models through treating with lead acetate. The expression levels of GFAP, LC3, and p62 in the rat hippocampus were detected by immunofluorescence and Western blot after lead exposure. The effects of autophagy on lead-exposed astrocytes were studied by further autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) induction. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe autophagosomes in astrocytes after lead acetate treatment, followed by assessing related autophagy protein markers. In addition, some inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers were also evaluated after lead exposure and 3-MA administration. We found that lead exposure induced activation of astrocytes, as evidenced by increased GFAP levels and GFAP-positive staining cells in the rat hippocampus. Moreover, lead exposure induced autophagy in astrocytes, as evidenced by increased LC3II and Beclin 1 protein levels and decreased p62 expression in both the rat hippocampus and astrocytes, and it was confirmed that this autophagy was activated through blocking the downstream Akt/target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in astrocytes. Furthermore, it was shown that treatment of lead acetate increased the release of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in astrocytes, which could be alleviated by further 3-MA induction. Therefore, we conclude that lead exposure can induce the autophagy of astrocytes via blocking the Akt/mTOR pathway, leading to accelerated release of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress indicators in astrocytes.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Astrócitos/fisiologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/genética , Compostos Organometálicos/toxicidade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/genética , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Hipocampo/citologia , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4484, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901027

RESUMO

Chronic stress is a key risk factor for mood disorders like depression, but the stress-induced changes in brain circuit function and gene expression underlying depression symptoms are not completely understood, hindering development of novel treatments. Because of its projections to brain regions regulating reward and anxiety, the ventral hippocampus is uniquely poised to translate the experience of stress into altered brain function and pathological mood, though the cellular and molecular mechanisms of this process are not fully understood. Here, we use a novel method of circuit-specific gene editing to show that the transcription factor ΔFosB drives projection-specific activity of ventral hippocampus glutamatergic neurons causing behaviorally diverse responses to stress. We establish molecular, cellular, and circuit-level mechanisms for depression- and anxiety-like behavior in response to stress and use circuit-specific gene expression profiling to uncover novel downstream targets as potential sites of therapeutic intervention in depression.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/fisiologia , Animais , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Inativação Gênica , Hipocampo/anatomia & histologia , Hipocampo/citologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/deficiência , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/genética , Comportamento Social , Estresse Psicológico
5.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000826, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776935

RESUMO

Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) regulates synaptic plasticity in multiple ways, supposedly including the secretion of neuromodulators like brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Here, we show that neuromodulator secretion is indeed reduced in mouse α- and ßCaMKII-deficient (αßCaMKII double-knockout [DKO]) hippocampal neurons. However, this was not due to reduced secretion efficiency or neuromodulator vesicle transport but to 40% reduced neuromodulator levels at synapses and 50% reduced delivery of new neuromodulator vesicles to axons. αßCaMKII depletion drastically reduced neuromodulator expression. Blocking BDNF secretion or BDNF scavenging in wild-type neurons produced a similar reduction. Reduced neuromodulator expression in αßCaMKII DKO neurons was restored by active ßCaMKII but not inactive ßCaMKII or αCaMKII, and by CaMKII downstream effectors that promote cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. These data indicate that CaMKII regulates neuromodulation in a feedback loop coupling neuromodulator secretion to ßCaMKII- and CREB-dependent neuromodulator expression and axonal targeting, but CaMKIIs are dispensable for the secretion process itself.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética , Cálcio/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Animais , Astrócitos/citologia , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/deficiência , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/genética , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurônios/citologia , Fosforilação , Cultura Primária de Células , Subunidades Proteicas/deficiência , Sinapses/fisiologia , Transmissão Sináptica , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237426, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813731

