Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 9.742
Filtrar
1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22492, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031284

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Metformin-associated lactic acidosis (MALA) is a rare adverse effect that has significant morbidity and mortality. MALA is a high anion gap (AG), nonosmolar acidosis. Associated osmolar-gap (OG) is rarely reported, so finding an OG may make the diagnosis of MALA challenging. PATIENT CONCERNS: Forty-five years' old type II diabetic patient on metformin presented to emergency with a two-day history of vomiting, watery diarrhea, and mild abdominal discomfort. On examinations, he looked dehydrated. Investigation revealed acute kidney injury (AKI) with a high lactic acid (LA) level of 24 mmol/L, pH of 6.8, AG of 40, and an OG of 20 mOsm/kg DIAGNOSES:: The presence of an OG made the diagnosis challenging; the history was negative for alcohol, osmolar substance, or illicit drug ingestion or use. The toxicology screen was negative. After ruling out plausible causes of AG and OG, MALA was deemed the likely reason for his presentation likely precipitated by dehydration and AKI. INTERVENTIONS: He underwent two sessions of hemodialysis, afterward managed with fluid hydration. OUTCOMES: On day 3, he was in the polyuric phase suggestive of acute tubular necrosis. His serum creatinine improved afterward with improved acidosis; after 8 days, he was discharged in stable condition. LESSONS: MALA is a rare side effect of metformin therapy. Acute kidney injury is a known precipitant of MALA. In our review, we highlight the association of MALA and the presence of an OG. We believe that treating physicians should be aware of this relationship to avoid delaying or overlooking such an important diagnosis.


Assuntos
Acidose Láctica/sangue , Acidose Láctica/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Renal Aguda/complicações , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Metformina/efeitos adversos , Concentração Osmolar , Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base , Acidose Láctica/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21894, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At present, metformin is mainly used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). When the therapeutic effect is achieved, there are side effects and secondary failure will occur if taken for a long time. It is of great significance to actively explore the clinical scheme of reducing drug use while ensuring the therapeutic effect of T2DM. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of Chinese massage (CM) in the treatment of T2DM. METHODS: Literature retrieval is divided into 2 aspects: Electronic Retrieval and Personal Check. We will search PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI, Cochrane Central, which were registered in international clinical trials registry platform systems, select all eligible studies published before November 2, 2019, and use Personal Check method to retrieve papers, conference papers, ongoing experiments, internal reports, and so on. With fasting blood glucose, 2-hour fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and insulin index as the main observation indexes, we also pay attention to traditional Chinese medicine syndrome score scale, insulin resisting index, body mass index , serum total cholesterol, Curative effect and the occurrence of all adverse reactions in drug treatment.Of the research group 2 researchers respective selected literature, extracted data, and evaluated the risk of bias. After that we used Revman 5.7 and Stata 12.1 statistical software for meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 769 subjects were included in 10 studies for meta-analysis. Compared with metformin hydrochloride tablets, CM plus baseline treatment can reduce fasting plasma glucose (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] [-0.54, -0.13], Z = 3.15, P = .002), 2 hours postprandial blood glucose (WMD = -0.52, 95% CI [-0.70, -0.34), Z = 5.66, P < .00001], hemoglobin A1c (WMD = 0.12, 95% CI [0.04, 0.20], Z = 2.94, P = .003), fasting insulin (WMD = -3.59, 95% CI [-5.56, -1.42], Z = 10.29,P < .00001), traditional Chinese medicine syndrome score scale (WMD = -4.55, 95% CI [-7.58, -1.51], Z = 2.94, P = .003),homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (WMD = -1.76, 95% CI [-2.25, -1.27), Z = 7.08, P < .00001),body mass index (WMD = -1.28, 95% CI [-1.65, -0.92], Z = 6.91, P < .00001), serum total cholesterol (WMD = -1.01, 95% CI [-1.14, -0.83], Z = 15.51, P < .00001), meanwhile, the effective rate was increased (risk ratio [RR] = 1.31, 95% CI [1.21, 1.42], Z = 6.57, P < .00001). CONCLUSION: CM combined with metformin hydrochloride tablet has a synergistic effect. It can not only be used as an auxiliary treatment of T2DM, but also as an important reference way of reducing drug treatment of T2DM, improving Clinical Efficacy and reducing adverse reactions. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020158839.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Massagem/métodos , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Jejum/sangue , Estudos de Viabilidade , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Massagem/tendências , Metformina/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Value Health ; 23(7): 842-850, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762985

