Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 15.294
Filtrar
1.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 144(10): 1204-1208, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002153

RESUMO

CONTEXT.­: Glycemic control requires accurate blood glucose testing. The extent of hematocrit interference is difficult to assess to assure quality patient care. OBJECTIVE.­: To predict the effect of patient hematocrit on the performance of a glucose meter and its corresponding impact on insulin-dosing error. DESIGN.­: Multilevel mixed regression was conducted to assess the extent that patient hematocrit influences Roche Accu-Chek Inform II glucose meters, using the Radiometer ABL 837 as a reference method collected during validation of 35 new meters. Regression coefficients of fixed effects for reference glucose, hematocrit, an interaction term, and random error were applied to 4 months of patient reference method results extracted from the laboratory information system. A hospital inpatient insulin dose algorithm was used to determine the frequency of insulin dose error between reference glucose and meter glucose results. RESULTS.­: Fixed effects regression for method and hematocrit predicted biases to glucose meter results that met the "95% within ±12%" for the US Food and Drug Administration goal, but combinations of fixed and random effects exceeded that target in emergency and hospital inpatient units. Insulin dose errors were predicted from the meter results. Twenty-eight percent of intensive care unit, 20.8% of hospital inpatient, and 17.7% of emergency department results were predicted to trigger a ±1 insulin dose error by fixed and random effects. CONCLUSIONS.­: The current extent of hematocrit interference on glucose meter performance is anticipated to cause insulin error by 1-dose category, which is likely associated with low patient risk.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Erros Médicos , Algoritmos , Hematócrito , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos
2.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(8): 501-508, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879236

RESUMO

Objectives Medical expenses for diabetes differ between Japan's 47 prefectures. The medical care expenditure regulation plan aims to reduce regional differences in outpatient medical costs through prevention of severe diabetes, promotion of specific health checkups and specific health guidance, promotion of generic drugs, and proper use of medicines. To achieve this goal, we need to conduct an in-depth analysis of inter-prefecture differences in diabetes care expenses. This study analyzed regional differences in prescription fees for dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and the use of generic sulfonylureas (SUs), glinides, biguanides, α-glucosidase inhibitors (α-GIs), and thiazoline derivatives, using the National Database of Health Insurance Claims and Specific Health Checkups of Japan (NDB). Furthermore, we analyzed regional differences in consultancy fees for dialysis prevention.Methods We analyzed the 2nd NDB Open Data Japan website of the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was used to evaluate the relationship between the medical costs of diabetes and each factor. The correlation coefficient was analyzed with Student's t-test, and a P-value<0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results Regarding oral hypoglycemic drugs, prefectures with a large number of DPP-4 inhibitors tended to have higher medical costs of diabetes (r=0.40, P=0.0048). Furthermore, such expenses tended to be low in prefectures where the use of generic SU drugs was high (r=-0.43, P=0.0023).Conclusions In conclusion, the results revealed regional differences in the use of DPP-4 inhibitors and generic SU drugs, which may contribute to the regional differences in medical expenses for diabetes. This study suggests that NDB open data are useful for policy making to reduce regional differences in outpatient medical costs of diabetes.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/economia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores Enzimáticos/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/economia , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/economia , Análise de Dados , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4 , Humanos , Japão , Honorários por Prescrição de Medicamentos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/economia
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4458, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895383