RESUMO

Transplantation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived neural progenitors is a potential treatment for neurological disorders, but relatively little is known about the time course for human neuron maturation after transplantation and the emergence of morphological and electrophysiological properties. To address this gap, we transplanted hESC-derived human GABAergic interneuron progenitors into the mouse hippocampus, and then characterized their electrophysiological properties and dendritic arborizations after transplantation by means of ex vivo whole-cell patch clamp recording, followed by biocytin staining, confocal imaging and neuron reconstruction software. We asked whether particular electrophysiological and morphological properties showed maturation-dependent changes after transplantation. We also investigated whether the emergence of particular electrophysiological properties were linked to increased complexity of the dendritic arbors. Human neurons were classified into five distinct neuronal types (Type I-V), ranging from immature to mature fast-spiking interneurons. Hierarchical clustering of the dendritic morphology and Sholl analyses suggested four morphologically distinct classes (Class A-D), ranging from simple/immature to highly complex. Incorporating all of our data regardless of neuronal classification, we investigated whether any electrophysiological and morphological features correlated with time post-transplantation. This analysis demonstrated that both dendritic arbors and electrophysiological properties matured after transplantation.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Hipocampo/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/transplante , Interneurônios/citologia , Interneurônios/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Animais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3351, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620897

RESUMO

The sodium-leak channel NALCN forms a subthreshold sodium conductance that controls the resting membrane potentials of neurons. The auxiliary subunits of the channel and their functions in mammals are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that two large proteins UNC80 and UNC79 are subunits of the NALCN complex. UNC80 knockout mice are neonatal lethal. The C-terminus of UNC80 contains a domain that interacts with UNC79 and overcomes a soma-retention signal to achieve dendritic localization. UNC80 lacking this domain, as found in human patients, still supports whole-cell NALCN currents but lacks dendritic localization. Our results establish the subunit composition of the NALCN complex, uncover the inter-subunit interaction domains, reveal the functional significance of regulation of dendritic membrane potential by the sodium-leak channel complex, and provide evidence supporting that genetic variations found in individuals with intellectual disability are the causes for the phenotype observed in patients.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Criança , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Dendritos/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Células HEK293 , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Canais Iônicos/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236478, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716967

RESUMO

CaMKII is an important mediator of forms of synaptic plasticity that are thought to underly learning and memory. The CaMKII mutants K42M and K42R have been used interchangeably as research tools, although some reported phenotypic differences suggest that they may differ in the extent to which they impair ATP binding. Here, we directly compared the two mutations at the high ATP concentrations that exist within cells (~4 mM). We found that both mutations equally blocked GluA1 phosphorylation in vitro and GluN2B binding within cells. Both mutations also reduced but did not completely abolish CaMKII T286 autophosphorylation in vitro or CaMKII movement to excitatory synapses in neurons. Thus, despite previously suggested differences, both mutations appear to interfere with ATP binding to the same extent.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética , Mutação/genética , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/química , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Hipocampo/citologia , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento , Fosforilação , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Sinapses/metabolismo
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0230465, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559219

RESUMO

The slow afterhyperpolarising current, sIAHP, is a Ca2+-dependent current that plays an important role in the late phase of spike frequency adaptation. sIAHP is activated by voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, while the contribution of calcium from ryanodine-sensitive intracellular stores, released by calcium-induced calcium release (CICR), is controversial in hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Three types of ryanodine receptors (RyR1-3) are expressed in the hippocampus, with RyR3 showing a predominant expression in CA1 neurons. We investigated the specific role of CICR, and particularly of its RyR3-mediated component, in the regulation of the sIAHP amplitude and time course, and the activity-dependent potentiation of the sIAHP in rat and mouse CA1 pyramidal neurons. Here we report that enhancement of CICR by caffeine led to an increase in sIAHP amplitude, while inhibition of CICR by ryanodine caused a small, but significant reduction of sIAHP. Inhibition of ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ stores by ryanodine or depletion by the SERCA pump inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid caused a substantial attenuation in the sIAHP activity-dependent potentiation in both rat and mouse CA1 pyramidal neurons. Neurons from mice lacking RyR3 receptors exhibited a sIAHP with features undistinguishable from wild-type neurons, which was similarly reduced by ryanodine. However, the lack of RyR3 receptors led to a faster and reduced activity-dependent potentiation of sIAHP. We conclude that ryanodine receptor-mediated CICR contributes both to the amplitude of the sIAHP at steady state and its activity-dependent potentiation in rat and mouse hippocampal pyramidal neurons. In particular, we show that RyR3 receptors play an essential and specific role in shaping the activity-dependent potentiation of the sIAHP. The modulation of activity-dependent potentiation of sIAHP by RyR3-mediated CICR contributes to plasticity of intrinsic neuronal excitability and is likely to play a critical role in higher cognitive functions, such as learning and memory.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cálcio/farmacologia , Hipocampo/citologia , Células Piramidais/citologia , Células Piramidais/efeitos dos fármacos , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/metabolismo , Animais , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinética , Camundongos , Células Piramidais/metabolismo , Ratos
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14503-14511, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513712

