Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.324
Filtrar
1.
Environ Res ; 203: 111859, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence for the metabolic impact of long-term exposure to air pollution on diabetes is lacking. We investigated the association of particulate matter <10 µm (PM10) and <2.5 µm (PM2.5) with yearly averages of HbA1c, daily insulin dose (IU/kg) and rates of severe hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: We studied data of 44,383 individuals with T1D < 21 years which were documented in 377 German centres within the diabetes prospective follow-up registry (DPV) between 2009 and 2018. Outcomes were aggregated by year and by patient. PM10-and PM2.5-yearly averages prior to the respective treatment year were linked to individuals via the five-digit postcode areas of residency. Repeated measures linear and negative binomial regression were used to study the association between PM-quartiles (Q1 lowest, Q4 highest concentration) and yearly averages of HbA1c, daily insulin dose and rates of severe hypoglycaemia (confounders: sex, time-dependent age, age at diabetes onset, time-dependent type of treatment, migratory background, degree of urbanisation and socioeconomic index of deprivation). RESULTS: Adjusted mean HbA1c increased with PM10 (Q1: 7.96% [95%-CI: 7.95-7.98], Q4: 8.03% [8.02-8.05], p-value<0.001) and with PM2.5 (Q1: 7.97% [7.95-7.99], Q4: 8.02% [8.01-8.04], p < 0.001). Changes in daily insulin dose were inversely related to PM (PM10 and PM2.5: Q1 0.85 IU/kg [0.84-0.85], Q4: 0.83 IU/kg [0.82-0.83], p < 0.001). Adjusted rates of severe hypoglycaemia increased with PM-quartile groups (PM10 Q1:11.2 events/100 PY [10.9-11.5], PM10 Q4: 15.3 [14.9-15.7], p < 0.001; PM2.5 Q1: 9.9 events/100 PY [9.6-10.2], PM2.5 Q4: 14.2 [13.9-14.6], p < 0.001). DISCUSSION: Air pollution was associated with higher HbA1c levels and increased risk of severe hypoglycaemia in people with T1D, consequently indicating a higher risk of diabetes complications. Further studies are needed to explore causal pathways of the observed associations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Hipoglicemia , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 255(4): 291-296, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34911880

RESUMO

We herein present the case of a 45-year-old diabetic woman who developed diabetic ketoacidosis following the administration of dapagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor. The patient had been diagnosed with diabetes three years previously and was being treated with multiple daily injections of insulin. Metformin hydrochloride and dapagliflozin were added seven months and 11 months later, respectively. Her clinical course was uneventful until the onset of influenza. She then discontinued insulin and oral medications voluntarily. On arrival at the hospital, she was found to be in a state of ketoacidosis, and promptly received insulin and saline infusion. In retrospect, the initial amount of glucose infused was insufficient, and the hypoglycemia was thought to have been prolonged. This phenomenon may also have affected her long-term urinary glucose excretion. Her urinary L-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) level was found to be markedly elevated (48.8 µg/g·Cr, reference value < 8.4 µg/g·Cr) as was her urinary ß2-microglobulin level (9,230 µg/L, reference value < 230 µg/L). Patients with SGLT-2 inhibitor-associated diabetic ketoacidosis often exhibit protracted hyperglycosuria, in which acute proximal renal tubular dysfunction is considered to be etiologically implicated.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Glicosúria , Hipoglicemia , Cetose , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Glucose , Glicosúria/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Cetose/induzido quimicamente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sódio , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 100, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34909088