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To quantify patients' maximum acceptable risk (MAR) of urinary and genital tract infections (UGTI) in exchange for benefits associated with treatments for managing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: In a discrete choice experiment, adult patients with T2DM and currently on metformin and/or sulphonylurea (first-line treatments) were asked to choose between 2 hypothetical medications defined by 6 attributes: years of medication effectiveness in controlling blood glucose, weight reduction, UGTI risk, risk of hospitalization from heart failure, all-cause mortality risk, and out-of-pocket medication cost. We used latent class logistic regression parameters to estimate the conditional relative importance of treatment attributes and MAR of UGTI for various treatment benefits. RESULTS: A 2-class latent class model was identified as the best fit for the responses from 147 patients. The first class (49% of sample), termed as "survival-conscious," stated that they were willing to accept 46% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2%-90%) UGTI risk in exchange for a reduction from 6% to 1% in all-cause mortality risk. The second class (51% of sample), termed as "UGTI/cost-conscious" were willing to accept significantly lower (6%; CI: 2%-11%, and 5%; CI: 2%-8%) UGTI risk in exchange for the same reduction in all-cause mortality and hospitalization risks, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: On average, patients were willing to trade higher UGTI risk for a more effective medication. Our findings suggest that physicians should present the benefits and potential side effects of all available treatments and consider patient preferences in their treatment recommendations.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Preferência do Paciente , Idoso , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções do Sistema Genital/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2020: 3612607, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32774458

RESUMO

Introduction: Severe hypoglycemia can be life-threatening; therefore, it is important to identify the characteristics of the hypoglycemic patients. The aim of this study is to analyze the type and characteristics of diabetic patients with hypoglycemia who visited an emergency room. Methods: We included diabetic patients with hypoglycemia who visited the emergency room of St. Mary's Hospital in Seoul from January 2009 to August 2018 in the study. Hypo_S group patients visited the emergency room once whereas Hypo_M group patients visited twice or more. We also compared the incidence of cardiovascular disease between the groups within 5 years after hypoglycemia. Results: A total of 843 patients were included in this study, with a mean age of 71 ± 14 years and average glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level of 6.7 ± 1.4%. For patients with hypoglycemia, lower body mass index, lower HbA1c, shorter diabetes duration, and lower glomerular filtration rate have a statistically significant relationship with patient characteristics in the emergency room group (all p < 0.001). Hypoglycemia symptoms were most frequently observed between 6:00 and 12:00 am (p < 0.001). Cardiovascular diseases within 5 years after discharge were more frequent in the Hypo_S group than in the Hypo_M group; however, there was no statistical significance. The frequency of aneurysms was significantly higher in patients with hypoglycemia than in other patients in the emergency room (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Relatively thin older patients with a diabetes duration shorter than 10 years and good blood sugar control showed higher frequency of visits to the emergency room due to hypoglycemia. For these patients, medical staff should always be mindful of their susceptibility to hypoglycemia when prescribing insulin or OHA and educate them on the prevention of hypoglycemia.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/sangue , Hipoglicemia/diagnóstico , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Seul/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
6.
N Engl J Med ; 383(9): 836-845, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A closed-loop system of insulin delivery (also called an artificial pancreas) may improve glycemic outcomes in children with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: In a 16-week, multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial, we assigned, in a 3:1 ratio, children 6 to 13 years of age who had type 1 diabetes to receive treatment with the use of either a closed-loop system of insulin delivery (closed-loop group) or a sensor-augmented insulin pump (control group). The primary outcome was the percentage of time that the glucose level was in the target range of 70 to 180 mg per deciliter, as measured by continuous glucose monitoring. RESULTS: A total of 101 children underwent randomization (78 to the closed-loop group and 23 to the control group); the glycated hemoglobin levels at baseline ranged from 5.7 to 10.1%. The mean (±SD) percentage of time that the glucose level was in the target range of 70 to 180 mg per deciliter increased from 53±17% at baseline to 67±10% (the mean over 16 weeks of treatment) in the closed-loop group and from 51±16% to 55±13% in the control group (mean adjusted difference, 11 percentage points [equivalent to 2.6 hours per day]; 95% confidence interval, 7 to 14; P<0.001). In both groups, the median percentage of time that the glucose level was below 70 mg per deciliter was low (1.6% in the closed-loop group and 1.8% in the control group). In the closed-loop group, the median percentage of time that the system was in the closed-loop mode was 93% (interquartile range, 91 to 95). No episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis or severe hypoglycemia occurred in either group. CONCLUSIONS: In this 16-week trial involving children with type 1 diabetes, the glucose level was in the target range for a greater percentage of time with the use of a closed-loop system than with the use of a sensor-augmented insulin pump. (Funded by Tandem Diabetes Care and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03844789.).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Bombas de Infusão Implantáveis , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Glicemia/análise , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Cetoacidose Diabética/etiologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pâncreas Artificial
7.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku ; 60(9): 614-619, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779597