RESUMO

The nanoscale co-organization of neurotransmitter receptors facing presynaptic release sites is a fundamental determinant of their coactivation and of synaptic physiology. At excitatory synapses, how endogenous AMPARs, NMDARs, and mGluRs are co-organized inside the synapse and their respective activation during glutamate release are still unclear. Combining single-molecule superresolution microscopy, electrophysiology, and modeling, we determined the average quantity of each glutamate receptor type, their nanoscale organization, and their respective activation. We observed that NMDARs form a unique cluster mainly at the center of the PSD, while AMPARs segregate in clusters surrounding the NMDARs. mGluR5 presents a different organization and is homogenously dispersed at the synaptic surface. From these results, we build a model predicting the synaptic transmission properties of a unitary synapse, allowing better understanding of synaptic physiology.


Assuntos
Modelos Neurológicos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Receptor de Glutamato Metabotrópico 5/metabolismo , Receptores de AMPA/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Embrião de Mamíferos , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Microscopia Intravital , Neurônios/ultraestrutura , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Cultura Primária de Células , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Imagem Individual de Molécula
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3143, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561719

RESUMO

Topoisomerase 3ß (Top3ß) is the only dual-activity topoisomerase in animals that can change topology for both DNA and RNA, and facilitate transcription on DNA and translation on mRNAs. Top3ß mutations have been linked to schizophrenia, autism, epilepsy, and cognitive impairment. Here we show that Top3ß knockout mice exhibit behavioural phenotypes related to psychiatric disorders and cognitive impairment. The mice also display impairments in hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Notably, the brains of the mutant mice exhibit impaired global neuronal activity-dependent transcription in response to fear conditioning stress, and the affected genes include many with known neuronal functions. Our data suggest that Top3ß is essential for normal brain function, and that defective neuronal activity-dependent transcription may be a mechanism by which Top3ß deletion causes cognitive impairment and psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo I/genética , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Neurogênese/genética , Plasticidade Neuronal/genética , Animais , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento , Comportamento Animal , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Neurônios/patologia , Técnicas Estereotáxicas , Potenciais Sinápticos/genética , Transcrição Genética/fisiologia
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2979, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532981

RESUMO

NMDA receptor-dependent long-term depression (NMDAR-LTD) is a long-lasting form of synaptic plasticity. Its expression is mediated by the removal of AMPA receptors from postsynaptic membranes. Under basal conditions, endocytosed AMPA receptors are rapidly recycled back to the plasma membrane. In NMDAR-LTD, however, they are diverted to late endosomes for degradation. The mechanism for this switch is largely unclear. Additionally, the inducibility of NMDAR-LTD is greatly reduced in adulthood. The underlying mechanism and physiological significance of this phenomenon are elusive. Here, we report that autophagy inhibition is essential for the induction and developmental dampening of NMDAR-LTD. Autophagy is inhibited during NMDAR-LTD to decrease endocytic recycling. Autophagy inhibition is both necessary and sufficient for LTD induction. In adulthood, autophagy is up-regulated to make LTD induction harder, thereby preventing the adverse effect of excessive LTD on memory consolidation. These findings reveal the unrecognized functions of autophagy in synaptic plasticity, endocytic recycling, and memory.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Endocitose/fisiologia , Depressão Sináptica de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Sinapses/fisiologia , Animais , Autofagia/genética , Células Cultivadas , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
13.
Toxicol Lett ; 331: 188-199, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569805

