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1.
Rev Med Liege ; 75(10): 653-659, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030841

RESUMO

Physical activity is a key step in the management of diabetes, both in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In diabetic subjects, it is recommended to practice 150 minutes of weekly physical activity spread over at least three days, with a maximum of two consecutive days without exercise. However, more than 60 % of type 1 diabetic patients fail to meet this goal. This is largely explained by the fear of potential adverse effects, in particular the occurrence of hypoglycaemia during exercise, which represents a major obstacle to its safe practice. Therefore, specific therapeutic education should be considered in these subjects in order to promote regular physical activity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipoglicemia , Esportes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle
2.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 21(15): 1799-1803, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108240

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The majority of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) do not achieve glycemic targets. In addition, treatment with insulin is associated with increased risk for hypoglycemia and weight gain. Accordingly, there is an unmet need for new safe and effective glucose-lowering agents in this population. Sotagliflozin, a dual inhibitor of sodium-glucose co-transporters 1 and 2, has been recently approved for use in patients with T1DM. AREAS COVERED: The authors review the major trials that have evaluated the safety and efficacy of sotagliflozin and provide their expert opinion. EXPERT OPINION: Even though sotagliflozin reduces HbA1 c levels and does not appear to increase the risk for hypoglycemia in most patients, the substantially increased risk for diabetic ketoacidosis limits the use of this agent to a carefully selected subgroup of patients with T1DM. Based on the existing evidence, sotagliflozin should be considered only in patients who have failed to achieve adequate glycemic control despite optimal insulin therapy, are at low risk for diabetic ketoacidosis, have been adequately trained to recognize this complication and are able to be in close contact with their physician.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Glicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Cetoacidose Diabética/induzido quimicamente , Glicosídeos/administração & dosagem , Glicosídeos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Risco , Transportador 1 de Glucose-Sódio/metabolismo , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/metabolismo
3.
Ther Umsch ; 77(7): 328-332, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996423

RESUMO

Diabetes, hypoglycemia and driving instructions in Switzerland Abstract. Many individuals with diabetes participate in road traffic in a regular and safe manner. Studies suggest that type 1 diabetes leads to more traffic accidents. Hypoglycemia is a risk factor for driving mishaps. Therefore, patients with diabetes medication, which can cause hypoglycemia, have to be informed and adhere to the guidelines regarding suitability for driving. These guidelines are summarized in this review.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Suíça
4.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2020: 3612607, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32774458