RESUMO

In rodent models of type 2 diabetes (T2D), sustained remission of hyperglycemia can be induced by a single intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1), and the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) was recently implicated as the brain area responsible for this effect. To better understand the cellular response to FGF1 in the MBH, we sequenced >79,000 single-cell transcriptomes from the hypothalamus of diabetic Lepob/ob mice obtained on Days 1 and 5 after icv injection of either FGF1 or vehicle. A wide range of transcriptional responses to FGF1 was observed across diverse hypothalamic cell types, with glial cell types responding much more robustly than neurons at both time points. Tanycytes and ependymal cells were the most FGF1-responsive cell type at Day 1, but astrocytes and oligodendrocyte lineage cells subsequently became more responsive. Based on histochemical and ultrastructural evidence of enhanced cell-cell interactions between astrocytes and Agrp neurons (key components of the melanocortin system), we performed a series of studies showing that intact melanocortin signaling is required for the sustained antidiabetic action of FGF1. These data collectively suggest that hypothalamic glial cells are leading targets for the effects of FGF1 and that sustained diabetes remission is dependent on intact melanocortin signaling.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/dietoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Fator 1 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteína Relacionada com Agouti/metabolismo , Animais , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Glicemia/análise , Comunicação Celular , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipotálamo/citologia , Hipotálamo/patologia , Injeções Intraventriculares , Leptina/genética , Masculino , Melanocortinas/metabolismo , Hormônios Estimuladores de Melanócitos/administração & dosagem , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Oligodendroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligodendroglia/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/genética , Receptores de Melanocortina/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Melanocortina/metabolismo , Indução de Remissão/métodos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Célula Única , Técnicas Estereotáxicas , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
N Engl J Med ; 383(9): 836-845, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A closed-loop system of insulin delivery (also called an artificial pancreas) may improve glycemic outcomes in children with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: In a 16-week, multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial, we assigned, in a 3:1 ratio, children 6 to 13 years of age who had type 1 diabetes to receive treatment with the use of either a closed-loop system of insulin delivery (closed-loop group) or a sensor-augmented insulin pump (control group). The primary outcome was the percentage of time that the glucose level was in the target range of 70 to 180 mg per deciliter, as measured by continuous glucose monitoring. RESULTS: A total of 101 children underwent randomization (78 to the closed-loop group and 23 to the control group); the glycated hemoglobin levels at baseline ranged from 5.7 to 10.1%. The mean (±SD) percentage of time that the glucose level was in the target range of 70 to 180 mg per deciliter increased from 53±17% at baseline to 67±10% (the mean over 16 weeks of treatment) in the closed-loop group and from 51±16% to 55±13% in the control group (mean adjusted difference, 11 percentage points [equivalent to 2.6 hours per day]; 95% confidence interval, 7 to 14; P<0.001). In both groups, the median percentage of time that the glucose level was below 70 mg per deciliter was low (1.6% in the closed-loop group and 1.8% in the control group). In the closed-loop group, the median percentage of time that the system was in the closed-loop mode was 93% (interquartile range, 91 to 95). No episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis or severe hypoglycemia occurred in either group. CONCLUSIONS: In this 16-week trial involving children with type 1 diabetes, the glucose level was in the target range for a greater percentage of time with the use of a closed-loop system than with the use of a sensor-augmented insulin pump. (Funded by Tandem Diabetes Care and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03844789.).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Bombas de Infusão Implantáveis , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Glicemia/análise , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Cetoacidose Diabética/etiologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pâncreas Artificial
5.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4877-4898, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753869

RESUMO

Background: Although dynamics and uses of modified nanoparticles (NPs) as orally administered macromolecular drugs have been researched for many years, measures of molecule stability and aspects related to important transport-related mechanisms which have been assessed in vivo remain as relatively under characterized. Thus, our aim was to develop a novel type of oral-based delivery system for insulin and to overcome barriers to studying the stability, transport mechanisms, and efficacy in vivo of the delivery system. Methods: NPs we developed and tested were composed of insulin (INS), dicyandiamide-modified chitosan (DCDA-CS), cell-penetrating octaarginine (r8), and hydrophilic hyaluronic acid (HA) and were physically constructed by electrostatic self-assembly techniques. Results: Compared to free-insulin, levels of HA-DCDA-CS-r8-INS NPs were retained at more desirable measures of biological activity in our study. Further, our assessments of the mechanisms for NPs suggested that there were high measures of cellular uptake that mainly achieved through active transport via lipid rafts and the macropinocytosis pathway. Furthermore, investigations of NPs indicated their involvement in caveolae-mediated transport and in the DCDA-CS-mediated paracellular pathway, which contributed to increasing the efficiency of sequential transportation from the apical to basolateral areas. Accordingly, high efficiency of absorption of NPs in situ for intestinal loop models was realized. Consequently, there was a strong induction of a hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rats of NPs via orally based administrations when compared with measures related to free insulin. Conclusion: Overall, the dynamics underlying and influenced by HA-DCDA-CS-r8-INS may hold great promise for stability of insulin and could help overcome interference by the epithelial barrier, and thus showing a great potential to improve the efficacy of orally related treatments.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Multifuncionais/química , Nanopartículas/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2 , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/síntese química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Impedância Elétrica , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Guanidinas/síntese química , Guanidinas/química , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/síntese química , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Muco/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Ratos , Solubilidade , Suínos
6.
Value Health ; 23(7): 842-850, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762985