RESUMO

Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug whose abuse can cause many health complications. Our previous studies have shown that METH exposure increases α-synuclein (α-syn) expression. Recently, it was shown that α-syn could be transferred from neurons to astrocytes via exosomes. However, the specific role of astrocytes in α-syn pathology involved in METH neurotoxicity remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether exosomes derived from METH-treated neurons contain pathological α-syn and test the hypothesis that exosomes can transfer pathological α-syn from neurons to astrocytes. To this end, using animal and cell line coculture models, we show that exosomes isolated from METH-treated SH-SY5Y cells contained pathological α-syn. Furthermore, the addition of METH exosomes to the medium of primary cultured astrocytes induced α-syn aggregation and inflammatory responses in astrocytes. Then, we evaluated changes in nuclear receptor related 1 protein (Nurr1) expression and the levels of inflammatory cytokines in primary cultured astrocytes exposed to METH or α-syn. We found that METH or α-syn exposure decreased Nurr1 expression and increased proinflammatory cytokine expression in astrocytes. Our results indicate that α-syn can be transferred from neuronal cells to astrocytes through exosomes. When internalized α-syn accumulated in astrocytes, the cells produced inflammatory responses. Nurr1 may play a crucial role in this process and could be a therapeutic target for inflammatory damage caused by METH.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/toxicidade , Exossomos/metabolismo , Metanfetamina/toxicidade , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo , Animais , Astrócitos/imunologia , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Cocultura , Citocinas/metabolismo , Hipocampo/citologia , Humanos , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/imunologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/imunologia , Membro 2 do Grupo A da Subfamília 4 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Cultura Primária de Células , Sinucleinopatias/imunologia , Sinucleinopatias/metabolismo
14.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510500

RESUMO

Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that neuro-immune interactions impact nervous system function in both homeostatic and pathologic conditions. A well-studied function of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) is the presentation of cell-derived peptides to the adaptive immune system, particularly in response to infection. More recently it has been shown that the expression of MHCI molecules on neurons can modulate activity-dependent changes in the synaptic connectivity during normal development and neurologic disorders. The importance of these functions to the brain health supports the need for a sensitive assay that readily detects MHCI expression on neurons. Here we describe a method for primary culture of murine hippocampal neurons and then assessment of MHCI expression by flow cytometric analysis. Murine hippocampus is microdissected from prenatal mouse pups at the embryonic day 18. Tissue is dissociated into a single cell suspension using enzymatic and mechanical techniques, then cultured in a serum-free media that limits growth of non-neuronal cells. After 7 days in vitro, MHCI expression is stimulated by treating cultured cells pharmacologically with beta interferon. MHCI molecules are labeled in situ with a fluorescently tagged antibody, then cells are non-enzymatically dissociated into a single cell suspension. To confirm the neuronal identity, cells are fixed with paraformaldehyde, permeabilized, and labeled with a fluorescently tagged antibody that recognizes neuronal nuclear antigen NeuN. MHCI expression is then quantified on neurons by flow cytometric analysis. Neuronal cultures can easily be manipulated by either genetic modifications or pharmacologic interventions to test specific hypotheses. With slight modifications, these methods can be used to culture other neuronal populations or to assess expression of other proteins of interest.