RESUMO

We report a case of severe sensory-motor axonal neuropathy on the lower extremities associated with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). A sixteen-year-old boy developed coma and admitted to our hospital. We diagnosed him with DKA based on remarkable hyperglycemia, severe acidosis with hyperketonemia. Intensive glycemic control with insulin was immediately started. He had complications of heart failure, rhabdomyolysis, and renal failure, which required intensive care including mechanical ventilation and hemodialysis. When recovered from the critical condition, he noticed severe weakness, numbness, and pain on the lower limbs, and urinary retention. On nerve conduction studies, both motor and sensory action potentials were absent. Serum anti-ganglioside antibodies were negative. Albuminocytologic dissociation was evident in the cerebrospinal fluid. MRI study revealed marked gadolinium enhancement of the cauda equina. After high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin treatment, he was relieved from leg pain, but the leg weakness and bladder bowel dysfunction did not show immediate improvement. It took approximately six months until he became able to stand and walk using ankle orthosis. Acute neuropathy is a rare complication of diabetes mellitus. Painful neuropathy is known to emerge in association with diabetic treatment, but it seldom causes severe motor disturbance. On the other hand, motor-dominant polyneuropathy has been reported to occur acutely along the treatment of DKA and hyperosmolar hyperglycemia syndrome (HHS). Present case and previous cases with DKA and HHS suggest that rapid correction of glucose level is one of the underlying factors of acute neuropathy related with diabetic treatment.


Assuntos
Axônios , Cetoacidose Diabética/complicações , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Neurônios Motores , Polineuropatias/etiologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Cetoacidose Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Extremidade Inferior , Masculino , Polineuropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Polineuropatias/terapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD009966, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kidney transplantation is the preferred management for patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). However, it is often complicated by worsening or new-onset diabetes. The safety and efficacy of glucose-lowering agents after kidney transplantation is largely unknown. This is an update of a review first published in 2017. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of glucose-lowering agents for treating pre-existing and new onset diabetes in people who have undergone kidney transplantation. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 16 January 2020 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs and cross-over studies examining head-to-head comparisons of active regimens of glucose-lowering therapy or active regimen compared with placebo/standard care in patients who have received a kidney transplant and have diabetes were eligible for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Four authors independently assessed study eligibility and quality and performed data extraction. Continuous outcomes were expressed as post-treatment mean differences (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD). Adverse events were expressed as post-treatment absolute risk differences (RD). Dichotomous clinical outcomes were presented as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). MAIN RESULTS: Ten studies (21 records, 603 randomised participants) were included - three additional studies (five records) since our last review. Four studies compared more intensive versus less intensive insulin therapy; two studies compared dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors to placebo; one study compared DPP-4 inhibitors to insulin glargine; one study compared sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors to placebo; and two studies compared glitazones and insulin to insulin therapy alone. The majority of studies had an unclear to a high risk of bias. There were no studies examining the effects of biguanides, glinides, GLP-1 agonists, or sulphonylureas. Compared to less intensive insulin therapy, it is unclear if more intensive insulin therapy has an effect on transplant or graft survival (4 studies, 301 participants: RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.32 to 3.94; I2 = 49%; very low certainty evidence), delayed graft function (2 studies, 153 participants: RR 0.63, 0.42 to 0.93; I2 = 0%; very low certainty evidence), HbA1c (1 study, 16 participants; very low certainty evidence), fasting blood glucose (1 study, 24 participants; very low certainty evidence), kidney function markers (1 study, 26 participants; very low certainty evidence), death (any cause) (3 studies, 208 participants" RR 0.68, 0.29 to 1.58; I2 = 0%; very low certainty evidence), hypoglycaemia (4 studies, 301 participants; very low certainty evidence) and medication discontinuation due to adverse effects (1 study, 60 participants; very low certainty evidence). Compared to placebo, it is unclear whether DPP-4 inhibitors have an effect on hypoglycaemia and medication discontinuation (2 studies, 51 participants; very low certainty evidence). However, DPP-4 inhibitors may reduce HbA1c and fasting blood glucose but not kidney function markers (1 study, 32 participants; low certainty evidence). Compared to insulin glargine, it is unclear if DPP-4 inhibitors have an effect on HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, hypoglycaemia or discontinuation due to adverse events (1 study, 45 participants; very low certainty evidence). Compared to placebo, SGLT2 inhibitors probably do not affect kidney graft survival (1 study, 44 participants; moderate certainty evidence), but may reduce HbA1c without affecting fasting blood glucose and eGFR long-term (1 study, 44 participants, low certainty evidence). SGLT2 inhibitors probably do not increase hypoglycaemia, and probably have little or no effect on medication discontinuation due to adverse events. However, all participants discontinuing SGLT2 inhibitors had urinary tract infections (1 study, 44 participants, moderate certainty evidence). Compared to insulin therapy alone, it is unclear if glitazones added to insulin have an effect on HbA1c or kidney function markers (1 study, 62 participants; very low certainty evidence). However, glitazones may make little or no difference to fasting blood glucose (2 studies, 120 participants; low certainty evidence), and medication discontinuation due to adverse events (1 study, 62 participants; low certainty evidence). No studies of DPP-4 inhibitors, or glitazones reported effects on transplant or graft survival, delayed graft function or death (any cause). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy and safety of glucose-lowering agents in the treatment of pre-existing and new-onset diabetes in kidney transplant recipients is questionable. Evidence from existing studies examining the effect of intensive insulin therapy, DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT inhibitors and glitazones is mostly of low to very low certainty. Appropriately blinded, larger, and higher quality RCTs are needed to evaluate and compare the safety and efficacy of contemporary glucose-lowering agents in the kidney transplant population.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Adamantano/efeitos adversos , Adamantano/análogos & derivados , Adamantano/uso terapêutico , Viés , Causas de Morte , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/efeitos adversos , Jejum/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Insulina Glargina/efeitos adversos , Insulina Glargina/uso terapêutico , Nitrilos/efeitos adversos , Nitrilos/uso terapêutico , Pioglitazona , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Pirrolidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirrolidinas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/efeitos adversos , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Tiazolidinedionas/efeitos adversos , Tiazolidinedionas/uso terapêutico , Transplantados , Vildagliptina
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e21202, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702885

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Capillary leak syndrome is a condition that increases systemic capillary permeability and causes characteristic manifestations such as recurrent hypovolemia, systemic edema, and hemoconcentration. Acute limb compartment syndrome is a possible complication of severe capillary leak syndrome. However, timely diagnosis and prompt treatment are challenging because of atypical presentation. PATIENT CONCERNS: An 18-year-old woman with a history of clinical depression was admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) because of metformin and vildagliptin overdose. She developed marked vasodilatory shock with recurrent severe hypovolemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation. After urgent hemodialysis and plasma exchange, she started to stabilize hemodynamically. However, her limbs became stone-hard with massive edema. Her serum creatinine kinase level increased to an extremely high level. DIAGNOSIS: Extremities were distended, and her skin developed pallor with blistering. Intramuscular pressure in both forearms and lower legs was significantly elevated. INTERVENTIONS: Decompressive fasciotomy was performed. Hemodialysis was continued because of rhabdomyolyses-induced acute kidney injury. OUTCOMES: The patient was finally able to walk by herself at the time of hospital discharge on day 109. LESSONS: The possibility of acute compartment syndrome should be considered in patients with marked capillary leakage, especially after aggressive fluid resuscitation. It is important to be aware of the compartment syndrome in an ICU setting because communication barriers often mask typical symptoms and make diagnosis difficult.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Vazamento Capilar/etiologia , Síndromes Compartimentais/etiologia , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/toxicidade , Metformina/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Síndrome de Vazamento Capilar/complicações , Síndrome de Vazamento Capilar/fisiopatologia , Síndromes Compartimentais/fisiopatologia , Síndromes Compartimentais/cirurgia , Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hidratação/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Rabdomiólise/complicações , Vildagliptina/efeitos adversos , Vildagliptina/uso terapêutico , Vildagliptina/toxicidade
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e21236, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702900

RESUMO

Sulphonylureas (SUs) subclasses have different risks of all-cause mortality, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and stroke. Therefore, we assessed these risks in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus administered gliclazide, glimepiride, or metformin monotherapy with retrospective cohort study design. Total 195,235 subjects were included in the study who were ≥20 years' old and prescribed monotherapy for at least 1 year as a first-line therapy for incident diabetes from January 01, 2009 to December 31, 2013 in the National Health Insurance Service Claim data. Incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause mortality, AMI, and stroke were compared with glimepiride monotherapy as a reference. Gliclazide monotherapy increased all-cause mortality compared with glimepiride monotherapy. However, the gliclazide and glimepiride groups showed no difference in AMI and stroke incidences. In line with previous studies, metformin monotherapy showed significant clinical benefits in reducing risks of all-cause mortality, AMI, and stroke compared with glimepiride. This population-based cohort study suggested that gliclazide increases risks of all-cause mortality and has similar risk of AMI and stroke with gliclazide monotherapy in Korean.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Gliclazida/efeitos adversos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , República da Coreia , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade
12.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 114, 2020 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690029

RESUMO

In the pandemic "Corona Virus Disease 2019" (COVID-19) people with diabetes have a high risk to require ICU admission. The management of diabetes in Intensive Care Unit is always challenging, however, when diabetes is present in COVID-19 the situation seems even more complicated. An optimal glycemic control, avoiding acute hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia and glycemic variability may significantly improve the outcome. In this case, intravenous insulin infusion with continuous glucose monitoring should be the choice. No evidence suggests stopping angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-renin-blockers or statins, even it has been suggested that they may increase the expression of Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor, which is used by "Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to penetrate into the cells. A real issue is the usefulness of several biomarkers, which have been suggested to be measured during the COVID-19. N-Terminal-pro-Brain Natriuretic-Peptide, D-dimer and hs-Troponin are often increased in diabetes. Their meaning in the case of diabetes and COVID-19 should be therefore very carefully evaluated. Even though we understand that in such a critical situation some of these requests are not so easy to implement, we believe that the best possible action to prevent a worse outcome is essential in any medical act.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/mortalidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 115, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698837

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared as pandemic by the World Health Organization and is causing substantial morbidity and mortality all over the world. Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease significantly increase the risk for hospitalization and death in COVID-19 patients. Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia are both predictors for adverse outcomes in hospitalized patients. An optimized glycemic control should be pursued in patients with diabetes and SARS-CoV-2 infection in order to reduce the risk of severe COVID-19 course. Both insulin and GLP-1RAs have shown optimal glucose-lowering and anti-inflammatory effects in type 2 diabetic patients and may represent a valid therapeutic option to treat asymptomatic and non-critically ill COVID-19 diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Incretinas/administração & dosagem , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Incretinas/efeitos adversos , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 21(14): 1771-1780, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With limited real-world insulin glargine 300 unit/mL (Gla-300) data available, we assessed the effectiveness and safety of Gla-300 in the Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: X-STAR was a prospective, observational, 12-month post-marketing study of Gla-300 from 2015 to 2018. T2DM patients received Gla-300 as the first insulin (insulin-naïve) or after treatment with another type of insulin (insulin-experienced). RESULTS: We identified 1,227 insulin-naïve and 3,394 insulin-experienced patients. Insulin-naïve group increased the Gla-300 starting dose by 2.80 U/day during 12 months (7.49 to 10.29 U/day). Mean HbA1c reduced by 1.99% (9.82 to 7.83%), and 28.4% showed HbA1c < 7.0%. Insulin-experienced group had a baseline insulin dose of 14.86 U/day, which increased by 0.73 U/day. Mean HbA1c reduced by 0.18% (7.99 to 7.81%), and 24.6% showed HbA1c < 7.0%. Adverse drug reactions occurred in 3.42% (insulin-naïve) and 4.45% (insulin-experienced); symptomatic hypoglycemia (2.93% and 3.86%, respectively) was the most common in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Gla-300, in clinical practice, provides an effective and safe therapy as HbA1c was reduced/maintained in insulin-naïve/experienced Japanese T2DM patients without new safety signal. This study provides insights into the current Japanese clinical practices where insulin use is delayed and conservative despite relatively low HbA1c achievement.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina Glargina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Insulina Glargina/administração & dosagem , Insulina Glargina/efeitos adversos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 16: 241-248, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606720