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To quantify patients' maximum acceptable risk (MAR) of urinary and genital tract infections (UGTI) in exchange for benefits associated with treatments for managing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: In a discrete choice experiment, adult patients with T2DM and currently on metformin and/or sulphonylurea (first-line treatments) were asked to choose between 2 hypothetical medications defined by 6 attributes: years of medication effectiveness in controlling blood glucose, weight reduction, UGTI risk, risk of hospitalization from heart failure, all-cause mortality risk, and out-of-pocket medication cost. We used latent class logistic regression parameters to estimate the conditional relative importance of treatment attributes and MAR of UGTI for various treatment benefits. RESULTS: A 2-class latent class model was identified as the best fit for the responses from 147 patients. The first class (49% of sample), termed as "survival-conscious," stated that they were willing to accept 46% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2%-90%) UGTI risk in exchange for a reduction from 6% to 1% in all-cause mortality risk. The second class (51% of sample), termed as "UGTI/cost-conscious" were willing to accept significantly lower (6%; CI: 2%-11%, and 5%; CI: 2%-8%) UGTI risk in exchange for the same reduction in all-cause mortality and hospitalization risks, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: On average, patients were willing to trade higher UGTI risk for a more effective medication. Our findings suggest that physicians should present the benefits and potential side effects of all available treatments and consider patient preferences in their treatment recommendations.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Preferência do Paciente , Idoso , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções do Sistema Genital/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Life Sci ; 259: 118159, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763288

RESUMO

AIMS: Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) is one of the most common non-motor symptoms of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aimed to determine whether intranasal insulin has protective effects on cognition in the rat PD model induced by 6-hydroxylase dopamine (6-OHDA) through the insulin signaling pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The rats were given intranasal insulin administration for six weeks after unilateral medial forebrain bundle (MFB) injection of 6-OHDA. Then a series of cognitive-behavioral tests, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting was performed on the rats. KEY FINDINGS: The results demonstrated that the injection of 6-OHDA in the unilateral MFB damaged working memory and long-term habituation of rats in the T-maze rewarded alternation test and hole-board test. Besides, rats with unilateral 6-OHDA injury performed poorly in terms of escape latency and average speed during the hidden platform training phase rather than in the probe trial of the Morris Water Maze (MWM) test. Immunofluorescence results showed that unilateral 6-OHDA injury in MFB led to the massive death of ipsilateral-substantia nigra (SN) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons. Western blot results further indicated that 6-OHDA-induced necrosis of ipsilateral-SN dopaminergic neurons reduced the levels of p-Akt (Ser473) and p-GSK3ß (Ser9) in the ipsilateral-hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings provide a solid evidence base for the relationship between PD cognitive impairment and insulin signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Proteína Oncogênica v-akt/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/patologia , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e20750, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is a kind of metabolic disease. Its clinical characteristic is hyperglycemia. Recently, more and more elderly people suffer from type 2 diabetes, and the glycemic variability of the elderly is greater. In addition, blood sugar variation is more likely to cause diabetes complications than simple hyperglycemia. Sancai podwer (SC) is based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine and gradually formed in the summary of clinical experience. It has the effect of lowering blood sugar and alleviating clinical symptoms of diabetes. But the existing evidence of its efficacy on glycemic variability is insufficient. So, in our study, the randomized controlled trials will be used as a research method to explore the effects of SC on glycemic variability of type 2 diabetes. METHOD: We will use randomized controlled experiments based on the recommended diagnostic criteria, inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 60 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes will be randomly divided into treatment group and control group, 30 cases in each group. The control group will receive conventional western medicine and the intervention group will receive SC combined with western medicine. The standard deviation and coefficient of variation of blood glucose level will be used as evaluation indexes. DISCUSSION: This study can provide evidence for the clinical efficacy and safety of SC in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered on the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2000032611.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Pós , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21438, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756155

