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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4686, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943633

RESUMO

Electrophysiology provides a direct readout of neuronal activity at a temporal precision only limited by the sampling rate. However, interrogating deep brain structures, implanting multiple targets or aiming at unusual angles still poses significant challenges for operators, and errors are only discovered by post-hoc histological reconstruction. Here, we propose a method combining the high-resolution information about bone landmarks provided by micro-CT scanning with the soft tissue contrast of the MRI, which allowed us to precisely localize electrodes and optic fibers in mice in vivo. This enables arbitrating the success of implantation directly after surgery with a precision comparable to gold standard histology. Adjustment of the recording depth with micro-drives or early termination of unsuccessful experiments saves many working hours, and fast 3-dimensional feedback helps surgeons avoid systematic errors. Increased aiming precision enables more precise targeting of small or deep brain nuclei and multiple targeting of specific cortical or hippocampal layers.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Eletrodos Implantados , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Fibras Ópticas , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo/patologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/patologia , Hipocampo/cirurgia , Técnicas Histológicas/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Silício , Técnicas Estereotáxicas
2.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000820, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866173

RESUMO

Mutations in the gene encoding the microtubule-severing protein spastin (spastic paraplegia 4 [SPG4]) cause hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), associated with neurodegeneration, spasticity, and motor impairment. Complicated forms (complicated HSP [cHSP]) further include cognitive deficits and dementia; however, the etiology and dysfunctional mechanisms of cHSP have remained unknown. Here, we report specific working and associative memory deficits upon spastin depletion in mice. Loss of spastin-mediated severing leads to reduced synapse numbers, accompanied by lower miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) frequencies. At the subcellular level, mutant neurons are characterized by longer microtubules with increased tubulin polyglutamylation levels. Notably, these conditions reduce kinesin-microtubule binding, impair the processivity of kinesin family protein (KIF) 5, and reduce the delivery of presynaptic vesicles and postsynaptic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors. Rescue experiments confirm the specificity of these results by showing that wild-type spastin, but not the severing-deficient and disease-associated K388R mutant, normalizes the effects at the synaptic, microtubule, and transport levels. In addition, short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated reduction of tubulin polyglutamylation on spastin knockout background normalizes KIF5 transport deficits and attenuates the loss of excitatory synapses. Our data provide a mechanism that connects spastin dysfunction with the regulation of kinesin-mediated cargo transport, synapse integrity, and cognition.


Assuntos
Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Cinesina/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Memória de Curto Prazo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Espastina/deficiência , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Espinhas Dendríticas/metabolismo , Espinhas Dendríticas/ultraestrutura , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores , Hipocampo/patologia , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Camundongos Knockout , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/ultraestrutura , Atividade Motora , Neurônios/patologia , Neurônios/ultraestrutura , Transporte Proteico , Espastina/metabolismo , Sinapses/metabolismo , Sinapses/ultraestrutura , Vesículas Sinápticas/metabolismo
3.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000851, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822389

RESUMO

High levels of the amyloid-beta (Aß) peptide have been shown to disrupt neuronal function and induce hyperexcitability, but it is unclear what effects Aß-associated hyperexcitability may have on tauopathy pathogenesis or propagation in vivo. Using a novel transgenic mouse line to model the impact of human APP (hAPP)/Aß accumulation on tauopathy in the entorhinal cortex-hippocampal (EC-HIPP) network, we demonstrate that hAPP overexpression aggravates EC-Tau aggregation and accelerates pathological tau spread into the hippocampus. In vivo recordings revealed a strong role for hAPP/Aß, but not tau, in the emergence of EC neuronal hyperactivity and impaired theta rhythmicity. Chronic chemogenetic attenuation of EC neuronal hyperactivity led to reduced hAPP/Aß accumulation and reduced pathological tau spread into downstream hippocampus. These data strongly support the hypothesis that in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Aß-associated hyperactivity accelerates the progression of pathological tau along vulnerable neuronal circuits, and demonstrates the utility of chronic, neuromodulatory approaches in ameliorating AD pathology in vivo.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/genética , Córtex Entorrinal/metabolismo , Tauopatias/genética , Proteínas tau/genética , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Dependovirus/genética , Dependovirus/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletrodos Implantados , Córtex Entorrinal/patologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Agregados Proteicos , Técnicas Estereotáxicas , Tauopatias/metabolismo , Tauopatias/patologia , Tauopatias/terapia , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia , Transdução Genética , Transgenes , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236641, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776986

RESUMO

Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) has been associated with abnormalities in hippocampal volumes, but these relationships have not been fully explored with respect to sub-regional volumes, nor in association with individual characteristics such as age, gender differences, drinking history, and memory. The present study examined the impact of those variables in relation to hippocampal subfield volumes in abstinent men and women with a history of AUD. Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 3 Tesla, we obtained brain images from 67 participants with AUD (31 women) and 64 nonalcoholic control (NC) participants (31 women). The average duration of the most recent period of sobriety for AUD participants was 7.1 years. We used Freesurfer 6.0 to segment the hippocampus into 12 regions. These were imputed into statistical models to examine the relationships of brain volume with AUD group, age, gender, memory, and drinking history. Interactions with gender and age were of particular interest. Compared to the NC group, the AUD group had approximately 5% smaller subiculum, CA1, molecular layer, and hippocampal tail regions. Age was negatively associated with volumes for the AUD group in the subiculum and the hippocampal tail, but no significant interactions with gender were identified. The relationships for delayed and immediate memory with hippocampal tail volume differed for AUD and NC groups: Higher scores on tests of immediate and delayed memory were associated with smaller volumes in the AUD group, but larger volumes in the NC group. Length of sobriety was associated with decreasing CA1 volume in women (0.19% per year) and increasing volume size in men (0.38% per year). The course of abstinence on CA1 volume differed for men and women, and the differential relationships of subfield volumes to age and memory could indicate a distinction in the impact of AUD on functions of the hippocampal tail. These findings confirm and extend evidence that AUD, age, gender, memory, and abstinence differentially impact volumes of component parts of the hippocampus.


Assuntos
Abstinência de Álcool , Alcoolismo/patologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Memória , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3351, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620897

RESUMO

The sodium-leak channel NALCN forms a subthreshold sodium conductance that controls the resting membrane potentials of neurons. The auxiliary subunits of the channel and their functions in mammals are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that two large proteins UNC80 and UNC79 are subunits of the NALCN complex. UNC80 knockout mice are neonatal lethal. The C-terminus of UNC80 contains a domain that interacts with UNC79 and overcomes a soma-retention signal to achieve dendritic localization. UNC80 lacking this domain, as found in human patients, still supports whole-cell NALCN currents but lacks dendritic localization. Our results establish the subunit composition of the NALCN complex, uncover the inter-subunit interaction domains, reveal the functional significance of regulation of dendritic membrane potential by the sodium-leak channel complex, and provide evidence supporting that genetic variations found in individuals with intellectual disability are the causes for the phenotype observed in patients.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Criança , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Dendritos/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Células HEK293 , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Canais Iônicos/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
6.
Chem Biol Interact ; 328: 109144, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653415

RESUMO

The debilitating nature of cognitive impairment in epilepsy and the potential of some traditional antiepileptics to further deteriorate cognitive function are areas of growing concern. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) deficiency has been linked to reduced seizure threshold as well as cognitive dysfunction. Here, we tested whether sitagliptin (SITA), by virtue of its neuroprotective properties, could alleviate both epilepsy and associated cognitive dysfunction in a rat model of kindling epilepsy. Chemical kindling was induced by subconvulsive doses of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) (30 mg/kg; i.p). SITA (50 mg/kg; p.o) was administered 1 h before PTZ injections. SITA conceivably attenuated PTZ hippocampal histological insult, preserved neuronal integrity and amended neurotransmitter perturbations in rat hippocampi paralleled with enhanced hippocampal GLP-1 levels as well as the downstream cAMP content and protein kinase A (PKA) activity. Moreover, SITA improved cognitive functioning of rats in the Morris water maze which was coupled with hampered hippocampal p(Ser404)-tau and ß-amyloid proteins. SITA replenished p(Ser9)-glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß). It also opposed the boosted matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels associated with PTZ administration along with mitigation of both ß-secretase-1 (BACE1) immunoreactivity and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) protein level in rat hippocampi. In conclusion, SITA subdues epileptic and cognitive upshots of PTZ kindling in rats, which might correspond to the modulation of BACE1, amyloidogenic/RAGE axis as well as GSK-3ß/MMP-9/BDNF signaling cascade. SITA effects are probably mediated via boosting GLP-1 and subsequently enhancing GLP-1/GLP-1R signaling.