RESUMO

Introduction: Severe hypoglycemia can be life-threatening; therefore, it is important to identify the characteristics of the hypoglycemic patients. The aim of this study is to analyze the type and characteristics of diabetic patients with hypoglycemia who visited an emergency room. Methods: We included diabetic patients with hypoglycemia who visited the emergency room of St. Mary's Hospital in Seoul from January 2009 to August 2018 in the study. Hypo_S group patients visited the emergency room once whereas Hypo_M group patients visited twice or more. We also compared the incidence of cardiovascular disease between the groups within 5 years after hypoglycemia. Results: A total of 843 patients were included in this study, with a mean age of 71 ± 14 years and average glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level of 6.7 ± 1.4%. For patients with hypoglycemia, lower body mass index, lower HbA1c, shorter diabetes duration, and lower glomerular filtration rate have a statistically significant relationship with patient characteristics in the emergency room group (all p < 0.001). Hypoglycemia symptoms were most frequently observed between 6:00 and 12:00 am (p < 0.001). Cardiovascular diseases within 5 years after discharge were more frequent in the Hypo_S group than in the Hypo_M group; however, there was no statistical significance. The frequency of aneurysms was significantly higher in patients with hypoglycemia than in other patients in the emergency room (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Relatively thin older patients with a diabetes duration shorter than 10 years and good blood sugar control showed higher frequency of visits to the emergency room due to hypoglycemia. For these patients, medical staff should always be mindful of their susceptibility to hypoglycemia when prescribing insulin or OHA and educate them on the prevention of hypoglycemia.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/sangue , Hipoglicemia/diagnóstico , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Seul/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
5.
N Engl J Med ; 383(9): 836-845, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A closed-loop system of insulin delivery (also called an artificial pancreas) may improve glycemic outcomes in children with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: In a 16-week, multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial, we assigned, in a 3:1 ratio, children 6 to 13 years of age who had type 1 diabetes to receive treatment with the use of either a closed-loop system of insulin delivery (closed-loop group) or a sensor-augmented insulin pump (control group). The primary outcome was the percentage of time that the glucose level was in the target range of 70 to 180 mg per deciliter, as measured by continuous glucose monitoring. RESULTS: A total of 101 children underwent randomization (78 to the closed-loop group and 23 to the control group); the glycated hemoglobin levels at baseline ranged from 5.7 to 10.1%. The mean (±SD) percentage of time that the glucose level was in the target range of 70 to 180 mg per deciliter increased from 53±17% at baseline to 67±10% (the mean over 16 weeks of treatment) in the closed-loop group and from 51±16% to 55±13% in the control group (mean adjusted difference, 11 percentage points [equivalent to 2.6 hours per day]; 95% confidence interval, 7 to 14; P<0.001). In both groups, the median percentage of time that the glucose level was below 70 mg per deciliter was low (1.6% in the closed-loop group and 1.8% in the control group). In the closed-loop group, the median percentage of time that the system was in the closed-loop mode was 93% (interquartile range, 91 to 95). No episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis or severe hypoglycemia occurred in either group. CONCLUSIONS: In this 16-week trial involving children with type 1 diabetes, the glucose level was in the target range for a greater percentage of time with the use of a closed-loop system than with the use of a sensor-augmented insulin pump. (Funded by Tandem Diabetes Care and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03844789.).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Bombas de Infusão Implantáveis , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Glicemia/análise , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Cetoacidose Diabética/etiologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pâncreas Artificial
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD009966, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kidney transplantation is the preferred management for patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). However, it is often complicated by worsening or new-onset diabetes. The safety and efficacy of glucose-lowering agents after kidney transplantation is largely unknown. This is an update of a review first published in 2017. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of glucose-lowering agents for treating pre-existing and new onset diabetes in people who have undergone kidney transplantation. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 16 January 2020 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs and cross-over studies examining head-to-head comparisons of active regimens of glucose-lowering therapy or active regimen compared with placebo/standard care in patients who have received a kidney transplant and have diabetes were eligible for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Four authors independently assessed study eligibility and quality and performed data extraction. Continuous outcomes were expressed as post-treatment mean differences (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD). Adverse events were expressed as post-treatment absolute risk differences (RD). Dichotomous clinical outcomes were presented as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). MAIN RESULTS: Ten studies (21 records, 603 randomised participants) were included - three additional studies (five records) since our last review. Four studies compared more intensive versus less intensive insulin therapy; two studies compared dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors to placebo; one study compared DPP-4 inhibitors to insulin glargine; one study compared sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors to placebo; and two studies compared glitazones and insulin to insulin therapy alone. The majority of studies had an unclear to a high risk of bias. There were no studies examining the effects of biguanides, glinides, GLP-1 agonists, or sulphonylureas. Compared to less intensive insulin therapy, it is unclear if more intensive insulin therapy has an effect on transplant or graft survival (4 studies, 301 participants: RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.32 to 3.94; I2 = 49%; very low certainty evidence), delayed graft function (2 studies, 153 participants: RR 0.63, 0.42 to 0.93; I2 = 0%; very low certainty evidence), HbA1c (1 study, 16 participants; very low certainty evidence), fasting blood glucose (1 study, 24 participants; very low certainty evidence), kidney function markers (1 study, 26 participants; very low certainty evidence), death (any cause) (3 studies, 208 participants" RR 0.68, 0.29 to 1.58; I2 = 0%; very low certainty evidence), hypoglycaemia (4 studies, 301 participants; very low certainty evidence) and medication discontinuation due to adverse effects (1 study, 60 participants; very low certainty evidence). Compared to placebo, it is unclear whether DPP-4 inhibitors have an effect on hypoglycaemia and medication discontinuation (2 studies, 51 participants; very low certainty evidence). However, DPP-4 inhibitors may reduce HbA1c and fasting blood glucose but not kidney function markers (1 study, 32 participants; low certainty evidence). Compared to insulin glargine, it is unclear if DPP-4 inhibitors have an effect on HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, hypoglycaemia or discontinuation due to adverse events (1 study, 45 participants; very low certainty evidence). Compared to placebo, SGLT2 inhibitors probably do not affect kidney graft survival (1 study, 44 participants; moderate certainty evidence), but may reduce HbA1c without affecting fasting blood glucose and eGFR long-term (1 study, 44 participants, low certainty evidence). SGLT2 inhibitors probably do not increase hypoglycaemia, and probably have little or no effect on medication discontinuation due to adverse events. However, all participants discontinuing SGLT2 inhibitors had urinary tract infections (1 study, 44 participants, moderate certainty evidence). Compared to insulin therapy alone, it is unclear if glitazones added to insulin have an effect on HbA1c or kidney function markers (1 study, 62 participants; very low certainty evidence). However, glitazones may make little or no difference to fasting blood glucose (2 studies, 120 participants; low certainty evidence), and medication discontinuation due to adverse events (1 study, 62 participants; low certainty evidence). No studies of DPP-4 inhibitors, or glitazones reported effects on transplant or graft survival, delayed graft function or death (any cause). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy and safety of glucose-lowering agents in the treatment of pre-existing and new-onset diabetes in kidney transplant recipients is questionable. Evidence from existing studies examining the effect of intensive insulin therapy, DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT inhibitors and glitazones is mostly of low to very low certainty. Appropriately blinded, larger, and higher quality RCTs are needed to evaluate and compare the safety and efficacy of contemporary glucose-lowering agents in the kidney transplant population.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Adamantano/efeitos adversos , Adamantano/análogos & derivados , Adamantano/uso terapêutico , Viés , Causas de Morte , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/efeitos adversos , Jejum/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Insulina Glargina/efeitos adversos , Insulina Glargina/uso terapêutico , Nitrilos/efeitos adversos , Nitrilos/uso terapêutico , Pioglitazona , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Pirrolidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirrolidinas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/efeitos adversos , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Tiazolidinedionas/efeitos adversos , Tiazolidinedionas/uso terapêutico , Transplantados , Vildagliptina
7.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 167: 108354, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739380

RESUMO

AIMS: Spain has been one of the worst affected countries by the COVID-19 pandemic. A very strict lockdown at home was imposed with a tough restriction of mobility. We aimed to evaluate the impact of this exceptional scenario on glucose profile of patients with T1D prone to hypoglycemia using standalone continuous glucose monitoring. METHODS: Patients with T1D prone to hypoglycemia using multiple daily injections and either a Dexcom G5® or a Free Style Libre® CGM systems for at least 6 months under the funding of National Health Service were included in an observational, retrospective study. Data were collected in two periods: pre-lockdown (PL), February 23rd-March 7th and within lockdown (WL), April 1st-14th 2020. The primary outcome was the difference in the proportion of time in target glucose range of 70-180 mg/dL (TIR). Additional glucometric data were also analysed. RESULTS: 92 patients were included: 40 women, age 42.8 ± 3.9 years, disease duration of 23.1 ± 12.6 years. Seventeen patients used Dexcom G5® and 75 Free Style Libre®. TIR 70-180 mg/dL (59.3 ± 16.2 vs 62.6 ± 15.2%), time > 180 (34.4 ± 18.0 vs 30.7 ± 16.9%), >250 (11.1 ± 10.6 vs 9.2 ± 9.7%) and Glucose Management Indicator (7.2 ± 0.8 vs 7.0 ± 0.8%) significantly improved (PL vs WL, respectively, p < 0.05). Time in hypoglycemia remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Lockdown conditions imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic may be managed successfully in terms of glycemic control by population with T1D prone to hypoglycemia using CGM. The strict daily routine at home could probably explain the improvement in the time in glycemic target without increasing the time in hypoglycemia.


Assuntos
Automonitorização da Glicemia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Monitorização Ambulatorial , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções , Insulina de Ação Prolongada/uso terapêutico , Insulina de Ação Curta/uso terapêutico , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Medicina Estatal
8.
Med Care ; 58(10): 927-933, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia related to antidiabetic drugs (ADDs) is important iatrogenic harm in hospitalized patients. Electronic identification of ADD-related hypoglycemia may be an efficient, reliable method to inform quality improvement. OBJECTIVE: Develop electronic queries of electronic health records for facility-wide and unit-specific inpatient hypoglycemia event rates and validate query findings with manual chart review. METHODS: Electronic queries were created to associate blood glucose (BG) values with ADD administration and inpatient location in 3 tertiary care hospitals with Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Network (PCORnet) databases. Queries were based on National Quality Forum criteria with hypoglycemia thresholds <40 and <54 mg/dL, and validated using a stratified random sample of 321 BG events. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated with manual chart review as the reference standard. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of queries for hypoglycemia events were 97.3% [95% confidence interval (CI), 90.5%-99.7%] and 100.0% (95% CI, 92.6%-100.0%), respectively for BG <40 mg/dL, and 97.7% (95% CI, 93.3%-99.5%) and 100.0% (95% CI, 95.3%-100.0%), respectively for <54 mg/dL. The sensitivity and specificity of the query for identifying ADD days were 91.8% (95% CI, 89.2%-94.0%) and 99.0% (95% CI, 97.5%-99.7%). Of 48 events missed by the queries, 37 (77.1%) were due to incomplete identification of insulin administered by infusion. Facility-wide hypoglycemia rates were 0.4%-0.8% (BG <40 mg/dL) and 1.9%-3.0% (BG <54 mg/dL); rates varied by patient care unit. CONCLUSIONS: Electronic queries can accurately identify inpatient hypoglycemia. Implementation in non-PCORnet-participating facilities should be assessed, with particular attention to patient location and insulin infusions.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Pacientes Internados , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Centros de Atenção Terciária/normas
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e20931, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629693

RESUMO

Various psychotropic drugs may affect the hematological and biochemical profiles of plasma and its metabolism. Carbamazepine, the most well-known psychotropic drug, can cause substantial hyponatremia. Methylphenidate, a piperidine derivative structurally related to amphetamines, acts as a central nervous system stimulant. The current study evaluated whether methylphenidate affects hematological and biochemical parameters of patients diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.Patients undergoing treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at our Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic were enrolled in the study. Blood samples for complete blood count and common biochemical analyses were collected before patients started methylphenidate and after 3 months of continuous treatment.Participants included 64 patients comprised the study cohort. There were 48 (75%) males and 16 (25%) females, with a median age of 16 years (range 11-31). The total median potassium level decreased by 0.6 mg/dL (P < .0001), while glucose rose by 15 mg/dL (P < .0001), sodium decreased in 0.7meq/L, (P = .006). The white blood count rose by 1350 cells/µL (P < .033) due to neutrophilia, lymphocytosis and eosinophilia. Hemoglobin rose slightly by 0.1 (P = .041). Changes in calcium, phosphorus, protein, albumin, and liver enzyme levels were not significant.The results indicate that methylphenidate may cause hypokalemia and elevated glucose, leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte and eosinophil counts.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Metilfenidato/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/sangue , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Metilfenidato/farmacologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 16: 241-248, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606720

RESUMO

Aim: Type 2 diabetes (T2D), as a major cause of morbidity and mortality, is predicted to have a prevalence of 629 million by 2045. As diabetic patients show considerable inter-individual variation in response to antidiabetic treatment, this study aimed to investigate the gene polymorphism of cytochrome P450 as well as the effectiveness and safety of glibenclamide and gliclazide for different genotypes of CYP2C9. Besides, the chronic side effects of T2D including retinal microvasculature complications or retinopathy and renal dysfunction due to nephropathy in different genotypes were considered. Patients and Methods: The participants including 80 T2D patients treated with glibenclamide or gliclazide were recruited from university hospitals of Ahvaz Jundishpur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, in the southwest of Iran. Blood samples were collected from the patients at 2.5h after the morning dose of glibenclamide and 12h after the last dose of gliclazide. Genotyping from the extracted DNA was, then, performed using PCR-RFLP. The plasma level of glibenclamide and gliclazide was, in turn, measured by the reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Results: The results showed that the wild-type allele, i.e., CYP2C9*1, occurred in the highest frequency (0.8), while the frequency rates of the mutant allele, i.e., CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3, were 0.15 and 0.05, respectively. Moreover, no significant association was found between any of the genotypes as well as the clinical and biochemical characteristics of the patients. The findings also showed that the plasma level of sulfonylureas (i.e., glibenclamide and gliclazide) was the highest in the patients with the CYP2C9*3 allele. It was also found that 75.9% of the patients with variant genotypes had experienced hypoglycemia events. Furthermore, in the absence of wild type allele, a significant increase was observed in retinopathy (p=0.039) and nephropathy (p=0.05). Conclusion: The findings can provide guidelines for the optimal management of the treatment protocols with sulfonylurea intended to control the T2D complications.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Retinopatia Diabética/genética , Gliclazida/uso terapêutico , Glibureto/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Gliclazida/efeitos adversos , Gliclazida/sangue , Glibureto/efeitos adversos , Glibureto/sangue , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/genética , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Hipoglicemiantes/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 21(14): 1771-1780, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With limited real-world insulin glargine 300 unit/mL (Gla-300) data available, we assessed the effectiveness and safety of Gla-300 in the Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: X-STAR was a prospective, observational, 12-month post-marketing study of Gla-300 from 2015 to 2018. T2DM patients received Gla-300 as the first insulin (insulin-naïve) or after treatment with another type of insulin (insulin-experienced). RESULTS: We identified 1,227 insulin-naïve and 3,394 insulin-experienced patients. Insulin-naïve group increased the Gla-300 starting dose by 2.80 U/day during 12 months (7.49 to 10.29 U/day). Mean HbA1c reduced by 1.99% (9.82 to 7.83%), and 28.4% showed HbA1c < 7.0%. Insulin-experienced group had a baseline insulin dose of 14.86 U/day, which increased by 0.73 U/day. Mean HbA1c reduced by 0.18% (7.99 to 7.81%), and 24.6% showed HbA1c < 7.0%. Adverse drug reactions occurred in 3.42% (insulin-naïve) and 4.45% (insulin-experienced); symptomatic hypoglycemia (2.93% and 3.86%, respectively) was the most common in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Gla-300, in clinical practice, provides an effective and safe therapy as HbA1c was reduced/maintained in insulin-naïve/experienced Japanese T2DM patients without new safety signal. This study provides insights into the current Japanese clinical practices where insulin use is delayed and conservative despite relatively low HbA1c achievement.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina Glargina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Insulina Glargina/administração & dosagem , Insulina Glargina/efeitos adversos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(24): 740-743, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555139

RESUMO

In August 2019, the Virginia Poison Center (VPC) and the Blue Ridge Poison Center (BRPC) were contacted concerning patients experiencing repeated episodes of marked hypoglycemia following ingestion of a male enhancement supplement tablet marketed as "V8" in convenience stores in central Virginia. Over the following 3 months, the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (VDACS) and the Virginia Department of Health (VDH) conducted an investigation and identified 17 patients meeting the case definition (severe hypoglycemia within 48 hours of consuming an over-the-counter male enhancement supplement in a man with no history of use of insulin or other medication used to control blood glucose). Analysis of the V8 tablets revealed that most contained glyburide, a sulfonylurea oral hypoglycemic used in the treatment of diabetes and associated with prolonged hypoglycemia following overdose (1). To stem this outbreak, V8 was removed from stores when found, and public service announcements were released. The public health implications of V8 use include the potential for substantial morbidity from hypoglycemic episodes and the potential for mortality if health care services are not accessed in a timely manner when hypoglycemia occurs. The presence of V8 in the market poses a serious threat to public health because of its potentially life-threatening adverse effects.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/toxicidade , Surtos de Doenças , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Virginia/epidemiologia
14.
JAMA ; 323(23): 2397-2406, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543682

RESUMO

Importance: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) provides real-time assessment of glucose levels and may be beneficial in reducing hypoglycemia in older adults with type 1 diabetes. Objective: To determine whether CGM is effective in reducing hypoglycemia compared with standard blood glucose monitoring (BGM) in older adults with type 1 diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized clinical trial conducted at 22 endocrinology practices in the United States among 203 adults at least 60 years of age with type 1 diabetes. Interventions: Participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to use CGM (n = 103) or standard BGM (n = 100). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was CGM-measured percentage of time that sensor glucose values were less than 70 mg/dL during 6 months of follow-up. There were 31 prespecified secondary outcomes, including additional CGM metrics for hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and glucose control; hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c); and cognition and patient-reported outcomes, with adjustment for multiple comparisons to control for false-discovery rate. Results: Of the 203 participants (median age, 68 [interquartile range {IQR}, 65-71] years; median type 1 diabetes duration, 36 [IQR, 25-48] years; 52% female; 53% insulin pump use; mean HbA1c, 7.5% [SD, 0.9%]), 83% used CGM at least 6 days per week during month 6. Median time with glucose levels less than 70 mg/dL was 5.1% (73 minutes per day) at baseline and 2.7% (39 minutes per day) during follow-up in the CGM group vs 4.7% (68 minutes per day) and 4.9% (70 minutes per day), respectively, in the standard BGM group (adjusted treatment difference, -1.9% (-27 minutes per day); 95% CI, -2.8% to -1.1% [-40 to -16 minutes per day]; P <.001). Of the 31 prespecified secondary end points, there were statistically significant differences for all 9 CGM metrics, 6 of 7 HbA1c outcomes, and none of the 15 cognitive and patient-reported outcomes. Mean HbA1c decreased in the CGM group compared with the standard BGM group (adjusted group difference, -0.3%; 95% CI, -0.4% to -0.1%; P <.001). The most commonly reported adverse events using CGM and standard BGM, respectively, were severe hypoglycemia (1 and 10), fractures (5 and 1), falls (4 and 3), and emergency department visits (6 and 8). Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults aged 60 years or older with type 1 diabetes, continuous glucose monitoring compared with standard blood glucose monitoring resulted in a small but statistically significant improvement in hypoglycemia over 6 months. Further research is needed to understand the long-term clinical benefit. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03240432.


Assuntos
Automonitorização da Glicemia/métodos , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Automonitorização da Glicemia/instrumentação , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/diagnóstico , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/diagnóstico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Ambulatorial/instrumentação , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente
15.
JAMA ; 323(23): 2388-2396, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543683

RESUMO

Importance: Adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes exhibit the worst glycemic control among individuals with type 1 diabetes across the lifespan. Although continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has been shown to improve glycemic control in adults, its benefit in adolescents and young adults has not been demonstrated. Objective: To determine the effect of CGM on glycemic control in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized clinical trial conducted between January 2018 and May 2019 at 14 endocrinology practices in the US including 153 individuals aged 14 to 24 years with type 1 diabetes and screening hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of 7.5% to 10.9%. Interventions: Participants were randomized 1:1 to undergo CGM (CGM group; n = 74) or usual care using a blood glucose meter for glucose monitoring (blood glucose monitoring [BGM] group; n = 79). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was change in HbA1c from baseline to 26 weeks. There were 20 secondary outcomes, including additional HbA1c outcomes, CGM glucose metrics, and patient-reported outcomes with adjustment for multiple comparisons to control for the false discovery rate. Results: Among the 153 participants (mean [SD] age, 17 [3] years; 76 [50%] were female; mean [SD] diabetes duration, 9 [5] years), 142 (93%) completed the study. In the CGM group, 68% of participants used CGM at least 5 days per week in month 6. Mean HbA1c was 8.9% at baseline and 8.5% at 26 weeks in the CGM group and 8.9% at both baseline and 26 weeks in the BGM group (adjusted between-group difference, -0.37% [95% CI, -0.66% to -0.08%]; P = .01). Of 20 prespecified secondary outcomes, there were statistically significant differences in 3 of 7 binary HbA1c outcomes, 8 of 9 CGM metrics, and 1 of 4 patient-reported outcomes. The most commonly reported adverse events in the CGM and BGM groups were severe hypoglycemia (3 participants with an event in the CGM group and 2 in the BGM group), hyperglycemia/ketosis (1 participant with an event in CGM group and 4 in the BGM group), and diabetic ketoacidosis (3 participants with an event in the CGM group and 1 in the BGM group). Conclusions and Relevance: Among adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes, continuous glucose monitoring compared with standard blood glucose monitoring resulted in a small but statistically significant improvement in glycemic control over 26 weeks. Further research is needed to understand the clinical importance of the findings. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03263494.


Assuntos
Automonitorização da Glicemia/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Glicemia/análise , Automonitorização da Glicemia/instrumentação , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Cetoacidose Diabética , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/diagnóstico , Hiperglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/diagnóstico , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Aplicativos Móveis , Monitorização Ambulatorial/instrumentação , Adulto Jovem
16.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 165: 108250, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531326

RESUMO

AIMS: Using data from DISCOVER (NCT02322762; NCT02226822), a 3-year, global, observational study programme of patients with type 2 diabetes initiating second-line glucose-lowering therapy, we assessed socioeconomic factors associated with hypoglycaemic events and fear of hypoglycaemia. METHODS: Data were collected at baseline (second-line therapy initiation) and 6, 12 and 24 months. Factors associated with experiencing a hypoglycaemic event at baseline or during follow-up were determined using a hierarchical logistic regression model and an interval-censored survival analysis, respectively. Fear of hypoglycaemia was assessed using the hypoglycaemia fear survey-II (HFS-II). RESULTS: The overall proportion of patients reporting hypoglycaemic events during follow-up was 7.3%; this was higher in middle-income countries than in high-income countries (8.4% vs 5.8%, p < 0.001). Factors associated with an increased risk of hypoglycaemia during follow-up included living in a country with a low gross national income, use of glucose-monitoring equipment and second-line treatment with insulin, meglitinides or sulphonylureas (versus metformin). Experiencing hypoglycaemia was associated with increased HFS-II worry and overall scores. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the global inequity in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Increased risk of hypoglycaemia in middle-income countries may be explained by limited treatment options and may be underestimated because of limited access to glucose-monitoring equipment.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 21(13): 1565-1578, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521177

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent advances in anti-diabetic medications and glucose monitoring have led to a paradigm shift in diabetes care. Newer anti-diabetic medications such as DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs), and SGLT2 inhibitors have enabled optimal glycemic control to be achieved without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia and weight gain. Treatment with GLP-1RAs and SGLT2 inhibitors has been demonstrated to improve cardiorenal outcomes, positioning these agents as the mainstay of treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The development of these newer agents has also prompted a paradigm shift in the concept of T2DM, highlighting the importance of beta cell dysfunction in the pathophysiology of T2DM. AREAS COVERED: Recent advances in pharmacotherapy for diabetes are summarized with a focus on the role of incretin-based drugs and SGLT2 inhibitors. The importance of a paradigm shift from a glucose-centric to a beta cell-centric concept of T2DM is also discussed, given from an Asian perspective. EXPERT OPINION: Management of T2DM including lifestyle modification as well as pharmacotherapy should be focused on reducing beta cell workload, to preserve functional beta cell mass. A paradigm shift from a glucose-centric to a beta cell-centric concept of T2DM enhances the implementation of person-centered diabetes care.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/análise , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Incretinas/metabolismo , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Medicina de Precisão , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/uso terapêutico
18.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 166: 108189, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360709

RESUMO

AIMS: ORION evaluated the safety and effectiveness of Gla-300 in insulin-treated people with T2DM before, during and after Ramadan, in a real-world setting. METHODS: This prospective, observational study across 11 countries included participants with T2DM treated with Gla-300 in pre-Ramadan, Ramadan and post-Ramadan periods. The primary endpoint was the percentage of participants experiencing ≥1 event of severe and/or symptomatic documented hypoglycaemia with self-monitored plasma glucose (SMPG) ≤70 mg/dL during Ramadan. Secondary endpoints included change in HbA1c and insulin dose and adverse events (AEs). RESULTS: The mean ± SD number of fasting days was 30.1 ± 3.2. The percentage of participants experiencing ≥1 event of severe and/or symptomatic documented hypoglycaemia (SMPG ≤70 [<54] mg/dL) was low in the pre-Ramadan (2.2% [0.8%]), Ramadan (2.6% [0%]) and post-Ramadan (0.2% [0%]) periods. No participants reported severe hypoglycaemia during Ramadan or post-Ramadan; one participant reported severe hypoglycaemia in pre-Ramadan. HbA1c fell pre- to post-Ramadan, and Gla-300 daily dose (mean ± SD) was reduced pre-Ramadan to Ramadan (from 25.6 ± 11.9 U/0.32 ± 0.14 U/kg to 24.4 ± 11.5 U/0.30 ± 0.13 U/kg). Incidence of AEs was 5.5%. CONCLUSIONS: In ORION, people with T2DM treated with Gla-300 who fasted during Ramadan had a low risk of severe/symptomatic hypoglycaemia and improved glycaemic control.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Jejum/fisiologia , Insulina Glargina/administração & dosagem , Insulina Glargina/efeitos adversos , Islamismo , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Religião e Medicina , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231090, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240260

RESUMO

Sevoflurane and isoflurane are among the most commonly used general anesthetics for children including infants, but their impact on metabolism, especially on blood glucose level, in children is not well understood. We investigated the impacts of anesthesia of neonatal (7-8 days old) and adult (2-3 months old) mice with the inhalational anesthetics 2.5% sevoflurane or 1.5% isoflurane, or the injectable anesthetics propofol (150 mg/kg) or avertin (375 mg/kg), for up to 6 hours. We found that sevoflurane and isoflurane induced severe hypoglycemia in neonatal mice and that this phenomenon was specific to the inhalational anesthetics because the injectable anesthetics propofol and avertin did not induce hypoglycemia. Surprisingly, the inhalational anesthesia induced hyperglycemia instead in adult mice. We also demonstrated that the inhalational anesthesia-induced hypoglycemia was a major cause of death for the neonatal mice receiving intranasal administration of saline prior to anesthesia. These studies revealed severe hypoglycemia in neonatal mice during anesthesia with sevoflurane or isoflurane. If this phenomenon also occurs in human, our findings would warrant closely monitoring blood glucose level and maintaining it in the normal range in infants receiving inhalational anesthesia.


Assuntos
Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Isoflurano/efeitos adversos , Sevoflurano/efeitos adversos , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestesia por Inalação , Anestésicos Inalatórios/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Intravenosos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Etanol/análogos & derivados , Etanol/farmacologia , Hipoglicemia/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Propofol/farmacologia
20.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(4): 355-356, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315948

RESUMO

A type 1 diabetes patient experienced remission associated with chloroquine therapy while travelling to a malaria-endemic area. Chloroquine has immunomodulatory and hypoglycaemic effects and may become more frequently used due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients with type 1 diabetes treated with chloroquine should be monitored for hypoglycaemia, even after recovery.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Malária/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Cloroquina/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes , Masculino , Pandemias
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