RESUMO

Introduction: flexible insulin therapy (FIT) is considered as a crucial turning point in the management of type 1 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of this optimum therapeutic approach on improving metabolic control and decreasing hypoglycemic events in patients with type 1 diabetes. Methods: thirty-seven type 1 diabetic patients were included in a five days training programme of FIT. They had an HbA1c between 7.5 and 10%. Those patients were enrolled in a flexible insulin program and we evaluate clinical and metabolic parameters (glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), hypoglycemic events, body mass index (BMI) and the rate of blood glucose measurements) before the course of FIT and 3, 6 and 9 months after the course. Results: over a 9 months period of the study, the frequency of mild hypoglycemia decreased from 11.7 to 1.7 episodes/3 months (p = 0.005). The baseline HbA1c value improved by 1% at 3 months with an increase of 0.2% at 6 months, which remained unchanged at 9 months (p = <0.0001). Patients who were poorly controlled (HbA1c ≥ 8%) improved their baseline HbA1c value from 9.2% to 8.0% (p = <0.0001). Conclusion: the present study confirms that a structured training programme for FIT improves glycemic control and decreases hypoglycemic events in patients with type 1 diabetes and it can be adopted in countries with weak or intermediate income (e.g. Morocco), which allows those patients to take advantages of this therapeutic approach.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Hipoglicemia , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemiantes , Insulina
5.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 9(Suppl 1)2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34933872

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hypoglycemia is the most common serious adverse effect of diabetes treatment and a major cause of medication-related hospitalization. This study aimed to identify trends and predictors of hospital utilization for hypoglycemia among patients with type 2 diabetes using electronic health record data pooled from six academic health systems. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This retrospective open cohort study included 549 041 adults with type 2 diabetes receiving regular care from the included health systems between 2009 and 2019. The primary outcome was the yearly event rate for hypoglycemia hospital utilization: emergency department visits, observation visits, or inpatient admissions for hypoglycemia identified using a validated International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision (ICD-9) algorithm from 2009 to 2014. After the transition to ICD-10 in 2015, we used two ICD-10 code sets (limited and expanded) for hypoglycemia hospital utilization from prior studies. We identified independent predictors of hypoglycemia hospital utilization using multivariable logistic regression analysis with data from 2014. RESULTS: Yearly rates of hypoglycemia hospital utilization decreased from 2.7 to 1.6 events per 1000 patients from 2009 to 2014 (p-trend=0.023). From 2016 to 2019, yearly event rates were stable ranging from 5.6 to 6.6, or 6.3 to 7.3, using the limited and expanded ICD-10 code sets, respectively. In 2014, the strongest independent risk factors for hypoglycemia hospital utilization were chronic kidney disease (OR 2.86, 95% CI 2.33 to 3.57), ages 18-39 years (OR 2.43 vs age 40-64 years, 95% CI 1.78 to 3.31), and insulin use (OR 2.13 vs no diabetes medications, 95% CI 1.67 to 2.73). CONCLUSIONS: Rates of hypoglycemia hospital utilization decreased from 2009 to 2014 and varied considerably by clinical risk factors such that younger adults, insulin users, and those with chronic kidney disease were at especially high risk. There is a need to validate hypoglycemia ascertainment using ICD-10 codes, which detect a substantially higher number of events compared with ICD-9.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipoglicemia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemia/terapia , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD013309, 2021 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34931697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are susceptible to hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia, which may lead to adverse neurodevelopment. The use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices might help in keeping glucose levels in the normal range, and reduce the need for blood sampling. However, the use of CGM might be associated with harms in the preterm infant. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of CGM versus intermittent modalities to measure glycaemia in preterm infants 1. at risk of hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemia; 2. with proven hypoglycaemia; or 3. with proven hyperglycaemia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (2021, Issue 4); PubMed; Embase; and CINAHL in April 2021. We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and reference lists of retrieved articles for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included RCTs and quasi-RCTs comparing the use of CGM versus intermittent modalities to measure glycaemia in preterm infants at risk of hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemia; with proven hypoglycaemia; or with proven hyperglycaemia. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We assessed the methodological quality of included trials using Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) criteria (assessing randomization, blinding, loss to follow-up, and handling of outcome data). We evaluated treatment effects using a fixed-effect model with risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for categorical data and mean, standard deviation (SD), and mean difference (MD) for continuous data. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included four trials enrolling 300 infants in our updated review. We included one new study and excluded another previously included study (because the inclusion criteria of the review have been narrowed). We compared the use of CGM to intermittent modalities in preterm infants at risk of hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemia; however, one of these trials was analyzed separately because CGM was used as a standalone device, without being coupled to a control algorithm as in the other trials. We identified no studies in preterm infants with proven hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemia.  None of the four included trials reported the neurodevelopmental outcome (i.e. the primary outcome of this review), or seizures. The effect of the use of CGM on mortality during hospitalization is uncertain (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.16 to 2.13; RD -0.02, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.03; 230 participants; 2 studies; very low-certainty evidence). The certainty of the evidence was very low for all outcomes because of limitations in study design, and imprecision of estimates. One study is ongoing (estimated sample size 60 infants) and planned to be completed in 2022. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to determine if CGM affects preterm infant mortality or morbidities.  We are very uncertain of the safety of CGM and the available management algorithms, and many morbidities remain unreported. Preterm infants at risk of hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemia were enrolled in all four included studies. No studies have been conducted in preterm infants with proven hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemia. Long-term outcomes were not reported. Events of necrotizing enterocolitis, reported in the study published in 2021, were lower in the CGM group. However, the effect of CGM on this outcome remains very uncertain. Clinical trials are required to determine the most effective CGM and glycaemic management regimens in preterm infants before larger studies can be performed to assess the efficacy of CGM for reducing mortality, morbidity, and long-term neurodevelopmental impairments.