RESUMO

Aim: Type 2 diabetes (T2D), as a major cause of morbidity and mortality, is predicted to have a prevalence of 629 million by 2045. As diabetic patients show considerable inter-individual variation in response to antidiabetic treatment, this study aimed to investigate the gene polymorphism of cytochrome P450 as well as the effectiveness and safety of glibenclamide and gliclazide for different genotypes of CYP2C9. Besides, the chronic side effects of T2D including retinal microvasculature complications or retinopathy and renal dysfunction due to nephropathy in different genotypes were considered. Patients and Methods: The participants including 80 T2D patients treated with glibenclamide or gliclazide were recruited from university hospitals of Ahvaz Jundishpur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, in the southwest of Iran. Blood samples were collected from the patients at 2.5h after the morning dose of glibenclamide and 12h after the last dose of gliclazide. Genotyping from the extracted DNA was, then, performed using PCR-RFLP. The plasma level of glibenclamide and gliclazide was, in turn, measured by the reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Results: The results showed that the wild-type allele, i.e., CYP2C9*1, occurred in the highest frequency (0.8), while the frequency rates of the mutant allele, i.e., CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3, were 0.15 and 0.05, respectively. Moreover, no significant association was found between any of the genotypes as well as the clinical and biochemical characteristics of the patients. The findings also showed that the plasma level of sulfonylureas (i.e., glibenclamide and gliclazide) was the highest in the patients with the CYP2C9*3 allele. It was also found that 75.9% of the patients with variant genotypes had experienced hypoglycemia events. Furthermore, in the absence of wild type allele, a significant increase was observed in retinopathy (p=0.039) and nephropathy (p=0.05). Conclusion: The findings can provide guidelines for the optimal management of the treatment protocols with sulfonylurea intended to control the T2D complications.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Retinopatia Diabética/genética , Gliclazida/uso terapêutico , Glibureto/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Gliclazida/efeitos adversos , Gliclazida/sangue , Glibureto/efeitos adversos , Glibureto/sangue , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/genética , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Hipoglicemiantes/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(26): e20990, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590812

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Metformin-associated lactic acidosis (MALA) is rarely encountered, but has a high mortality rate, Conventional treatments include hemodialysis or continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT); however, when the disease progresses to end-stage, cardiac function is significantly inhibited, circulation cannot be maintained, CRRT cannot be tolerated, V-A extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may be the last treatment. PATIENT CONCERNS: The study report a rare case of MALA in an elderly female patient at the age of 72 who was admitted to hospital because of nausea for 2 days, complicated with systemic fatigue. DIAGNOSIS: MALA was cofirmed because of patient have increased lactic acid levels, blood pH <7.2, and a history of oral metformin intake. INTERVENTIONS: Venoarterial ECMO (V-A ECMO) combined with CRRT was initiated when circulation was still not hold after intravenous fluids and 5% sodium bicarbonate were prescribed. OUTCOMES: V-A ECMO was then terminated after 48 hours when circulation was perserved, CRRT was discontinued when PH and lactic acid level were normal limited. etformin-associated lactic acidosis did not recur during 6 months follow-up. LESSONS: The incidence of MALA is low, but mortality is very high. Intermittent hemodialysis or CRRT should be performed if the lactic acid level is persistently elevated. When severe circulatory dysfunction occurs and cardiac function is inhibited, V-A ECMO support should be performed immediately to maintain circulation, followed by CRRT, which may be the final measure to treat refractory MALA.


Assuntos
Acidose Láctica/terapia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Metformina/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Substituição Renal/métodos , Acidose Láctica/etiologia , Idoso , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico
18.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(697): 1186-1190, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520456

RESUMO

DPP-4 inhibitors are a well-established treatment for type 2 diabetes. They act by improving glycemic control through the incretin system. This class of molecules are well-tolerated and are associated with a low risk of hypoglycemia. Yet, their efficacy in glycemic control is rather moderate and they don't offer a benefit in terms of cardiovascular or renal protection. Even if they have a good safety profile, it is important to pay attention to the risk of cardiac failure and pancreatitis. This article provides an overview of the use of DPP-4 inhibitors in 2020.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Incretinas/metabolismo
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(21): e20343, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481324