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-beta (HNF1B) gene result in a very variable presentation, including maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY), renal cysts, renal dysplasia, and autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease (ADTKD), which is characterized by tubular damage, renal fibrosis, and progressive renal dysfunction. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 22-year-old man came to the hospital presenting with hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia and elevated serum creatinine. His urine protein was within the normal range. The ultrasound examination revealed shrunken kidneys with renal cysts. The patient's mother was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus when she was 25 years old. Her laboratory results showed elevated serum creatinine. Her ultrasonography revealed shrunken kidneys with renal cysts and hydronephrosis without kidney stones. The next-generation sequencing revealed that the proband and his mother held the same heterozygous missense mutation (c.530G>A, NM_000458, p.R177Q) in the HNF1B gene. Bioinformatic analyses predicted that the mutation was likely pathogenic. DIAGNOSIS: The patient and his mother were diagnosed as ADTKD and MODY5 due to HNF1B mutation. INTERVENTION: The proband was administered metformin at a dose of 500 mg/day. OUTCOMES: The patient had well-controlled blood glucose levels and a stable renal function at his 12-month follow-up. LESSONS: We should take into account the diagnoses of ADTKD and MODY5 if patients present with early onset diabetes and multiple renal cysts or evidence of renal tubulointerstitial dysplasia, especially those with negative proteinuria results. Genetic testing helps detect the HNF1B gene mutations.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/genética , Esmalte Dentário/anormalidades , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Fator 1-beta Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Doenças Renais Císticas/genética , Nefrite Intersticial/genética , Assistência ao Convalescente , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Heterozigoto , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Hiperuricemia/etiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/patologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Doenças Renais Císticas/complicações , Doenças Renais Císticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Renais Císticas/patologia , Masculino , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Nefrite Intersticial/complicações , Nefrite Intersticial/patologia , Linhagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto Jovem
10.
S Afr Med J ; 110(2): 154-158, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a disorder of glucose intolerance first encountered during pregnancy, has far-reaching implications for both mother and child. Insulin therapy remains the 'gold standard' of care, with oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHAs) increasingly being viewed as potential alternatives. OBJECTIVES: To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in two cohorts of women with GDM exposed to either insulin monotherapy or OHAs. METHODS: A retrospective medical record review at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital in South Africa was conducted for women with GDM diagnosed using the 100 g oral glucose tolerance test and/or random capillary blood glucose >11.1 mmol/L in 2010 - 2014. The findings were compared with a previous audit at the same clinic for the period 1992 - 2002. Variables of interest included maternal demographics, maternal comorbidities, glycaemic indices, treatments used during pregnancy, and obstetric and neonatal outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 192 women with GDM were identified for 2010 - 2014, and there were 348 women in the previous audit (1992 - 2002). Baseline characteristics and outcomes of women in the two cohorts were similar apart from earlier presentation (mean (standard deviation) gestational age (GA) 27 (7.5) weeks v. 28.3 (6.4) weeks; p=0.04), lower GA at delivery (36.3 (3.6) weeks v. 37 (1.6) weeks); p=0.008) and lower macrosomia rates (12.5% v. 4.9%; p=0.011) in the later cohort. When comparing the individual OHAs against insulin in the later cohort, both agents were comparable to insulin in terms of maternal and neonatal outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to the paucity of data on the safety of OHAs in GDM pregnancy in terms of maternal and neonatal outcomes. OHAs were shown to be an effective alternative to insulin for women with GDM in whom lifestyle measures fail, particularly in a resource-poor setting.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Resultado da Gravidez , Administração Oral , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul
11.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 115, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698837