Assuntos
Hipoglicemia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Glicemia , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Morbidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
7.
Sr Care Pharm ; 36(11): 556-567, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717787

RESUMO

Objective To review current guidelines and literature regarding continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) use in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in older people. Data Sources A PubMed search of articles published through August 2020 using a combination of the following: older people, T2DM, continuous glucose monitoring, hypoglycemia, and hyperglycemia. Study Selection/Data Extraction Relevant randomized control trials, meta-analyses, and guidelines were assessed for the use of CGM in older patients with T2DM. Articles were included based on relevance to the topic, detailed methods, and complete results. Data Synthesis CGM use in T2DM management in older people is not well defined. CGM may be a valuable technology in older people who face unique challenges, such as hypoglycemia, decline in cognitive function, and variable glucose levels. This article provides a review of recommendations for glucose monitoring in T2DM and discusses the role of specific CGM products. Conclusion CGM is a viable option for older people with T2DM to help improve overall diabetes control. Pharmacists can play an important role in educating patients about this technology.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hiperglicemia , Hipoglicemia , Idoso , Glicemia , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620618

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To prevent medical sequelae of severe hypoglycemic emergencies, prompt and reliable rescue intervention is critically important. A ready-to-use, liquid stable glucagon, administered subcutaneously by glucagon autoinjector (GAI), Gvoke HypoPen (glucagon injection; Xeris Pharmaceuticals), was evaluated for rescue treatment of severe hypoglycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Two phase III, randomized, controlled, blinded, non-inferiority crossover studies were conducted in 161 adults with type 1 diabetes to compare 1 mg doses of GAI versus glucagon emergency kit (GEK) for treating insulin-induced severe hypoglycemia. Efficacy was evaluated as either a return of plasma glucose to >70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L) or increase ≥20 mg/dL (1.1 mmol/L) from a baseline glucose of <50 mg/dL (2.9 mmol/L), within 30 min of dosing. RESULTS: For successful plasma glucose recovery within 30 min, treatment with GAI was non-inferior to GEK. Treatment with GAI was non-inferior to GEK for a plasma glucose >70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L) or neuroglycopenic symptom relief within 30 min. From administration of glucagon, the mean time to achieve plasma glucose >70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L) or increase ≥20 mg/dL (1.1 mmol/L) was 13.8±5.6 min for GAI and 10.0±3.6 min for GEK. This mean time does not account for the significantly shorter (p<0.0001) drug preparation and administration time for GAI (27.3±19.7 s) versus GEK (97.2±45.1 s). The incidence of treatment emergent adverse events was comparable in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: A ready-to-use GAI was non-inferior to GEK, with a similar tolerability profile. GAI is an effective, safe, and well-tolerated rescue treatment for severe hypoglycemia and is a viable alternative to GEK. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: NCT02656069 and NCT03439072.


Assuntos
Glucagon , Hipoglicemia , Glicemia , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Insulina
9.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(Suppl 10): 43-51, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In addition to its neuroprotective effect, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) also plays a role in glucose and lipid metabolism. This study aims: a) to find changes in the BDNF concentration during pregnancy in type 1 diabetes. b) to prove the effect of DHA and EPA supplementation on changes in BDNF concentrations c) to investigate the impact of hypoglycemia on BDNF concentration. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The data from this study were from the PRE-HYPO cohort study. Twenty-one of them were on a standard diabetic diet enriched with EPA and DHA (EPA 120 mg/day and DHA 616 mg/day; Exposed group), and nineteen pregnant diabetic women were on the standard diabetic diet without EPA and DHA supplementation (Non-exposed group). In the first trimester of pregnancy, fifteen pregnant women developed hypoglycemia episodes (≤3.9 mmol/L; HYPO+ group), and twenty-five pregnant women did not have hypoglycemia episodes (HYPO- group). RESULTS: BDNF concentration significantly decreased during pregnancy from the first to the third trimester, in Non-exposed from 25.1 (22.0-30.2) to 22.1 (16.3-28.2), P<0.05, in the Exposed group from 22.1 (19.8-25.9) to 18.1 (14.8-18.9), P<0.01. Pregnant patients with hypoglycemia episodes (HYPO+ subgroup) had significantly higher BDNF in the third trimester of pregnancy [22.5 (20.6-28.4)] when compared with patients who did not develop hypoglycemia [16.3 (14.3-18.8), P<0.001]. In the third trimester of pregnancy, BDNF and n-6 PUFAs were associated with hypoglycemia (OR 1.818 95 % CI 1.079-3.003, P=0.025; OR 1.103 95 % CI 1.001-1.217, P=0.048). Total F.A.s were inversely associated with hypoglycemia (OR 0.969 95% CI 0.939-0.998, P=0.048). CONCLUSION: Pregnant women with hypoglycemia (HYPO+ group) had higher concentrations of BDNF in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy compared to those without hypoglycemia. An increase in body weight during pregnancy leads to a decrease in BDNF concentration.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Hipoglicemia , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Gravidez , Gestantes , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638984

RESUMO

The goal of diabetes care is to achieve and maintain good glycemic control over time, so as to prevent or delay the development of micro- and macrovascular complications in type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, numerous barriers hinder the achievement of this goal, first of all the frequent episodes of hypoglycemia typical in patients treated with insulin as T1D patients, or sulphonylureas as T2D patients. The prevention strategy and treatment of hypoglycemia are important for the well-being of patients with diabetes. Hypoglycemia is strongly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients, due probably to the release of inflammatory markers and prothrombotic effects triggered by hypoglycemia. Treatment of hypoglycemia is traditionally based on administration of carbohydrates or of glucagon via intramuscular (IM) or subcutaneous injection (SC). The injection of traditional glucagon is cumbersome, such that glucagon is an under-utilized drug. In 1983, it was shown for the first time that intranasal (IN) glucagon increases blood glucose levels in healthy volunteers, and in 1989-1992 that IN glucagon is similar to IM glucagon in resolving hypoglycemia in normal volunteers and in patients with diabetes, both adults and children. IN glucagon was developed in 2010 and continued in 2015; in 2019 IN glucagon obtained approval in the US, Canada, and Europe for severe hypoglycemia in children and adults. In the 2010s, two ready-to-use injectable formulations, a stable non-aqueous glucagon solution and the glucagon analog dasiglucagon, were developed, showing an efficacy similar to traditional glucagon, and approved in the US in 2020 and in 2021, respectively, for severe hypoglycemia in adults and in children. Fast-acting glucagon (nasal administration and injected solutions) appears to represent a major breakthrough in the treatment of severe hypoglycemia in insulin-treated patients with diabetes, both adults and children. It is anticipated that the availability of fast-acting glucagon will expand the use of glucagon, improve overall metabolic control, and prevent hypoglycemia-related complications, in particular cardiovascular complications and cognitive impairment.