Assuntos
Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Hipocampo/citologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Hipocampo/embriologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/citologia
15.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510488

RESUMO

The neurosphere assay is an extremely useful in vitro technique for studying the inherent properties of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) including proliferation, self-renewal and multipotency. In the postnatal and adult brain, NSPCs are mainly present in two neurogenic niches: the subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). The isolation of the neurogenic niches from postnatal brain allows obtaining a higher amount of NSPCs in culture with a consequent advantage of higher yields. The close contact between cells within each neurosphere creates a microenvironment that may resemble neurogenic niches. Here, we describe, in detail, how to generate SVZ- and DG-derived neurosphere cultures from 1-3-day-old (P1-3) mice, as well as passaging, for neurosphere expansion. This is an advantageous approach since the neurosphere assay allows a fast generation of NSPC clones (6-12 days) and contributes to a significant reduction in the number of animal usage. By plating neurospheres in differentiative conditions, we can obtain a pseudomonolayer of cells composed of NSPCs and differentiated cells of different neural lineages (neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) allowing the study of the actions of intrinsic or extrinsic factors on NSPC proliferation, differentiation, cell survival and neuritogenesis.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Separação Celular/métodos , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Neurogênese , Animais , Astrócitos/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Hipocampo/citologia , Ventrículos Laterais/citologia , Camundongos , Neurônios/citologia , Oligodendroglia/citologia
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2443, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415083

RESUMO

Trajectory-dependent splitter neurons in the hippocampus encode information about a rodent's prior trajectory during performance of a continuous alternation task. As such, they provide valuable information for supporting memory-guided behavior. Here, we employed single-photon calcium imaging in freely moving mice to investigate the emergence and fate of trajectory-dependent activity through learning and mastery of a continuous spatial alternation task. In agreement with others, the quality of trajectory-dependent information in hippocampal neurons correlated with task performance. We thus hypothesized that, due to their utility, splitter neurons would exhibit heightened stability. We find that splitter neurons were more likely to remain active and retained more consistent spatial information across multiple days than other neurons. Furthermore, we find that both splitter neurons and place cells emerged rapidly and maintained stable trajectory-dependent/spatial activity thereafter. Our results suggest that neurons with useful functional coding exhibit heightened stability to support memory guided behavior.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/citologia , Memória/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Cálcio/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Probabilidade
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2464, 2020 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424147

RESUMO

Information within the brain travels from neuron to neuron across billions of synapses. At any given moment, only a small subset of neurons and synapses are active, but finding the active synapses in brain tissue has been a technical challenge. Here we introduce SynTagMA to tag active synapses in a user-defined time window. Upon 395-405 nm illumination, this genetically encoded marker of activity converts from green to red fluorescence if, and only if, it is bound to calcium. Targeted to presynaptic terminals, preSynTagMA allows discrimination between active and silent axons. Targeted to excitatory postsynapses, postSynTagMA creates a snapshot of synapses active just before photoconversion. To analyze large datasets, we show how to identify and track the fluorescence of thousands of individual synapses in an automated fashion. Together, these tools provide an efficient method for repeatedly mapping active neurons and synapses in cell culture, slice preparations, and in vivo during behavior.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional , Sinapses/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Axônios/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Fluorescência , Hipocampo/citologia , Luz , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/metabolismo , Terminações Pré-Sinápticas/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Wistar , Sinaptofisina/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Life Sci ; 254: 117755, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437792

RESUMO

AIMS: Efficient memory formation in rodents depends on adult neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus, and mounting evidence suggests that deficiencies in initiating repair of oxidatively induced DNA damage may impair neurogenesis. Hence, we aimed to determine whether loss of the DNA glycosylase, endonuclease VIII-like 1 (Neil1), affects hippocampal neurogenesis and memory performance in young-adult mice. MAIN METHODS: Eight-week-old male wild-type and Neil1-deficient (Neil1-/-) mice were treated with bromodeoxyuridine to track neuronal proliferation and differentiation. A neurosphere formation assay was further used to measure neuroprogenitor proliferative capacity. Hippocampus-related memory functions were assessed with Y-maze spontaneous alternation and novel object recognition tests. KEY FINDINGS: Young-adult male Neil1-/- mice exhibited diminished adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, probably as a result of poor survival of newly proliferated neurons. Furthermore, the Y-maze spontaneous alternation and novel object recognition tests respectively revealed that Neil1 deficiency impairs spatial and non-spatial hippocampus-related memory functions. We also found that expression of p53, a central regulator of apoptosis, was upregulated in the dentate gyrus of Neil1-/- mice, while the level of ß-catenin, a key cell survival molecule, was downregulated. SIGNIFICANCE: The DNA glycosylase, Neil1, promotes successful hippocampal neurogenesis and learning and memory in young-adult mice.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , DNA Glicosilases/deficiência , Hipocampo/enzimologia , Memória/fisiologia , Neurônios/enzimologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/enzimologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , DNA Glicosilases/genética , DNA Glicosilases/metabolismo , Giro Denteado/citologia , Giro Denteado/enzimologia , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Neurônios/citologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232967, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413057

RESUMO

The pivotal role of KCC2 and NKCC1 in development and maintenance of fast inhibitory neurotransmission and their implication in severe human diseases arouse interest in posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms such as (de)phosphorylation. Staurosporine (broad kinase inhibitor) and N-ethylmalemide (NEM) that modulate kinase and phosphatase activities enhance KCC2 and decrease NKCC1 activity. Here, we investigated the regulatory mechanism for this reciprocal regulation by mass spectrometry and immunoblot analyses using phospho-specific antibodies. Our analyses revealed that application of staurosporine or NEM dephosphorylates Thr1007 of KCC2, and Thr203, Thr207 and Thr212 of NKCC1. Dephosphorylation of Thr1007 of KCC2, and Thr207 and Thr212 of NKCC1 were previously demonstrated to activate KCC2 and to inactivate NKCC1. In addition, application of the two agents resulted in dephosphorylation of the T-loop and S-loop phosphorylation sites Thr233 and Ser373 of SPAK, a critical kinase in the WNK-SPAK/OSR1 signaling module mediating phosphorylation of KCC2 and NKCC1. Taken together, these results suggest that reciprocal regulation of KCC2 and NKCC1 via staurosporine and NEM is based on WNK-SPAK/OSR1 signaling. The key regulatory phospho-site Ser940 of KCC2 is not critically involved in the enhanced activation of KCC2 upon staurosporine and NEM treatment, as both agents have opposite effects on its phosphorylation status. Finally, NEM acts in a tissue-specific manner on Ser940, as shown by comparative analysis in HEK293 cells and immature cultured hippocampal neurons. In summary, our analyses identified phospho-sites that are responsive to staurosporine or NEM application. This provides important information towards a better understanding of the cooperative interactions of different phospho-sites.


Assuntos
Etilmaleimida/farmacologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Membro 2 da Família 12 de Carreador de Soluto/metabolismo , Estaurosporina/farmacologia , Simportadores/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Células Cultivadas , Células HEK293 , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Ratos , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transfecção , Proteína Quinase 1 Deficiente de Lisina WNK/metabolismo
20.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(5): e1007834, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453727

RESUMO

Neurons form complex networks that evolve over multiple time scales. In order to thoroughly characterize these networks, time dependencies must be explicitly modeled. Here, we present a statistical model that captures both the underlying structural and temporal dynamics of neuronal networks. Our model combines the class of Stochastic Block Models for community formation with Gaussian processes to model changes in the community structure as a smooth function of time. We validate our model on synthetic data and demonstrate its utility on three different studies using in vitro cultures of dissociated neurons.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação , Modelos Neurológicos , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Eletrodos , Hipocampo/citologia , Cadeias de Markov , Camundongos , Neuroglia/citologia , Distribuição Normal , Probabilidade , Ratos , Processos Estocásticos , Fatores de Tempo
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