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) class agent has grown rapidly in the last decade due to its effects on lowering HbA1c and weight and the low possibility of hypoglycemia. However, GLP-1 RAs are not devoid of adverse effects among which nausea and vomiting rank first, which reduce adherence to treatment. Accumulated evidences proved that acupuncture can properly treat nausea and vomiting caused by various reasons. The study aims at assessing the safety and effectiveness exhibited by acupuncture treatment for patients with nausea and vomiting induced by GLP-1 RAs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Articles that have been identified via electronically searching databases of MEDLINE, Nature, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, WorldSciNet, EMbase, Science Online, AMED, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Wanfang Databse and China Biology Medicine Disc and the Chongqing VIP Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database from their inception of to December 31, 2019 will be incorporated into the systematic review. The review only adopts Chinese and English. It will also pay attention to searching resources of qualified studies, relevant conference proceedings, potential reference list, as well as related system reviews. Two researchers will take charge of completing the selection of research, the extraction of data as well as the assessment of research quality independently. A random- or fixed-effects model will be employed to synthesize data combining the heterogeneity test. The primary outcomes will be nausea and vomiting, seen from the objective and self-reported assessment. Data analysis will be performed via the RevMan 5 software, and GRADE will help to assess the evidence level. The heterogeneity level will determine whether the random-effects model or the fixed-effects model will be used. The 2 categories will adopt risk ratio (RR) or odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Continuous variables will adopt the weighted mean difference or standardized mean difference and 95% CI. Meta-analysis will not be conducted if no assessment, like subgroup analysis, is able to explain existing meaningful heterogeneity. The subgroup analysis shall carefully consider each subgroup in certain case. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The systematic review does not involve the evaluation of patients' individual information or patients' right; thus, there is no need to gain the approval from ethical institution. The article will be published in journals reviewed by peers and present at related conference.Registration: Open Science Framework (OSF) Preregistration. 2020, April 8. osf.io/3fgu8.


Assuntos
Acupuntura/métodos , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Náusea/terapia , Vômito/terapia , Humanos , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Vômito/induzido quimicamente
20.
JAMA ; 323(23): 2397-2406, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543682

RESUMO

Importance: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) provides real-time assessment of glucose levels and may be beneficial in reducing hypoglycemia in older adults with type 1 diabetes. Objective: To determine whether CGM is effective in reducing hypoglycemia compared with standard blood glucose monitoring (BGM) in older adults with type 1 diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized clinical trial conducted at 22 endocrinology practices in the United States among 203 adults at least 60 years of age with type 1 diabetes. Interventions: Participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to use CGM (n = 103) or standard BGM (n = 100). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was CGM-measured percentage of time that sensor glucose values were less than 70 mg/dL during 6 months of follow-up. There were 31 prespecified secondary outcomes, including additional CGM metrics for hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and glucose control; hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c); and cognition and patient-reported outcomes, with adjustment for multiple comparisons to control for false-discovery rate. Results: Of the 203 participants (median age, 68 [interquartile range {IQR}, 65-71] years; median type 1 diabetes duration, 36 [IQR, 25-48] years; 52% female; 53% insulin pump use; mean HbA1c, 7.5% [SD, 0.9%]), 83% used CGM at least 6 days per week during month 6. Median time with glucose levels less than 70 mg/dL was 5.1% (73 minutes per day) at baseline and 2.7% (39 minutes per day) during follow-up in the CGM group vs 4.7% (68 minutes per day) and 4.9% (70 minutes per day), respectively, in the standard BGM group (adjusted treatment difference, -1.9% (-27 minutes per day); 95% CI, -2.8% to -1.1% [-40 to -16 minutes per day]; P <.001). Of the 31 prespecified secondary end points, there were statistically significant differences for all 9 CGM metrics, 6 of 7 HbA1c outcomes, and none of the 15 cognitive and patient-reported outcomes. Mean HbA1c decreased in the CGM group compared with the standard BGM group (adjusted group difference, -0.3%; 95% CI, -0.4% to -0.1%; P <.001). The most commonly reported adverse events using CGM and standard BGM, respectively, were severe hypoglycemia (1 and 10), fractures (5 and 1), falls (4 and 3), and emergency department visits (6 and 8). Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults aged 60 years or older with type 1 diabetes, continuous glucose monitoring compared with standard blood glucose monitoring resulted in a small but statistically significant improvement in hypoglycemia over 6 months. Further research is needed to understand the long-term clinical benefit. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03240432.


Assuntos
Automonitorização da Glicemia/métodos , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Automonitorização da Glicemia/instrumentação , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/diagnóstico , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/diagnóstico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Ambulatorial/instrumentação , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA