Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.819
Filtrar
1.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(5): 908-915, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934664

RESUMO

AIMS: Periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are among the most devastating complications after joint arthroplasty. There is limited evidence on the efficacy of different antiseptic solutions on reducing biofilm burden. The purpose of the present study was to test the efficacy of different antiseptic solutions against clinically relevant microorganisms in biofilm. METHODS: We conducted an in vitro study examining the efficacy of several antiseptic solutions against clinically relevant microorganisms. We tested antiseptic irrigants against nascent (four-hour) and mature (three-day) single-species biofilm created in vitro using a drip-flow reactor model. RESULTS: With regard to irrigant efficacy against biofilms, Povidone-iodine treatment resulted in greater reductions in nascent MRSA biofilms (logarithmic reduction (LR) = 3.12; p < 0.001) compared to other solutions. Bactisure treatment had the greatest reduction of mature Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms (LR = 1.94; p = 0.032) and a larger reduction than Vashe or Irrisept for mature Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms (LR = 2.12; p = 0.025). Pooled data for all biofilms tested resulted in Bactisure and Povidone-iodine with significantly greater reductions compared to Vashe, Prontosan, and Irrisept solutions (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Treatment failure in PJI is often due to failure to clear the biofilm; antiseptics are often used as an adjunct to biofilm clearance. We tested irrigants against clinically relevant microorganisms in biofilm in vitro and showed significant differences in efficacy among the different solutions. Further clinical outcome data is necessary to determine whether these solutions can impact PJI outcome in vivo. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(5):908-915.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Artroplastia de Substituição , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/prevenção & controle , Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Compostos de Benzalcônio/farmacologia , Betaína/farmacologia , Biguanidas/farmacologia , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Povidona-Iodo/farmacologia , Propionibacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804019

RESUMO

Therapeutic success in endodontic treatment depends on successful infection control. Alexidine dihydrochloride (ALX) was recently proposed as a potential alternative to 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) as it possesses similar antimicrobial properties, expresses substantivity and does not produce p-chloroaniline (PCA) when mixed with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). However, the products released in this reaction have not been described to date. The aim of this study was to identify detected chemical compounds formed in the reaction of ALX and NaOCl with the ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (UHPLC-MS) method and assess whether precipitates and PCA are formed in this reaction. Solutions of ALX were mixed with the equivalent volume of 2% and 5.25% (w/v) NaOCl solutions. As control, 2% (w/v) CHX was mixed with 2% and 5.25% (w/v) NaOCl. Samples were subjected to the UHPLC-MS analysis. The mixture of ALX and NaOCl resulted in a yellowish precipitate formation, the amount of which depended on NaOCl concentration. Interaction of ALX and NaOCl resulted in the production of aliphatic amines. No PCA was formed when NaOCl was mixed with ALX. However, for the first time, we identified the possible products of the interaction. The interaction between NaOCl and ALX results in the formation of aliphatic amines; therefore, these compounds should not be mixed during endodontic treatment.


Assuntos
Biguanidas/efeitos adversos , Biguanidas/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/efeitos adversos , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Aminas/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Endodontia/métodos , Humanos
3.
Stomatologiia (Mosk) ; 100(1): 15-18, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528950

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study investigated the effect of 2%s odium hypochlorite gel application after post-etching salivary contamination on composite bonding strength to primary teeth enamel. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 79 primary human teeth that were extracted no more than one month ago. The sample was randomly divided into four groups: (1) the control group (A) comprised 10 primary teeth, and composites were applied in the traditional manner without any salivary contamination; (2) the second group (B) consisted of 23 primary teeth in which salivary contamination was conducted after etching followed by re-etching and follow-up; (3) the third group (C) comprised 23 primary teeth in which saliva contamination was done after etching followed by washing, drying, and follow-up; and (4) the fourth group (D) comprised 23 primary teeth, in which salivary contamination was conducted after etching followed by application of sodium hypochlorite gel and follow-up. The samples were tested using the Testometric Tensile Strength Device (Testometric M350-10 kN, Testometric Ltd., UK) to measure the composite bonding strength to enamel of primary teeth. RESULTS: The arithmetic mean strength values in the research sample were ordered as followed: (A=13.39 MPa) > (D=11.82 MPa) > (C=8.07 MPa) > (B=6.15 MPa). The application of sodium hypochlorite gel after salivary contamination significantly improved the composite bonding strength to primary teeth enamel when compared with re-etching or only washing and drying. CONCLUSION: 15 s exposition of sodium hypochlorite gel with subsequent rinse and drying is recommended in case of saliva contamination of etched primary tooth enamel surface.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Hipoclorito de Sódio , Condicionamento Ácido do Dente , Resinas Compostas , Esmalte Dentário , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Propriedades de Superfície , Dente Decíduo
4.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 342: 109073, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550154