Assuntos
Administração Intranasal/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Hipoglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Insulina Regular Humana/uso terapêutico , Pós/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003754, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycemic control remains suboptimal in developing countries due to critical system deficiencies. An innovative mobile health (mHealth)-enabled hierarchical diabetes management intervention was introduced and evaluated in China with the purpose of achieving better control of type 2 diabetes in primary care. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A community-based cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted among registered patients with type 2 diabetes in primary care from June 2017 to July 2019. A total of 19,601 participants were recruited from 864 communities (clusters) across 25 provinces in China, and 19,546 completed baseline assessment. Moreover, 576 communities (13,037 participants) were centrally randomized to the intervention and 288 communities (6,509 participants) to usual care. The intervention was centered on a tiered care team-delivered mHealth-mediated service package, initiated by monthly blood glucose monitoring at each structured clinic visit. Capacity building and quarterly performance review strategies upheld the quality of delivered primary care. The primary outcome was control of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; <7.0%), assessed at baseline and 12 months. The secondary outcomes include the individual/combined control rates of blood glucose, blood pressure (BP), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C); changes in levels of HbA1c, BP, LDL-C, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and body weight; and episodes of hypoglycemia. Data were analyzed using intention-to-treat (ITT) generalized estimating equation (GEE) models, accounting for clustering and baseline values of the analyzed outcomes. After 1-year follow-up, 17,554 participants (89.8%) completed the end-of-study (EOS) assessment, with 45.1% of them from economically developed areas, 49.9% from urban areas, 60.5 (standard deviation [SD] 8.4) years of age, 41.2% male, 6.0 years of median diabetes duration, HbA1c level of 7.87% (SD 1.92%), and 37.3% with HbA1c <7.0% at baseline. Compared with usual care, the intervention led to an absolute improvement in the HbA1c control rate of 7.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.0% to 10.0%) and a relative improvement of 18.6% (relative risk [RR] 1.186, 95% CI 1.105 to 1.267) and an absolute improvement in the composite ABC control (HbA1c <7.0%, BP <140/80 mm Hg, and LDL-C <2.6 mmol/L) rate of 1.9% (95% CI 0.5 to 3.5) and a relative improvement of 21.8% (RR 1.218, 95% CI 1.062 to 1.395). No difference was found on hypoglycemia episode and weight gain between groups. Study limitations include noncentralized laboratory tests except for HbA1c, and caution should be exercised when extrapolating the findings to patients not registered in primary care system. CONCLUSIONS: The mHealth-enabled hierarchical diabetes management intervention effectively improved diabetes control in primary care and has the potential to be transferred to other chronic conditions management in similar contexts. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR) IOC-17011325.


Assuntos
Automonitorização da Glicemia , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Controle Glicêmico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Telemedicina , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , China , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Controle Glicêmico/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/sangue , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Age Ageing ; 50(6): 1935-1942, 2021 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recommendations for individualised glycaemic management in older people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have recently been provided in clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) issued by major scientific societies. The aim of this systematic review is to compare the content of these recommendations concerning health assessment, targets for glycaemic control, lifestyle management and glucose-lowering therapy across CPGs. METHODS: The CPGs on T2D management in people aged ≥65 years published in English after 2015 by major scientific societies were systematically reviewed in accordance with the PRISMA statement. The quality of the CPGs included was assessed using the AGREE-II tool. The recommendations for individualised glycaemic management were extracted, and their level of evidence (LOE) and strength of recommendation recorded. RESULTS: Three CPGs of high methodological quality were included, namely those from the American Diabetes Association 2020, the Endocrine Society 2019 and the Diabetes Canada Expert Committee 2018. They made 27 recommendations addressing individualised glycaemic management, a minority of which (40%) had a high LOE. Comparison of the 27 recommendations identified some discrepancies between CPGs, e.g. the individualised values of HbA1c targets. The 13 strong recommendations addressed 10 clinical messages, five of which are recommended in all three CPGs, i.e. assess health status, screen for cognitive impairment, avoid hypoglycaemia, prioritise drugs with low hypoglycaemic effects and simplify complex drug regimens. CONCLUSIONS: Although there is a consensus on avoiding hypoglycaemia in older patients with T2D, significant discrepancies regarding individualised HbA1c targets exist between CPGs.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipoglicemia , Idoso , Canadá , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/diagnóstico , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos
14.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23(11): 2582-2589, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338413

RESUMO

AIM: Impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia (IAH) affects about 25% of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). IAH can be reversed by strict avoidance of hypoglycaemia for at least 3 weeks. Adjunctive treatment with sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors may reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia through reduction of glucose variability. We tested the hypothesis that short-term use of dapagliflozin may improve awareness of hypoglycaemia in people with T1DM and IAH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients with T1DM and IAH were included in this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial (age 49.7 ± 14.6 years, 40% men, disease duration 24.1 ± 14.2 years, glycated haemoglobin 7.5 ± 0.8% (58.6 ± 8.4 mmol/mol). They were treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg once daily or matching placebo, with a washout period of 2 weeks. At the end of each treatment period, participants underwent a modified hyperinsulinaemic normoglycaemic-hypoglycaemic glucose clamp (glucose nadir 2.5 mmol/L). Blinded continuous glucose monitors were used in the final treatment weeks. RESULTS: Treatment with dapagliflozin significantly improved glycated haemoglobin [-0.32 ± 0.10 vs. 0.22 ± 0.13% (-4.1 ± 0.9 vs. 2.3 ± 1.4 mmol/mol), dapagliflozin vs. placebo, p = .007] and glucose variability (standard deviation, 2.6 ± 0.2 vs. 3.1 ± 0.3 mmol/L, p = .029), but did not affect the frequency of hypoglycaemia. During the hypoglycaemic clamp, dapagliflozin did not affect symptom responses (8.0 ± 3.4 vs. 5.2 ± 1.6, p = .31), but significantly reduced the need for exogenous glucose to maintain hypoglycaemia (3.2 ± 0.3 vs. 4.1 ± 0.4 mg/kg/min, p = .022). CONCLUSIONS: Eight weeks of treatment with dapagliflozin did not restore hypoglycaemic awareness in people with T1DM and impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia, but ameliorated some clinical aspects.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipoglicemia , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Adulto , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Glucosídeos , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Artif Intell Med ; 118: 102120, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hypoglycaemia prediction play an important role in diabetes management being able to reduce the number of dangerous situations. Thus, it is relevant to present a systematic review on the currently available prediction algorithms and models for hypoglycaemia (or hypoglycemia in US English) prediction. METHODS: This study aims to systematically review the literature on data-based algorithms and models using diabetics real data for hypoglycaemia prediction. Five electronic databases were screened for studies published from January 2014 to June 2020: ScienceDirect, IEEE Xplore, ACM Digital Library, SCOPUS, and PubMed. RESULTS: Sixty-three eligible studies were retrieved that met the inclusion criteria. The review identifies the current trend in this topic: most of the studies perform short-term predictions (82.5%). Also, the review pinpoints the inputs and shows that information fusion is relevant for hypoglycaemia prediction. Regarding data-based models (80.9%) and hybrid models (19.1%) different predictive techniques are used: Artificial neural network (22.2%), ensemble learning (27.0%), supervised learning (20.6%), statistic/probabilistic (7.9%), autoregressive (7.9%), evolutionary (6.4%), deep learning (4.8%) and adaptative filter (3.2%). Artificial Neural networks and hybrid models show better results. CONCLUSIONS: The data-based models for blood glucose and hypoglycaemia prediction should be able to provide a good balance between the applicability and performance, integrating complementary data from different sources or from different models. This review identifies trends and possible opportunities for research in this topic.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipoglicemia , Algoritmos , Glicemia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/diagnóstico , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia
17.
J Fam Pract ; 70(4): E5-E6, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339367

RESUMO

NO. Insulin glargine may lead to less patient-reported, symptomatic, and nocturnal hypoglycemia, although overall, there may not be a difference in the risk for severe hypoglycemia orhypoglycemiarelated emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations (strength of recommendation [SOR]: B, systematic review of randomized controlled trials [RCTs], individual RCTs, and observational study).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Insulina Glargina/efeitos adversos , Insulina Glargina/uso terapêutico , Insulina Isófana/efeitos adversos , Insulina Isófana/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 178: 108946, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252506

RESUMO

AIMS: Because of the development of new classes of antidiabetic drugs, hypoglycemic events were expected to decrease. We investigated the trends and risk factors for severe hypoglycemia in subjects with type 2 diabetes in Korea. METHODS: We conducted repeated cross-sectional analyses using a Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort from 2006 to 2015. Severe hypoglycemia was defined as hospitalization or a visit to an emergency department with diagnosis of hypoglycemia using ICD-10 codes. RESULTS: During the study period, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes continuously increased. The percentage of patients prescribed metformin and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor increased, while the use of sulfonylurea decreased considerably, especially since 2009. The proportion of patients prescribed ≥3 classes of drugs continually increased. Age-standardized incidence of severe hypoglycemia per 1000 patients with diabetes increased from 6.00 to 8.24 between 2006 and 2010, and then fell to 6.49 in 2015. Predictors of severe hypoglycemia included female, older age, comorbidities, polypharmacy, and sulfonylurea or insulin usage. CONCLUSIONS: Trends of severe hypoglycemia were associated with changes in drug classes rather than number of antidiabetic drugs. Relentless efforts to reduce the prescription of drugs with a high risk of hypoglycemia should be implemented, particularly for older women with multiple comorbidities.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipoglicemia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/efeitos adversos
20.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(8): 2083-2098, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) might be preventable. METHODS: This open-label, multicenter randomized trial compared 133 kidney transplant recipients given intermediate-acting insulin isophane for postoperative afternoon glucose ≥140 mg/dl with 130 patients given short-acting insulin for fasting glucose ≥200 mg/dl (control). The primary end point was PTDM (antidiabetic treatment or oral glucose tolerance test-derived 2 hour glucose ≥200 mg/dl) at month 12 post-transplant. RESULTS: In the intention-to-treat population, PTDM rates at 12 months were 12.2% and 14.7% in treatment versus control groups, respectively (odds ratio [OR], 0.82; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.39 to 1.76) and 13.4% versus 17.4%, respectively, at 24 months (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.34 to 1.49). In the per-protocol population, treatment resulted in reduced odds for PTDM at 12 months (OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.16 to 1.01) and 24 months (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.24 to 1.20). After adjustment for polycystic kidney disease, per-protocol ORs for PTDM (treatment versus controls) were 0.21 (95% CI, 0.07 to 0.62) at 12 months and 0.35 (95% CI, 0.14 to 0.87) at 24 months. Significantly more hypoglycemic events (mostly asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic) occurred in the treatment group versus the control group. Within the treatment group, nonadherence to the insulin initiation protocol was associated with significantly higher odds for PTDM at months 12 and 24. CONCLUSIONS: At low overt PTDM incidence, the primary end point in the intention-to-treat population did not differ significantly between treatment and control groups. In the per-protocol analysis, early basal insulin therapy resulted in significantly higher hypoglycemia rates but reduced odds for overt PTDM-a significant reduction after adjustment for baseline differences-suggesting the intervention merits further study.Clinical Trial registration number: NCT03507829.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina Isófana/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Insulina Lispro/uso terapêutico , Insulina Isófana/efeitos adversos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Período Pós-Operatório , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Padrão de Cuidado , Fatores de Tempo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...