Assuntos
Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/metabolismo , Amiloide/metabolismo , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Transtornos Cognitivos/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Cognitivos/metabolismo , Excitação Neurológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/farmacologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Transtornos Cognitivos/patologia , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Inibição Neural/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Pentilenotetrazol , Ratos Wistar , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/metabolismo , Convulsões/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
7.
Life Sci ; 258: 118099, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682917

RESUMO

Although emerging evidence has highlighted the heterogeneities of astrocytes under physiological versus pathological conditions, little is known regarding these processes in different brain regions during stress. Thus, the present study established a mouse model of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) and isolated astrocytes from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus. The results revealed dramatic A1-specific (neurotoxic phenotype) astrocytic responses, depressive-like behaviors, and significant inhibition of neuronal activities in both the mPFC and hippocampus according to electrophysiological data. Subsequently, astrocytes in the mPFC and hippocampus of CSDS mice were suppressed and this reversed the astrocytic responses and rescued depressive-like behaviors. Furthermore, when astrocytes were activated in the mPFC and hippocampus in healthy mice, there was a non-specific phenotypic activation of astrocytes in the absence of depressive-like behaviors. Next, microglia were depleted and the mice subsequently performed in the CSDS model; this reduced astrocyte responses and restored depressive-like behaviors. On the other hand, when microglia were depleted but astrocytes were activated in CSDS mice, this abolished the restoration of microglia depletion-induced depressive-like behaviors. Taken together, these results indicate that neuronal inhibition by astrocytes in the mPFC and hippocampus contributed to depressive-like behaviors mediated by activated microglia. This study provides evidence regarding the interaction of microglia and astrocytes during stress and how that relationship can trigger depressive-like behaviors.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/patologia , Comportamento Animal , Depressão/psicologia , Neurônios/patologia , Estresse Psicológico/patologia , Animais , Doença Crônica , Hipocampo/patologia , Locomoção , Masculino , Camundongos , Inibição Neural , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia
8.
Life Sci ; 258: 118107, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682919

RESUMO

Cognitive impairment has been widely recognized as a common symptom of chronic stress. Ginsenoside Rd (GRd), the major active compound in Panax ginseng, was previously reported in various neurological researches. However, little research is available regarding on the effect of GRd on cognitive improvement in mice subjected to chronic stress. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of GRd in chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced cognitive deficits and explored the potential mechanism in male C57BL/6J mice. Our results demonstrated that oral administration of GRd for 28 days markedly increased the spontaneous alternation in Y-maze and the relative discrimination index in novel object or location recognition tests following CRS. Additionally, GRd treatment considerably increased the antioxidant enzymes activities in the hippocampus. The expression levels of hippocampus and serum inflammation factors in the CRS groups were also counter-regulated by GRd treatment. Meanwhile, GRd treatment could reverse CRS-induced the decrease in phosphorylated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), camp-reflecting element binding protein (CREB), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expression in the hippocampus. These findings provided evidences that GRd improves cognitive impairment in CRS mice by mitigating oxidative stress and inflammation, while upregulating the hippocampal BDNF-mediated CREB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico , Restrição Física , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Doença Crônica , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ginsenosídeos/química , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/enzimologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória de Curto Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Biológicos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor trkB/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3143, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561719

RESUMO

Topoisomerase 3ß (Top3ß) is the only dual-activity topoisomerase in animals that can change topology for both DNA and RNA, and facilitate transcription on DNA and translation on mRNAs. Top3ß mutations have been linked to schizophrenia, autism, epilepsy, and cognitive impairment. Here we show that Top3ß knockout mice exhibit behavioural phenotypes related to psychiatric disorders and cognitive impairment. The mice also display impairments in hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Notably, the brains of the mutant mice exhibit impaired global neuronal activity-dependent transcription in response to fear conditioning stress, and the affected genes include many with known neuronal functions. Our data suggest that Top3ß is essential for normal brain function, and that defective neuronal activity-dependent transcription may be a mechanism by which Top3ß deletion causes cognitive impairment and psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo I/genética , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Neurogênese/genética , Plasticidade Neuronal/genética , Animais , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento , Comportamento Animal , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Neurônios/patologia , Técnicas Estereotáxicas , Potenciais Sinápticos/genética , Transcrição Genética/fisiologia
10.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(6): e1008381, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525948

RESUMO

HIV invades the brain during acute infection. Yet, it is unknown whether long-lived infected brain cells release productive virus that can egress from the brain to re-seed peripheral organs. This understanding has significant implication for the brain as a reservoir for HIV and most importantly HIV interplay between the brain and peripheral organs. Given the sheer number of astrocytes in the human brain and their controversial role in HIV infection, we evaluated their infection in vivo and whether HIV infected astrocytes can support HIV egress to peripheral organs. We developed two novel models of chimeric human astrocyte/human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: NOD/scid-IL-2Rgc null (NSG) mice (huAstro/HuPBMCs) whereby we transplanted HIV (non-pseudotyped or VSVg-pseudotyped) infected or uninfected primary human fetal astrocytes (NHAs) or an astrocytoma cell line (U138MG) into the brain of neonate or adult NSG mice and reconstituted the animals with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We also transplanted uninfected astrocytes into the brain of NSG mice and reconstituted with infected PBMCs to mimic a biological infection course. As expected, the xenotransplanted astrocytes did not escape/migrate out of the brain and the blood brain barrier (BBB) was intact in this model. We demonstrate that astrocytes support HIV infection in vivo and egress to peripheral organs, at least in part, through trafficking of infected CD4+ T cells out of the brain. Astrocyte-derived HIV egress persists, albeit at low levels, under combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Egressed HIV evolved with a pattern and rate typical of acute peripheral infection. Lastly, analysis of human cortical or hippocampal brain regions of donors under cART revealed that astrocytes harbor between 0.4-5.2% integrated HIV gag DNA and 2-7% are HIV gag mRNA positive. These studies establish a paradigm shift in the dynamic interaction between the brain and peripheral organs which can inform eradication of HIV reservoirs.


Assuntos
Astrócitos , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1/metabolismo , Hipocampo , Liberação de Vírus , Animais , Antirretrovirais/farmacologia , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Astrócitos/patologia , Astrócitos/virologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Barreira Hematoencefálica/patologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/virologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/patologia , HIV-1/genética , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Hipocampo/virologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos SCID
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234632, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559242

RESUMO

Evidence indicate that the brain-specific protein, brevican, is proteolytically cleaved during neurodegeneration, hence positioning fragments of brevican as potential blood biomarkers of neurodegenerative diseases, such as dementia. We aimed to develop two assays capable of detecting the brevican N-terminal (N-Brev) and the ADAMTS4-generated fragment (Brev-A), cleaved at Ser401, in serum and to perform a preliminary assessment of their diagnostic potential in dementias. Monoclonal antibodies against N-Brev and Brev-A were used to develop two ELISAs detecting each epitope. A comparison of brevican fragments in serum from individuals with AD (n = 28), other dementia (OD) (n = 41), and non-dementia-related memory complaints (NDCs) (n = 48) was conducted. Anti-N-Brev and anti-Brev-A antibodies selectively recognized their targets and dilution and spike recoveries were within limits of ±20%. Intra- and inter-assay CVs were below limits of 10% and 15%, respectively. For the N-Brev biomarker, serum from patients with OD showed significantly lower levels than those with AD (p = 0.05) and NDCs (p < 0.01). The opposite pattern was evident for Brev-A: serum levels in patients with OD were significantly higher than for AD (p = 0.04) and NDCs (p = 0.01). For both N-Brev and Brev-A, levels did not differ between AD and NDCs. The ratio of N-Brev/Brev-A resulted in increased significant differences between OD and AD (p < 0.01) and between OD and NDCs (p < 0.0001). The ratio discriminated between NDCs and OD (AUC: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.65-0.85, p < 0.0001) and between OD and AD (AUC: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.59-0.85, p < 0.01). In conclusion, we developed the first assays detecting the N-terminal of brevican as well as an ADAMTS4-cleaved fragment of brevican in blood. Differential levels of N-Brev and Brev-A between AD and OD allow for these biomarkers to possibly distinguish between different forms of dementias.


Assuntos
Proteína ADAMTS4/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/sangue , Brevicam/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Demência/sangue , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Demência/diagnóstico , Feminino , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Especificidade de Órgãos , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 235, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is the most common form of focal epilepsy, which is frequently characterized by hippocampal sclerosis (HS). Accumulating studies have suggested widespread cortico-cortical connections related to MTLE. The role of subcortical structures involved in general epilepsy has been extensively investigated, but it is still limited in MTLE. Our purpose was to determine the specific morphological correlation between sclerotic hippocampal and thalamic sub-regions, using quantitative analysis, in MTLE. METHODS: In this study, 23 MTLE patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis and 24 healthy controls were examined with three-dimensional T1 MRI. Volume quantitative analysis in the hippocampus and thalamus was conducted and group-related volumetric difference was assessed. Moreover, vertex analysis was further performed using automated software to delineate detailed morphological patterns of the hippocampus and thalamus. The correlation was used to examine whether there is a relationship between volume changes of two subcortical structures and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: The patients had a significant volume decrease in the sclerotic hippocampus (p < 0.001). Compared to controls, obvious atrophic patterns were observed in the bilateral hippocampus in MTLE (p < 0.05). Only small patches of shrinkage were noted in the bilateral thalamus (p < 0.05). Moreover, the volume change of the hippocampus had a significant positive correlation with that of the thalamus (P < 0.001). Intriguingly, volume changes of the hippocampus and thalamus were correlated with the duration of epilepsy (hippocampus: P = 0.024; thalamus: P = 0.022). However, only volume changes of thalamus possibly differentiated between two prognostic groups in patients (P = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the morphological characteristics of the hippocampus and thalamus in MTLE, providing new insights into the interrelated mechanisms between the hippocampus and thalamus, which have potential clinical significance for refining neuromodulated targets.


Assuntos
Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal , Hipocampo , Tálamo , Adolescente , Adulto , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/patologia , Feminino , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tálamo/patologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233670, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492020

RESUMO

AIMS: Smaller hippocampal volumes are among the most consistently reported neuroimaging findings in schizophrenia. However, little is known about hippocampal volumes in people who report psychotic experiences. This study investigated differences in hippocampal volume between young people without formal diagnoses who report psychotic experiences (PEs) and those who do not report such experiences. This study also investigated if any differences persisted over two years. METHODS: A nested case-control study of 25 adolescents (mean age 13.5 years) with reported PEs and 25 matched controls (mean age 13.36 years) without PEs were drawn from a sample of 100 local schoolchildren. High-resolution T1-weighted anatomical imaging and subsequent automated cortical segmentation (Freesurfer 6.0) was undertaken to determine total hippocampal volumes. Comprehensive semi-structured clinical interviews were also performed including information on PEs, mental diagnoses and early life stress (bullying). Participants were invited for a second scan at two years. RESULTS: 19 adolescents with PEs and 19 controls completed both scans. Hippocampal volumes were bilaterally lower in the PE group compared to the controls with moderate effects sizes both at baseline [left hippocampus p = 0.024 d = 0.736, right hippocampus p = 0.018, d = 0.738] and at 2 year follow up [left hippocampus p = 0.027 d = 0.702, right = 0.048 d = 0.659] throughout. These differences survived adjustment for co-morbid mental disorders and early life stress. CONCLUSIONS: Psychotic experiences are associated with total hippocampal volume loss in young people and this volume loss appears to be independent of possible confounders such as co-morbid disorders and early life stress.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/patologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Psicóticos/patologia , Adolescente , Bullying , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neuroimagem , Tamanho do Órgão
14.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 241, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence supports the role of soluble inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is a well-described pathohistological abnormality in TLE. The association of proinflammatory cytokines with epileptic disease profiles is well established; however, the potential significance of circulating interleukin 10 (IL-10), particularly in TLE-associated HS, is still poorly understood. Therefore, taking into consideration the neuroprotective and anticonvulsive effects of IL-10, we performed this study to examine the role of the plasma levels of IL-10 in patients with TLE with HS (TLE + HS), TLE without HS (TLE-HS) and with other types of epilepsy. METHODS: This study included 270 patients with refractory epilepsy who were classified into four groups: i) 34 patients with TLE + HS, ii) 105 patients with TLE-HS, iii) 95 patients with extra-TLE (XLE) and iv) 36 patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). The plasma IL-10 levels were quantified using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: IL-10 levels were significantly lower in TLE + HS than in TLE-HS (p = 0.013). In a subgroup of TLE-HS patients who had seizures 1 month before sampling, patients with seizures had significantly higher IL-10 levels than patients who were seizure-free (p = 0.039). Among a small group (n = 15) of non-refractory TLE-HS patients, IL-10 levels showed a moderate negative correlation with the duration of epilepsy (r = - 0.585, p = 0.023). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that chronically reduced levels of plasma IL-10 were associated with HS in TLE patients, suggesting that there was an inadequate systemic anti-inflammatory immune response. These results could provide new biological insights into the pathophysiology of HS in TLE. We also found that the production of IL-10 could be affected by the seizure frequency and declined concomitantly with increased disease durations. Therefore, the measurement of plasma IL-10 may have diagnostic value as a biomarker for stratifying TLE + HS from other epilepsy types or as a marker of disease progression towards a progressive form of epilepsy.


Assuntos
Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/sangue , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/patologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Interleucina-10/sangue , Adulto , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/sangue , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/imunologia , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/patologia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose/sangue , Esclerose/complicações , Esclerose/patologia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0228825, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470970

RESUMO

Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) is prone to cognitive and memory impairments, and there is no effective clinical treatment until now. Ferulic acid (FA) is found within members of the genus Angelica, reportedly shows protective effects on neuronal damage. However, the protective effects of FA on HIBD remains unclear. In this study, using the Morris water maze task, we herein found that the impairment of spatial memory formation in adult rats exposed to HIBD was significantly reversed by FA treatment and the administration of LNA-miR-9. The expression of miRNA-9 was detected by RT-PCR analyses, and the results shown that miRNA-9 was significantly increased in the hippocampus of neonatal rats following HIBD and in the PC12 cells following hypoxic-ischemic injury, while FA and LNA-miR-9 both inhibited the expression of miRNA-9, suggesting that the therapeutic effect of FA was mainly attributed to the inhibition of miRNA-9 expression. Indeed, the silencing of miR-9 by LNA-miR-9 or FA similarly attenuated neuronal damage and cerebral atrophy in the rat hippocampus after HIBD, which was consistent with the restored expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Therefore, our findings indicate that FA treatment may protect against neuronal death through the inhibition of miRNA-9 induction in the rat hippocampus following hypoxic-ischemic damage.


Assuntos
Ácidos Cumáricos/farmacologia , Hipóxia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , MicroRNAs/genética , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Hipóxia Encefálica/genética , Hipóxia Encefálica/patologia , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Ratos
17.
Life Sci ; 255: 117828, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454160

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore the role of chemokine CC motif ligand 2 (CCL2) in spatial memory and cognition impairment, and the underlying mechanisms focused on inflammatory, glutamate metabolistic and apoptotic- associated mRNA expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stereotaxic surgery was performed here to establish a rat model by bilateral intra-hippocampal injection of CCL2. Morris water maze (MWM) and Novel object recognition test (NORT) were used to assess the learning, memory and cognitive ability respectively. RT-PCR was used to detect the relative mRNA expression of inflammatory, glutamate metabolistic and apoptotic- associated indexes. Nissl and TUNEL staining were performed to observe the morphological changes of hippocampal CA1 zone and quantified the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons of CA1 zones respectively. KEY FINDINGS: We found CCL2 injured cognitive function in rats. Six days after CCL2 injection, we revealed the following obvious mRNA expression changes: (1) increasing of the neuroinflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, CXCL-10, IL-6; (2) decreasing of the glutamate transporters GLT-1 and GLAST and increasing of PAG; (3) increasing of the apoptotic genes caspase-8, caspase-3 and Bax, while decreasing the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2. Further, Nissl staining and TUNEL confirmed the injury of the structure of hippocampal CA1 zones and the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicated that CCL2 impaired spatial memory and cognition, the involving mechanisms may link to the up-regulation of mRNA expression of the three major pathological events: inflammation, excitotoxicity and neuronal apoptosis, which were involved in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). Taken together, these findings suggest a potential therapeutic strategy against CCL2.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Inflamação/patologia , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/fisiopatologia , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Quimiocina CCL2/administração & dosagem , Cognição/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/virologia , Neurônios/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Memória Espacial/fisiologia
18.
Life Sci ; 255: 117861, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473247

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is closely associated with neuroinflammation development in the brain. Co-delivery of metformin (MET) with phosphatidylserine liposomes neuroprotectant may be beneficial in ameliorating AD-related symptoms like memory impairment and inflammation. Therefore, we aimed to prepare metformin containing phosphatidylserine nanoliposomes formulation (MET-PSL) and to evaluate its effect on rats subjected to AD. Alzheimer's disease model was induced by bilateral intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (3 mg/kg) into rat brains using the stereotactic technique. MET-PSL, MET, and PSL alone were administered intraperitoneally to AD-induced animals and factors including learning and memory storage in addition to cytokine and tissue inflammatory changes were evaluated after a 22-day experiment period. The learning and memory parameters significantly (P < 0.05) improved in AD-rats treated with MET-PSL. Moreover, MET-PSL administration significantly (P < 0.05) decreased cytokine levels of IL1-ß, TNF-α, and TGF-ß in hippocampal tissues of rats with AD. Histological results indicated a considerable reduction in inflammatory and necrotic neural cells along with significantly (P < 0.05) increased neurogenesis in MET-PSL treated rats. Furthermore, our results showed that MET-PSL formulation could potentially act better than the free form of MET and PSL alone in the recovery process of rats with AD. In general, our data suggest that combination therapy of metformin loaded phosphatidylserine liposomes may enhance the therapeutic performance in AD patients of a clinical study.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Metformina/farmacologia , Nanopartículas , Fosfatidilserinas/química , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo/patologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Lipossomos , Masculino , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233700, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469963

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive decline and amyloid-beta (Aß) depositions generated by the proteolysis of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the brain. In APPNL-F mice, APP gene was humanized and contains two familial AD mutations, and APP-unlike other mouse models of AD-is driven by the endogenous mouse APP promoter. Similar to people without apparent cognitive dysfunction but with heavy Aß plaque load, we found no significant decline in the working memory of adult APPNL-F mice, but these mice showed decline in the expression of normal anxiety. Using immunohistochemistry and 3D block-face scanning electron microscopy, we found no changes in GABAA receptor positivity and size of somatic and dendritic synapses of hippocampal interneurons. We did not find alterations in the level of expression of perineuronal nets around parvalbumin (PV) interneurons or in the density of PV- or somatostatin-positive hippocampal interneurons. However, in contrast to other investigated cell types, PV interneuron axons were occasionally mildly dystrophic around Aß plaques, and the synapses of PV-positive axon initial segment (AIS)-targeting interneurons were significantly enlarged. Our results suggest that PV interneurons are highly resistant to amyloidosis in APPNL-F mice and amyloid-induced increase in hippocampal pyramidal cell excitability may be compensated by PV-positive AIS-targeting cells. Mechanisms that make PV neurons more resilient could therefore be exploited in the treatment of AD for mitigating Aß-related inflammatory effects on neurons.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Interneurônios/metabolismo , Mutação , Rede Nervosa/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/genética , Animais , Axônios/metabolismo , Axônios/patologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Interneurônios/patologia , Memória de Curto Prazo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Rede Nervosa/patologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/genética , Células Piramidais/metabolismo , Células Piramidais/patologia , Receptores de GABA-A/genética , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo
20.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(7): 1263-1269, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427420

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between fat mass (i.e., body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], and waist to hip ratio [WTHR]) and hippocampal volumes. METHODS: UK Biobank participants (N = 20,395) aged 40 to 70 years (mean follow-up = 7.66 years), were included and categorized into one of four groups, which represented their baseline fat mass status and trajectory of change by follow-up assessment: normal weight to overweight/obesity, overweight/obesity to normal weight (ON), normal weight stable (NS), or overweight/obesity stable (OS). Regression models used NS (WC < 80 cm in women and < 94 cm in men; WTHR < 0.85 in women and < 0.90 in men; BMI < 25 kg/m2 in women and men) as the reference group. Hippocampal volumes were automatically segmented using the FMRIB Software Library. RESULTS: Compared with NS, OS (BMI: B = -62.23 [SE = 16.76]; WC: B = -145.56 [SE = 16.97]; WTHR: B = -101.26 [SE = 19.54]) and ON (BMI: B = -61.1 [SE = 30.3]; WC: B = -93.77 [SE = 24.96]; WTHR: B = -69.92 [SE = 26.22]) had significantly lower hippocampal volumes. CONCLUSIONS: The detrimental effects of overweight/obesity may extend beyond the duration of overweight/obesity itself.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Peso Corporal Ideal/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/patologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril
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