RESUMO

Clam jeotgal, called "jogaejeotgal," is a Korean fermented seafood product with, generally, a high amount of added salt to inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1), a surrogate for human norovirus, in salt-fermented clam, jogaejeotgal. The sequential effect of ClO2 and electron-beam (e-beam) irradiation on the inactivation of MNV-1 was also investigated. Treatments of up to 300 ppm ClO2 and 1000 ppm NaOCl were used to determine the disinfectant concentrations at which more than 1 log (90%) MNV-1 inactivation occurred. The sequential treatment of ClO2 (50-300 ppm) and e-beam (1-5.5 kGy) was performed after storage at 4 °C for 7 days. There was a 1.9-log reduction of the virus in seasoned clams irradiated at 5.5 kGy after ClO2 treatment at 300 ppm. No significant change (p > 0.05) in physicochemical quality was observed after the combined treatment, suggesting the potential for the use of a combined treatment using ClO2 (300 ppm) and e-beam (5.5 kGy) in the jeotgal manufacturing industry for the reduction of norovirus.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Compostos Clorados/farmacologia , Elétrons , Norovirus/fisiologia , Óxidos/farmacologia , Frutos do Mar/virologia , Animais , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Irradiação de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Norovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Norovirus/efeitos da radiação , República da Coreia , Frutos do Mar/análise , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos da radiação
5.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 246(6): 740-748, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325749

RESUMO

Shortages of N95 respirators for use by medical personnel have driven consideration of novel conservation strategies, including decontamination for reuse and extended use. Decontamination methods listed as promising by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (vaporous hydrogen peroxide (VHP), wet heat, ultraviolet irradiation (UVI)) and several methods considered for low resource environments (bleach, isopropyl alcohol and detergent/soap) were studied for two commonly used surgical N95 respirators (3M™ 1860 and 1870+ Aura™). Although N95 filtration performance depends on the electrostatically charged electret filtration layer, the impact of decontamination on this layer is largely unexplored. As such, respirator performance following decontamination was assessed based on the fit, filtration efficiency, and pressure drop, along with the relationship between (1) surface charge of the electret layer, and (2) elastic properties of the straps. Decontamination with VHP, wet heat, UVI, and bleach did not degrade fit and filtration performance or electret charge. Isopropyl alcohol and soap significantly degraded fit, filtration performance, and electret charge. Pressure drop across the respirators was unchanged. Modest degradation of N95 strap elasticity was observed in mechanical fatigue testing, a model for repeated donnings and doffings. CDC recommended decontamination methods including VHP, wet heat, and UV light did not degrade N95 respirator fit or filtration performance in these tests. Extended use of N95 respirators may degrade strap elasticity, but a loss of face seal integrity should be apparent during user seal checks. NIOSH recommends performing user seal checks after every donning to detect loss of appropriate fit. Decontamination methods which degrade electret charge such as alcohols or detergents should not be used on N95 respirators. The loss of N95 performance due to electret degradation would not be apparent to a respirator user or evident during a negative pressure user seal check.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Descontaminação/métodos , /provisão & distribução , 2-Propanol/farmacologia , Detergentes/farmacologia , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Eletricidade Estática , Raios Ultravioleta
6.
J Endod ; 47(3): 451-457, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359252

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the colonization and tubular invasion of Enterococcus faecalis in minimally altered canal walls. We hypothesized that age, axial directions (buccolingual or mesiodistal), regions (apical, midroot, or cervical), and disinfection treatment (sodium hypochlorite or autoclave) would impact bacterial colonization and invasion patterns. METHODS: Single roots of extracted teeth from 2 age groups (≤30 years old and ≥60 years old) were challenged with bacteria for 2 weeks. Colonization on the canal walls in 3 regions was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy. The prevalence of tubular invasion in the axial directions in 3 regions was examined with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure in SAS software (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC) with a Tukey adjustment for comparisons. RESULTS: Bacteria successfully colonized and invaded tubules in 2 weeks. The apical region in the ≥60-year age group was the least infected. A significantly higher invasion prevalence in a buccolingual (B/L) than a mesiodistal (M/D) direction was detected in both age groups and in all 3 regions. The ≤30-year age group had a significantly higher prevalence of tubular invasion than the ≥60-year age group in the B/L and M/D direction, respectively. Sodium hypochlorite treatment significantly impacted bacterial colonization and invasion in more calcified areas. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support a more conservative enlargement of the apical region of older teeth. An emphasis in a B/L direction rather than an M/D direction is recommended for debridement.


Assuntos
Enterococcus faecalis , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular , Biofilmes , Cavidade Pulpar , Dentina , Microscopia Confocal , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia
7.
Chemosphere ; 266: 129191, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310358

RESUMO

The inactivation of bacteriophage MS2 by sodium hypochlorite was investigated to understand the effect of solution chemistry on the disinfection efficacy in the presence of particles. Kaolinite and Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) were used as the models of inorganic and organic particles to simulate high turbidity and algal cells, respectively, in drinking water sources. In both particle-containing solutions, lower pH, the presence of cations (di-valent Ca2+) and natural organic matters (NOM) were regarded as the main factors to influence the aggregation and inactivation of MS2. The results showed that MS2 aggregated in all solutions at pH 3.0, protecting the inner viruses. At pH 7.0, the presence of Na+ cations (0-200 mmol/L) did not affect the inactivation efficacy of MS2, which always followed the order of particles-free ≈ kaolinite > M. aeruginosa. The inactivation efficacy of MS2 in the presence of Ca2+ cations followed the order of kaolinite > particles-free > M. aeruginosa at 0-50 mmol/L Ca2+ cations, while the inactivation efficacy remained almost constant in the range of 100-200 mmol/L Ca2+ cations. By contrast, kaolinite offered not enough protection to adsorbed MS2, but MS2 aggregation decreased disinfection efficacy at a high concentration of Ca2+ cations. Moreover, the presence of humic acid as NOM decreased the inactivation of MS2 more significantly than M. aeruginosa due to the more consumption of free chlorine from humic acids. Therefore, the co-existence of NOM and di-valent Ca2+ cations are potential challenges for the inactivation of viruses by sodium hypochlorite in safe drinking water.


Assuntos
Levivirus , Microcystis , Desinfecção , Caulim , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Inativação de Vírus
8.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 335: 108856, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961522

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of heat-resistant molds isolated from spoiled thermally processed foods to antimicrobial compounds used for food industry sanitation. An ortho-phenylphenol-based smoke generator sanitizer, liquid chemical sanitizers (benzalkonium chloride, biguanide, iodine, peracetic acid, and sodium hypochlorite), and acidic and alkaline electrolyzed water were used against Aspergillus australensis (MB 2579; NFF 02), Aspergillus aureoluteus (NFC1), Paecilomyces fulvus (PFF 01), Paecilomyces niveus (PNT 01; PNDC 01; PNB1 01), and Paecilomyces variotii (PV 01; PV 01; PVCH 03). The fungal strains were exposed separately to liquid sanitizers and electrolyzed water in stainless steel discs for 15 min following the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) recommendations. Moreover, the fungal strains were exposed to the smoke generator sanitizer for 7 h following French protocol NF-T-72281. The best results of fungal inactivation were achieved when the highest concentration specified in the label of these sanitizers was tested. On the opposite, the lowest concentration specified in the label should be avoided since it was ineffective in most cases (94%). The ortho-phenyphenol-based smoke generator sanitizer and peracetic acid (1%) showed the best results of spore inactivation, while iodine and benzalkonium chloride achieved satisfactory results against the strains evaluated. Sodium hypochlorite and biguanide were ineffective against most of the fungi studied at all concentrations tested. Acidic and basic electrolyzed water was also ineffective to achieve the 3-log CFU reduction required in the concentrations tested. In general, Paecilomyces spp. was more sensitive than Aspergillus spp. against all sanitizers evaluated, whereas A. aureoluteus NFC1 was resistant to all agents and concentrations tested. The heat-resistant fungal strains showed varied sensitivity against the different agents. Notably, the two most effective commercial sanitizers against the heat-resistant strains were ineffective against the filamentous fungi recommended for sanitizer testing (A. brasiliensis ATCC 16404), which demonstrates the relevance of testing fungal isolates that cause spoilage to choose the most effective compound and obtain the best results of fungal control.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Paecilomyces/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Benzalcônio/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Ácido Peracético/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Aço Inoxidável
9.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(9): 1188-1193, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913155

RESUMO

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of Erbium, chromium-doped yttrium, scandium, gallium, and garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser with and without NaOCl solution. A total of 81 extracted human mandibular premolar teeth were used. Materials and Methods: After root canal preparation and sterilization, the samples were inoculated with E. faecalis for 24 hours. The specimens were divided into 4 experimental groups. Group 1 (n = 25) was irradiated with 2 W laser, group 2 (n = 25) was irradiated with 0.75 W laser in combination with 2.5% NaOCl, group 3 (n = 25) was irrigated with 5% NaOCl and group 4 (n = 6) was not treated. Statistical analysis was performed by using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests. Results: The combination of 0.75 W laser with 2.5% NaOCl regime was found to be just as effective at inhibiting the growth of E. faecalis and sterilization of all root canals as 5% NaOCl irrigation (P > 0.001). The 2 W laser had significant bactericidal effect in infected root canals however it did not eradicate all bacteria. The SEM observations were in accordance with the microbiologic findings. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this laboratory study, NaOCl irrigation improved the antimicrobial effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation. When the toxic effects of high percentage of NaOCl was considered, the combination of low-powered laser and low concentration of NaOCl can be used as an effective disinfection method in root canal treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Cromo , Érbio , Gálio , Humanos , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/métodos , Escândio , Ítrio
10.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 33(1): 45-49, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621599

RESUMO

The gutta-percha cones used in endodontic treatment are produced in aseptic conditions and their composition includes zinc oxide, which is responsible for antibacterial activity. However, there is the possibility of microbial contamination by manipulation, aerosol or during storage. Although several chemical agents have been tested for their decontamination, there is no consensus on the best disinfection protocol to be used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the decontamination of gutta-percha cones contaminated with the bacteria Enterococcus faecalis, by using chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) at different concentrations for short exposure times. For this purpose, gutta-percha cones (size 40) were selected at random from a sealed box and immersed for 1 min in a microbial suspension. Then they were immersed in specific Petri dishes for different groups containing: CHX 2%, NaClO 1% or NaClO 2.5% for 30 s or 1 min, and subsequently placed in tubes containing BHI broth. After incubating the tubes for 48 h, it was observed that 1% and 2.5% NaClO and 2% CHX were effective for decontaminating the cones at those exposure time intervals. Microbial growth was detected in one of the replicates of the group with CHX applied for 30 s. To prevent the possibility of failures at this stage, the exposure time of gutta-percha cones to the decontaminating agent should not be reduced.


Assuntos
Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Descontaminação/métodos , Desinfetantes de Equipamento Odontológico/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Guta-Percha , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Esterilização/métodos , Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Desinfetantes de Equipamento Odontológico/administração & dosagem , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/administração & dosagem , Hipoclorito de Sódio/administração & dosagem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679828

RESUMO

Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), an effective endodontic irrigant against Enterococcus faecalis (EF), is harmful to periapical tissues. Natural pineapple-orange eco-enzymes (M-EE) and papaya eco-enzyme (P-EE) could be potential alternatives. This study aimed to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of M-EE and P-EE at different concentrations and fermentation periods against EF, compared to 2.5% NaOCl. Fermented M-EE and P-EE (3 and 6 months) at various concentrations were mixed with EF in a 96-well plate incubated for 24 h anaerobically. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of M-EE and P-EE were determined via EF growth observation. EF inhibition was quantitatively measured and compared between different irrigants using the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and different fermentation periods using the independent-samples T-test. M-EE and P-EE showed MIC at 50% and MBC at 100% concentrations. There was no significant difference in antimicrobial effect when comparing M-EE and P-EE at 50% and 100% to 2.5% NaOCl. P-EE at 6 months fermentation exhibited higher EF inhibition compared to 3 months at concentrations of 25% (p = 0.017) and 0.78% (p = 0.009). The antimicrobial properties of M-EE and P-EE, at both 100% and 50% concentrations, are comparable to 2.5% NaOCl. They could therefore be potential alternative endodontic irrigants, but further studies are required.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecalis , Frutas/química , Animais , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipoclorito de Sódio/efeitos adversos , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia
12.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 330: 108695, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502761

RESUMO

Norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis worldwide; a high number of those cases are attributed to the consumption of contaminated food. Crop producers have used several strategies to inactivate the virus present in these products and thus stop the NoV transmission chain. Physical methods such as gamma radiation show excellent results in the inactivation of bacteria, but its effect on NoV has been little studied. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation for NoV inactivation, and over the surface topographic characteristics of strawberry cells, as a prototype of soft fruit. A 10% suspension of GII norovirus-positive stool samples were treated with either 200 mg/L of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) or gamma-irradiated at doses of 5, 10, 15 and 20 kilograys (kGy). Viral inactivation was determined by measuring the integrity of viral capsid using RNase A alone or in combination with proteinase K followed by RT-qPCR. The effect over cellular surface topology characteristics of the fruit was measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and confocal microscopy. High doses of radiation (20 kGy) were necessary to detect a significant (p < 0.05) decrease of up to 1.26 log10 viral copy number. This dose significantly (p < 0.05) raises the root means square roughness (Rq), which affects directly the quality and texture of the product. The gamma irradiation doses tested in this study were not enough to inactivate NoV. The allowed gamma irradiation doses for fresh produce does not alter the surface topology of the fruit, but they affect the content of fluorescent compounds, responsible for the antioxidant activity of the fruit.


Assuntos
Fragaria/efeitos da radiação , Fragaria/virologia , Raios gama , Norovirus/efeitos da radiação , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos da radiação , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fragaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/efeitos da radiação , Frutas/virologia , Norovirus/fisiologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8127, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415190

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency, effectiveness, and biocompatibility of two agents used for the chemomechanical removal of carious dentin. Sixty extracted carious human teeth were treated with a conventional bur (CBG) or chemomechanical agents - Papacarie Duo (PG) and Brix 3000 (BG). Treatment efficiency and effectiveness were assessed by the working time for carious dentin removal and Knoop microhardness values, respectively. Human pulp fibroblasts (FP6) were used to evaluate cytotoxicity by incorporating MTT dye, and genotoxicity was evaluated with the micronuclei test. The carious tissue was removed in a shorter time with CBG (median = 54.0 seconds) than the time required for chemomechanical agents (p = 0.0001). However, the time was shorter for Brix 3000 (BG) than that for Papacarie Duo (PG), showing mean values of 85.0 and 110.5 seconds, respectively. Regarding microhardness testing, all approaches tested were effective (p < 0.05). The final mean microhardness values were 48.54 ± 16.31 KHN, 43.23 ± 13.26 KHN, and 47.63 ± 22.40 KHN for PG, BG, and CBG, respectively. PG decreased cell viability compared to that of BG, but it presented no genotoxicity. Brix 3000 may be a good option for chemomechanical dentin caries removal due to its reduced removal time and lower cytotoxicity compared to the other treatment options.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/terapia , Preparo da Cavidade Dentária/métodos , Dentina/química , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Dureza/efeitos dos fármacos , Papaína/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Estresse Mecânico
14.
Infect Dis Health ; 25(3): 186-193, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nosocomial pathogens are transmitted by contamination of surfaces causing healthcare-associated infections (HAI). The impact of locally produced disinfectant with operational training as a means to improve hygiene in resource-limited healthcare facilities and prevent HAI was evaluated. METHOD: In Burkina Faso, 4 types of electro-chlorinator devices that convert salt and water into sodium hypochlorite through electrolysis were installed in 26 healthcare facilities distributed across 3 sanitary districts. The program was evaluated at 4 months and 11 months and performance compared with a control group. RESULTS: After 11 months, over 90% of the facilities applied 8 of the 11 essential hygiene practices defined by the Ministry of Health, compared to 20% in the control group. 61.5% of the healthcare facilities improved the chlorine concentration of their sodium hypochlorite solutions, reaching an average concentration of 5.1 g/L compared to an average of 2.1 g/L in the control group. Additionally, a cost-benefit analysis demonstrated that locally produced sodium hypochlorite led to daily savings ranging between 2.7 and 53 euros depending on the device compared with the purchase of chlorine tablets. CONCLUSION: Results, therefore, suggest that electro-chlorinator devices in addition to hygiene sensitization can be a simple, cost-effective and tailored intervention to reduce the prevalence of HAI in low-resource settings.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Higiene , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Eletrólise , Halogenação , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos
15.
Food Microbiol ; 90: 103449, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336370

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to assess the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid for sanitization of Brazil nuts. To evaluate the natural microbiota of the nuts, the total bacteria and fungi as well as the Aspergillus section Flavi were counted. The moisture, water activity and the presence of aflatoxins was quantified. The response surface method was used to determine the influence of exposure time and sanitizers concentration on the reduction of Aspergillus nomius inoculated on the nuts. Microbiological, sensory and quantification analyzes of aflatoxins were performed under optimum conditions The evaluation of the initial contamination of the nuts, despite presenting high microbiological contamination, humidity and water activity, was not detected aflatoxins in any samples. In artificially inoculated samples, the response surface and the desirability function were obtained to determine the optimal point of use for each sanitizer. The nuts had high microbiological contamination, moisture content and water activity. Aflatoxins were not detected in any samples. The response surface and desirability function indicated the optimal sanitization conditions were 250 mg/L and 8.5 min and 140 mg/L and 15 min for sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid, respectively. Reductions greater than 2 log CFU/g were obtained with sodium hypochlorite and of 1 log CFU/g for peracetic acid. In the tests performed with new Brazil nuts samples under the optimized conditions, reductions of less than 2 log CFU/g were obtained. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in one untreated sample (1.51 µg/kg), one sample treated with sodium hypochlorite (0.60 µg/kg) and two samples treated with peracetic acid (0.64 and 0.72 µg/kg). Demonstrating that the sanitizers in the concentrations used had no action on aflatoxins, despite being efficient for fungal control. The treatments did not cause an unacceptable sensorial impact on the samples.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Bertholletia/microbiologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Ácido Peracético/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Aflatoxinas/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290533

RESUMO

Biofilms in dental unit waterlines (DUWL) are a potentially significant source of contamination posing a significant health risk as these may come into contact with patients and dental staff during treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of DUWL water treated by Biofilm-Removing-System® (BRS®) and Alpron®/Bilpron® disinfectant solutions for six years in a French university hospital. The microbiological quality of water supplied by 68 dental units-initially shock treated with BRS®, then continuously treated by Alpron® with sterile water during working days and Bilpron® during inactivity period, and combined with purging every morning and after each patient-was assessed biannually during six years for total culturable aerobic bacteria at 22 °C and 36 °C, Legionella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and total coliforms. A total of 628 samples were analyzed, 99.8% were compliant with extended microbiological levels, and we never detected pathogen bacteria like Legionella sp. and P. aeruginosa. Only one sample (0.2%) was noncompliant with the level of total culturable aerobic bacteria at 36 °C, which exceeded 140 colony forming units per mL. The protocol implemented in our university hospital gives excellent results and enables control of the microbiological quality of DUWL water in the long term.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Equipamentos Odontológicos , Desinfetantes , Ácido Edético , Hipoclorito de Sódio , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Desinfetantes de Equipamento Odontológico , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Humanos , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Microbiologia da Água
17.
Vet Microbiol ; 243: 108630, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273009

RESUMO

Mycoplasma bovis, a cattle pathogen of major economic importance across the globe, causes a range of diseases, including pneumonia and mastitis. Because of the limited options for effective treatment of these diseases, prevention and control are preferred to diagnosis and treatment. In this study, the efficacies of citric acid and sodium hypochlorite as disinfectants against M. bovis were tested using a modification of a standardised method for assessing the efficacy of disinfectants against bacteria. A citric acid concentration of 0.5 % was found to be an effective disinfectant, reducing infectivity by close to 106 fold, while sodium hypochlorite at 1% was found to have similar efficacy to 0.5 % citric acid. A 0.04 % concentration of sodium hypochlorite was effective against M. bovis only in the absence of any organic material. Under these conditions, 0.25 % citric acid found to have similar efficacy. These findings indicate that 0.5 % citric acid or 1 % sodium hypochlorite are likely to be effective disinfectants for M. bovis under field conditions and 0.04 % sodium hypochlorite or 0.25 % citric acid are likely to be effective following removal of organic material.


Assuntos
Ácido Cítrico/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Mycoplasma bovis/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycoplasma bovis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Biofouling ; 36(1): 101-112, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31997643

RESUMO

Although disinfection procedures are widely implemented in food environments, bacteria can survive and present increased virulence/resistance. Since little is known about these phenomena regarding biofilms, this study aimed to investigate the effect of chemical disinfection on biofilm-derived cells of Salmonella Enteritidis. Using a reference strain (NCTC 13349) and a food isolate (350), biofilm susceptibility to benzalkonium chloride (BAC), sodium hypochlorite (SH) and hydrogen peroxide (HP) was evaluated and biofilms were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of each disinfectant. Biofilm-derived cells were characterized for their biofilm forming ability, antibiotic resistance and expression of virulence-associated genes. Except for a few instances, disinfectant exposure did not alter antibiotic susceptibility. However, SH and HP exposure enhanced the biofilm forming ability of Salmonella Enteritidis NCTC 13349. After BAC and HP exposure, biofilm-derived cells presented a down-regulation of rpoS. Exposure to BAC also revealed an up-regulation of invA, avrA and csgD on Salmonella Enteritidis NCTC 13349. The results obtained suggest that biofilm-derived cells that survive disinfection may represent an increased health risk.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfecção/métodos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella enteritidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Virulência , Compostos de Benzalcônio/farmacologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella enteritidis/genética , Salmonella enteritidis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salmonella enteritidis/patogenicidade , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Virulência/efeitos dos fármacos , Virulência/genética
19.
Microsc Res Tech ; 83(4): 354-361, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789473

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different combinations of irrigating solutions and intracanal dressings in the pretreatment of bovine radicular dentin, using an experimental immature tooth model. Eighty healthy bovine teeth, simulated with incomplete rhizogenesis, were randomly distributed according to the protocols of root canal dentin pretreatment for a regenerative endodontic procedure (n = 10): Control (irrigation with distilled water); SH (irrigation with 1.5% Sodium Hypochlorite); EDTA (irrigation with 17% EDTA); SH/EDTA (irrigation with 1.5% SH + 17% EDTA); SH/CH/EDTA (irrigation with 1.5% SH + calcium hydroxide paste +17% EDTA); SH/MTAP/EDTA (irrigation with 1.5% SH + modified triple antibiotic paste + EDTA 17%); SH/TAP/EDTA (irrigation with 1.5% SH + triple antibiotic paste +17% EDTA) and SH/DAP/EDTA (irrigation with 1.5% SH + double antibiotic paste + EDTA 17%). After the completion of the protocol, the demineralization, the exposure of collagen fibers, and the dentin erosion was evaluated under scanning electron microscopy (SEM), by applying a score system (1-3) to classify the observed features. Statistical analysis was performed (Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn Multiple Comparison tests-p < .05). SH/TAP/EDTA and SH/DAP/EDTA groups presented the highest rates of demineralization in both the coronal and middle thirds of the root (p < .05). In the SH/MTAP/EDTA group, the samples presented moderate demineralization. The samples from the SH/CH/EDTA group presented similar findings to the control group (p < .05). Conventional triple antibiotic (TAP) and double antibiotic (DAP) pastes promoted more pronounced morphological changes on the dentin surface.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Endodontia Regenerativa , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Hidróxido de Cálcio/farmacologia , Bovinos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Propriedades de Superfície
20.
Food Microbiol ; 86: 103346, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703876

RESUMO

This work aimed to study the effect of the combination of Sodium hypochlorite, the most used disinfectant by the vegetable industry, with a natural antimicrobial, benzyl-isothiocyanate (BITC), considering cutting surface and contact time, on the reduction of Salmonella in fresh-cut produce in washing operations under typical industrial conditions. Overall, the combinations of disinfectant and process parameters resulted in a mean reduction of Salmonella of 2.5 log CFU/g. According to statistical analysis, free chlorine and BITC concentrations, contact time and cut size exerted a significant effect on the Salmonella reduction (p ≤ 0.05). The optimum combination of process parameter values yielding the highest Salmonella reduction was a lettuce cut size of 15 cm2 washed for 110 s in industrial water containing 160 mg/L free chlorine and 40 mg/L BITC. A predictive model was also derived, which, as illustrated, could be applied to optimize industrial disinfection and develop probabilistic Exposure Assessments considering the effect of washing process parameters on the levels of Salmonella contamination in leafy green products. The present study demonstrated the efficacy of chlorine to reduce Salmonella populations in fresh-cut lettuce while highlighting the importance of controlling the washing process parameters, such as, contact time, cut size and concentration of the disinfectant to increase disinfectant efficacy and improve food safety.


Assuntos
Cloro/farmacologia , Desinfecção/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Alface/microbiologia , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salmonella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Verduras/microbiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...