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared as pandemic by the World Health Organization and is causing substantial morbidity and mortality all over the world. Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease significantly increase the risk for hospitalization and death in COVID-19 patients. Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia are both predictors for adverse outcomes in hospitalized patients. An optimized glycemic control should be pursued in patients with diabetes and SARS-CoV-2 infection in order to reduce the risk of severe COVID-19 course. Both insulin and GLP-1RAs have shown optimal glucose-lowering and anti-inflammatory effects in type 2 diabetic patients and may represent a valid therapeutic option to treat asymptomatic and non-critically ill COVID-19 diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Incretinas/administração & dosagem , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Incretinas/efeitos adversos , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD012990, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive disorder characterised by both motor and non-motor problems. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, licensed for treatment of type 2 diabetes, work by stimulating GLP-1 receptors in the pancreas, which triggers the release of insulin. GLP-1 receptors have been found in the brain. Insulin signalling in the brain plays a key role in neuronal metabolism and repair and in synaptic efficacy, but insulin signalling is desensitised in the brain of people with PD. Researchers are exploring the neuroprotective effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists in neurodegenerative disorders such as PD. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of GLP-1 receptor agonists for Parkinson's disease. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Movement Disorders Group trials register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), in the Cochrane Library; and Ovid MEDLINE and Embase. We also searched clinical trials registries, and we handsearched conference abstracts. The most recent search was run on 25 June 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of adults with PD that compared GLP-1 receptor agonists with conventional PD treatment, placebo, or no treatment. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We rated the quality of evidence using GRADE. We resolved discrepancies between the two data extractors by consultation with a third review author. MAIN RESULTS: Through our searches, we retrieved 99 unique records, of which two met our inclusion criteria. One double-blind study of exenatide versus placebo randomised 62 participants, who self-administered exenatide or placebo for 48 weeks and were followed up at 60 weeks after a 12-week washout. One single-blind study of exenatide versus no additional treatment randomised 45 participants; participants in the intervention group self-administered exenatide for 12 months, and all participants were followed up at 14 months and 24 months following absence of exenatide for 2 months and 12 months, respectively. These trials had low risk of bias, except risk of performance bias was high for Aviles-Olmos 2013. Exenatide versus placebo Primary outcomes We found low-certainty evidence suggesting that exenatide improves motor impairment as assessed by the Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) Part III in the off-medication state (mean difference (MD) -3.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) -6.11 to -0.09). The difference in scores was slightly greater when scores were adjusted for baseline severity of the condition (as reported by study authors) (MD -3.5, 95% CI -6.7 to -0.3), exceeding the minimum clinically important difference (MCID). We found low-certainty evidence suggesting that exenatide has little or no effect on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as assessed by the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ)-39 Summary Index (SI) (MD -1.80, 95% CI -6.95 to 3.35), the EuroQol scale measuring health status in five dimensions (EQ5D) (MD 0.07, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.16), or the EQ5D visual analogue scale (VAS) (MD 5.00, 95% CI -3.42 to 13.42). Eight serious adverse events (SAEs) were recorded, but all were considered unrelated to the intervention. Low-certainty evidence suggests that exenatide has little or no effect on weight loss (risk ratio (RR) 1.25, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.76). Exenatide versus no treatment Primary outcomes at 14 months We found very low-certainty evidence suggesting that exenatide improves motor impairment as assessed by MDS-UPDRS Part III off medication (MD -4.50, 95% CI -8.64 to -0.36), exceeding the MCID. We are uncertain whether exenatide improves HRQoL as assessed by the PDQ-39 SI (MD 3.50, 95% CI -2.75 to 9.75; very low-quality evidence). We found very low-certainty evidence suggesting that exenatide has little or no effect on the number of SAEs (RR 1.60, 95% 0.40 to 6.32). We found very low-certainty evidence suggesting that exenatide may lead to weight loss (MD -2.40 kg, 95% CI -4.56 to -0.24). Primary outcomes at 24 months We found evidence as reported by study authors to suggest that exenatide improves motor impairment as measured by MDS-UPDRS Part III off medication (MD 5.6 points, 95% CI 2.2 to 9.0). Exenatide may not improve HRQoL as assessed by the PDQ-39 SI (P = 0.682) and may not result in weight loss (MD 0.1 kg, 95% CI 3.0 to 2.8). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Low- or very low-certainty evidence suggests that exenatide may improve motor impairment for people with PD. The difference in motor impairment observed between groups may persist for some time following cessation of exenatide. This raises the possibility that exenatide may have a disease-modifying effect. SAEs were unlikely to be related to treatment. The effectiveness of exenatide for improving HRQoL, non-motor outcomes, ADLs, and psychological outcomes is unclear. Ongoing studies are assessing other GLP-1 receptor agonists.


Assuntos
Exenatida/uso terapêutico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Viés , Método Duplo-Cego , Exenatida/administração & dosagem , Exenatida/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Autoadministração , Método Simples-Cego
15.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 21(14): 1771-1780, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With limited real-world insulin glargine 300 unit/mL (Gla-300) data available, we assessed the effectiveness and safety of Gla-300 in the Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: X-STAR was a prospective, observational, 12-month post-marketing study of Gla-300 from 2015 to 2018. T2DM patients received Gla-300 as the first insulin (insulin-naïve) or after treatment with another type of insulin (insulin-experienced). RESULTS: We identified 1,227 insulin-naïve and 3,394 insulin-experienced patients. Insulin-naïve group increased the Gla-300 starting dose by 2.80 U/day during 12 months (7.49 to 10.29 U/day). Mean HbA1c reduced by 1.99% (9.82 to 7.83%), and 28.4% showed HbA1c < 7.0%. Insulin-experienced group had a baseline insulin dose of 14.86 U/day, which increased by 0.73 U/day. Mean HbA1c reduced by 0.18% (7.99 to 7.81%), and 24.6% showed HbA1c < 7.0%. Adverse drug reactions occurred in 3.42% (insulin-naïve) and 4.45% (insulin-experienced); symptomatic hypoglycemia (2.93% and 3.86%, respectively) was the most common in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Gla-300, in clinical practice, provides an effective and safe therapy as HbA1c was reduced/maintained in insulin-naïve/experienced Japanese T2DM patients without new safety signal. This study provides insights into the current Japanese clinical practices where insulin use is delayed and conservative despite relatively low HbA1c achievement.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina Glargina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Insulina Glargina/administração & dosagem , Insulina Glargina/efeitos adversos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234443, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598395

RESUMO

Ramadan fasting is associated with changes in eating, physical activity, sleeping patterns, and medication. Unfortunately, only limited studies examine glucose variability in subjects with type 2 diabetes who fast in Ramadan. Our study aims to evaluate glucose variability in subjects with type 2 diabetes on oral antidiabetic agents using continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) during and after Ramadan fasting. This observational study was done in The Indonesian Medical Education and Research Institute, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia, which recruited 10 subjects with type 2 diabetes who underwent Ramadan fasting in 2019. These subjects were free from cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, severe liver disease, chronic gastrointestinal disease and autoimmune disease. Insertion of CGMS for measuring interstitial glucose was performed after at least 2 weeks of Ramadan fasting and 4 weeks after the end of the Ramadan fasting, with a minimum of 3 days observation. The mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE) during and after Ramadan were similar (p = 0.94). In line with this, the average interstitial glucose (p = 0.48), the maximum interstitial glucose (p = 0.35), the minimum interstitial glucose (p = 0.24), and the duration of hypoglycemia (p = 0.25) were also similar in both periods. Overall, nutritional intake and energy expenditure during both periods were comparable. Ramadan fasting is not associated with increased glucose variability in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Thus, Ramadan fasting is safe in subjects with type 2 diabetes with no complications.


Assuntos
Glicemia/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Jejum/fisiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Islamismo , Administração Oral , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Ambulatorial , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(26): e20844, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590779

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a rapidly spreading communicable disease affecting individuals worldwide. Patients with diabetes are more vulnerable to the disease, and the mortality is higher than in those without diabetes. We reported a severe COVID-19 patient with diabetes and shared our experience with blood glucose management. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 64-year-old female diabetes patient was admitted to the intensive care unit due to productive coughing for 8 days without any obvious cause. The results of blood gas analysis indicated that the partial pressure of oxygen was 84 mm Hg with oxygen 8 L/min, and the oxygenation index was less than 200 mm Hg. In addition, postprandial blood glucose levels were abnormal (29.9 mmol/L). DIAGNOSES: The patient was diagnosed with COVID-19 (severe type) and type 2 diabetes. INTERVENTIONS: Comprehensive interventions including establishing a multidisciplinary team, closely monitoring her blood glucose level, an individualized diabetes diet, early activities, psychological care, etc, were performed to control blood glucose while actively treating COVID-19 infection. OUTCOMES: After the comprehensive measures, the patient's blood glucose level gradually became stable, and the patient was discharged after 20 days of hospitalization. LESSONS: This case indicated that the comprehensive measures performed by a multidisciplinary team achieved good treatment effects on a COVID-19 patient with diabetes. Targeted treatment and nursing methods should be performed based on patients' actual situations in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Complicações do Diabetes/virologia , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Complicações do Diabetes/sangue , Complicações do Diabetes/psicologia , Complicações do Diabetes/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
19.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(5): 947-948, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599534

RESUMO

There is a desperate need to explore different insulin administration strategies, particularly in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with hyperglycemic crisis. Noteworthily, diabetes mellitus (DM) and poorly controlled blood glucose increase the risk of mortality and severity of COVID-19. Intravenous (IV) insulin administration with hourly monitoring of blood glucose is the ideal approach in managing patients with hyperglycemic crisis, but it is not judicious to be applied in developing countries where shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) is a major issue. Furthermore, increasing the probability of "already greater risks" for doctors or other healthcare workers contracting COVID-19 seems inappropriate. Thus, an alternative administration strategy and more moderate glucose monitoring to reduce the contact exposure of healthcare workers with COVID-19 patients, by ensuring appropriate blood glucose levels, needs to be performed in this critical pandemic era. Subcutaneous (SC) rapid-acting insulin analog administration could presumably be a solution to this contentious issue.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Hiperglicemia/virologia , Injeções Subcutâneas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
20.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 93, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The potential for PPAR agonists to positively affect risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is of persistent attention. The PRESS XII study primarily aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saroglitazar (2 mg and 4 mg) as compared to pioglitazone 30 mg on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: In this randomized double-blind study, patients with T2DM [glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 7.5%] were enrolled from 39 sites in India. Patients received once-daily doses of either saroglitazar or pioglitazone (1:1:1 allocation ratio) for a total of 24 weeks. Patients were continued in a double blind extension period for an additional 32 weeks. Efficacy evaluations of glycemic parameters [HbA1c (Primary endpoint at week 24), FPG and PPG] and other lipid parameters (TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C, HDL-C, TC, Non HDL-C, Apo A1 and Apo B) were conducted at week 12, 24 and 56 and compared to the baseline levels. The efficacy analyses were performed by using paired t-test and ANCOVA model. RESULTS: A total of 1155 patients were enrolled in this study. The baseline characteristics were similar between the three treatment groups. The within group mean (± SD) change in HbA1c (%) from baseline of the saroglitazar (2 mg and 4 mg) and pioglitazone treatment groups at week 24 were: - 1.38 ± 1.99 for saroglitazar 2 mg; - 1.47 ± 1.92 for saroglitazar 4 mg and - 1.41 ± 1.86 for pioglitazone, respectively. Statistically significant reduction from baseline in HbA1c was observed in each treatment group at week 24 with p-value < 0.016. There was a significant reduction in TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C, TC and Non HDL-C with a significant increase in HDL-C from baseline levels (< 0.016). Most of the AE's were 'mild' to 'moderate' in severity and were resolved by the completion of the study. CONCLUSIONS: Saroglitazar effectively improved glycemic control and lipid parameters over 56 weeks in patients of T2DM receiving background metformin therapy and has a promising potential to reduce the cardiovascular risk in T2DM patients. Trial registration CTRI/2015/09/006203, dated 22/09/2015.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Lipídeos/sangue , Fenilpropionatos/administração & dosagem , Pioglitazona/administração & dosagem , Pirróis/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Índia/epidemiologia , Fenilpropionatos/efeitos adversos , Pioglitazona/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Pirróis/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA