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1.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 19(16): 1436-1444, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512997

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes is a major health issue worldwide with complex metabolic and endocrine abnormalities. Hyperglycemia, defects in insulin secretion and insulin resistance are classic features of type 2 diabetes. Insulin signaling regulates metabolic homeostasis by regulating glucose and lipid turnover in the liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Major treatment modalities for diabetes include the drugs from the class of sulfonyl urea, Insulin, GLP-1 agonists, SGLT2 inhibitors, DPP-IV inhibitors and Thiazolidinediones. Emerging antidiabetic therapeutics also include classes of drugs targeting GPCRs in the liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Interestingly, recent research highlights several shared intermediates between insulin and GPCR signaling cascades opening potential novel avenues for diabetic drug discovery.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Descoberta de Drogas , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Receptor de Insulina/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/antagonistas & inibidores , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo
2.
Acta Crystallogr C Struct Chem ; 75(Pt 9): 1250-1258, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484813

RESUMO

A drug-drug anhydrous pharmaceutical salt containing tolbutamide {systematic name: 3-butyl-1-[(4-methylbenzene)sulfonyl]urea, TOL, C12H18N2O3S} and metformin (systematic name: 1-carbamimidamido-N,N-dimethylmethanimidamide, MET, C4H11N5) was created based on antidiabetic drug combinations to overcome the poor pharmaceutical properties of the parent drugs. Proton transfer and the proportion of the two components were confirmed by 1H NMR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Comprehensive characterization of the new pharmaceutical salt crystal, 2-[(dimethylamino)(iminiumyl)methyl]guanidine (butylcarbamoyl)[(4-methylbenzene)sulfonyl]azanide, C4H12N5+·C12H17N2O3S-, was performed and showed enhancement of the pharmaceutical properties, such as lower hygroscopicity and greater accelerated stability than the parent drug MET, and higher solubility and dissolution rate than TOL. The property alterations were correlated with the crystal packing features and potential hydrogen-bonding sites through observed changes in the crystal structures.


Assuntos
Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Metformina/farmacologia , Tolbutamida/farmacologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Combinação de Medicamentos , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Hipoglicemiantes/síntese química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Metformina/síntese química , Metformina/química , Estrutura Molecular , Solubilidade , Tolbutamida/síntese química , Tolbutamida/química
3.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(7): 274, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385095

RESUMO

With the increase concern of solubilization for insoluble drug, ternary solid dispersion (SD) formulations developed more rapidly than binary systems. However, rational formulation design of ternary systems and their dissolution molecular mechanism were still under development. Current research aimed to develop the effective ternary formulations and investigate their molecular mechanism by integrated experimental and modeling techniques. Glipizide (GLI) was selected as the model drug and PEG was used as the solubilizing polymer, while surfactants (e.g., SDS or Tween80) were the third components. SD samples were prepared at different weight ratio by melting method. In the dissolution tests, the solubilization effect of ternary system with very small amount of surfactant (drug/PEG/surfactant 1/1/0.02) was similar with that of binary systems with high polymer ratios (drug/PEG 1/3 and 1/9). The molecular structure of ternary systems was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared absorption spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Moreover, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations mimicked the preparation process of SDs, and molecular motion in solvent revealed the dissolution mechanism of SD. As the Gordon-Taylor equation described, the experimental and calculated values of Tg were compared for ternary and binary systems, which confirmed good miscibility of GLI with other components. In summary, ternary SD systems could significantly decrease the usage of polymers than binary system. Molecular mechanism of dissolution for both binary and ternary solid dispersions was revealed by combined experiments and molecular modeling techniques. Our research provides a novel pathway for the further research of ternary solid dispersion formulations.


Assuntos
Glipizida/química , Modelos Moleculares , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polissorbatos/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria/métodos , Glipizida/análise , Hipoglicemiantes/análise , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Polietilenoglicóis/análise , Polímeros/análise , Polímeros/química , Polissorbatos/análise , Solubilidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Tensoativos/análise , Tensoativos/química , Difração de Raios X/métodos
4.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(10): e1900341, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465610

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to investigate the enzyme inhibition, antioxidant activity, and phenolic compounds of Lecokia cretica (Lam.) DC. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and α-glycosidase enzymes were strongly inhibited by the L. cretica extracts. IC50 values for the three enzymes were found as 3.21 mg/mL, 2.1 mg/mL, and 2.07 mg/mL, respectively. Antioxidant activities were examined in both aqueous and ethanol (EtOH) extracts using CUPRAC, FRAP, and DPPH method. Also, the phenolic compounds of the endemic plant were identified and quantified by using HPLC/MS/MS. According to the results, the extracts have remarkable antioxidant activities. The most abundant phenolic acids of L. cretica in EtOH extract were determined as quinic acid (12.76 mg/kg of crude extract), chlorogenic acid (3.39 mg/kg), and malic acid (2.38 mg/kg).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Apiaceae/química , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/química , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(8): 824-838, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366832

RESUMO

We synthesized and evaluated novel 5-[2-(thiophen-2-yl)propan-2-yl]-4H-1,2,4-triazole derivatives as 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11ß-HSD1) inhibitors. Optimization of the thiophene ring and the substituents on the 1,2,4-triazole ring produced 3,4-dicyclopropyl-5-{2-[3-fluoro-5-(trifluoromethyl)thiophen-2-yl]propan-2-yl}-4H-1,2,4-triazole monohydrochloride (9a), which showed potent and selective inhibitory activity against human 11ß-HSD1. Compound 9a was also metabolically stable against human and mouse liver microsomes. Oral administration of 9a to diabetic ob/ob mice lowered corticosterone levels in adipose tissue, and thereby reduced plasma glucose and insulin levels in a dose-dependent manner.


Assuntos
11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Descoberta de Drogas , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Triazóis/farmacologia , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triazóis/administração & dosagem , Triazóis/química
6.
Food Chem ; 300: 125245, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352287

RESUMO

The natural bioactive polysaccharide was regarded as the effective nanocarrier for delivery of active ingredients for its biocompatibility and biodegradability. Moreover, the Fructus Mori polysaccharide has been proved to have good antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities. In this study, the Fructus Mori polysaccharide particles were prepared using antisolvent precipitation method. The bioactive polysaccharide particles exhibited smaller and rounder as the increase of the ethanol/water ratio. The average size, polydispersity index (PDI) and ξ-potential of the bioactive polysaccharide particles were 396.06 nm, 0.38 and -21.23 mV at ethanol/water ratio of 20:1. After spheroidization, the polysaccharide particles exhibited more stable when exposed to heat, increased ionic strength and alkaline conditions. Furthermore, the bioactive polysaccharide particle with the smallest size had the strongest protein adsorption capacity and bioavailability. Especially, the MFP-NP3 showed the ORAC value of 917.06 ±â€¯34.13 µmol TE/g, and the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of 56.98 ±â€¯1.19% at 0.5 mg/mL. In addition, compared to the native Fructus Mori polysaccharide, the spheroidization enhanced the antioxidant ability and hypoglycemic activity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Morus/química , Nanopartículas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacocinética , Adsorção , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Precipitação Química , Etanol , Frutas , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Masculino , Concentração Osmolar , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos , Solventes/química
7.
Georgian Med News ; (290): 144-149, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322533

RESUMO

There have been presented the results of the histomorphological research of the effect of the beans' thick extract (BTE) on the state of the pancreas on the model of diabetes mellitus type 2 on the background of obesity in the rats in our research. The simulation of type 2 diabetes on the background of obesity in the animals has led to the development of signs of insulin's inhibition of insulin producing apparatus - some different expressions of dystrophy and degeneration of the ß-cells. The consequence of the hyperfunction has been exhaustion and even death of ß-cells, the development of the diabetic condition. The redistribution of pancreatic islet ß-content of cells has contributed to the increase of the small islands and had a compensatory nature. The treatment of the animals by the BTE has fully prevented an excessive negative impact on revenues of carbohydrates insulin producing apparatus, because it improves the morphological status of ß-cells, reduces the part of small pancreatic islets, almost restores medium and large islets to the level of the «Intact control¼ group. The comparison drug - metformin - has a positive effect on the morphological status of the pancreatic ß-cells, but this effect is obviously not enough for improving or restoring the normal % of distribution of islets.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/patologia , Obesidade/complicações , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Sementes/química , Animais , Tamanho Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Insulina , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Açúcares
8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6380-6391, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prickly pears are potential candidates for the development of low-cost functional foods because they grow with low water requirements in arid regions of the world. They are sources of betalains and phenolic compounds, which have been reported to contribute to human health. The study of the biological activity of different varieties and of their isolated bioactive constitutes is fundamental in the design of functional foods. In this context, our objective is the assessment of the ability of Spanish and Mexican prickly-pear cultivars to inhibit enzymes related to type 2 diabetes and the inflammatory response, and the contribution of their bioactive compounds to their nutra-pharmaceutical potential. RESULTS: Prickly pear peels presented the highest antioxidant activity due to their high isorhamnetin glycoside content. Isorhamnetin glycosides showed significantly higher antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity than aglycone, particularly isorhamnetin glucosyl-rhamnosyl-pentoside (IG2), which also reported antihyperglycemic activity. Morada, Vigor, and Sanguinos whole fruits exhibited moderate α-amylase inhibition and higher α-glucosidase inhibition, which is ideal for lowering glucose absorption in hyperglycemia management. Sanguinos peels presented the highest anti-inflammatory activity because of their high indicaxanthin content and isorhamnetin glycoside profile. CONCLUSIONS: In the design of prickly pear functional foods, technological processing should prioritize the retention or concentration of these bioactive compounds to preserve (or increase) their natural antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory activity. Peels of red and orange varieties should be further evaluated for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory purposes while whole fruits of red and purple varieties could be considered possible candidates for hyperglycemia management. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/enzimologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Pyrus/química , Antioxidantes/química , Betalaínas/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Humanos , Cinética , Fenóis/química , Pyrus/classificação , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Amilases/química , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/química , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
9.
Eur J Med Chem ; 179: 608-622, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279294

RESUMO

Based on an old phenoxyacetic acid scaffold, CPU014 (compound 14) has been identified as a superior agonist by comprehensive exploration of structure-activity relationship. In vitro toxicity study suggested that CPU014 has lower risk of hepatotoxicity than TAK-875. During acute toxicity study (5-500 mg/kg), a favorable therapeutic window of CPU014 was observed by evaluation of plasma profiles and liver slices. Moreover, CPU014 promotes insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner, while no GLP-1 secretion has been enhanced. Other than good pharmacokinetic properties, CPU014 significantly improved glucose tolerance both in normal and diabetic models without the risk of hypoglycemia. These subversive findings provided a safer candidate CPU014, which is currently in preclinical study to assess its potential for the treatment of diabetes.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Desenho de Drogas , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/agonistas , Acetatos/síntese química , Acetatos/química , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hipoglicemiantes/síntese química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Estrutura Molecular , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
10.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 17(1): 84, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nanoceria has recently received much attention, because of its widespread biomedical applications, including antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer activity, drug/gene delivery systems, anti-diabetic property, and tissue engineering. MAIN BODY: Nanoceria exhibits excellent antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In healthy cells, it acts as an antioxidant by scavenging ROS (at physiological pH). Thus, it protects them, while in cancer cells (under low pH environment) it acts as pro-oxidant by generating ROS and kills them. Nanoceria has also been effectively used as a carrier for targeted drug and gene delivery in vitro and in vivo models. Besides, nanoceria can also act as an antidiabetic agent and confer protection towards diabetes-associated organ pathophysiology via decreasing the ROS level in diabetic subjects. Nanoceria also possesses excellent potential in the field of tissue engineering. In this review, firstly, we have discussed the different methods used for the synthesis of nanoceria as these are very important to control the size, shape and Ce3+/Ce4+ ratio of the particles upon which the physical, chemical, and biological properties depend. Secondly, we have extensively reviewed the different biomedical applications of nanoceria with probable mechanisms based on the literature reports. CONCLUSION: The outcome of this review will improve the understanding about the different synthetic procedures and biomedical applications of nanoceria, which should, in turn, lead to the design of novel clinical interventions associated with various health disorders.


Assuntos
Cério/química , Nanopartículas/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cério/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Oxirredução , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos
11.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 34(1): 1368-1372, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347930

RESUMO

To develop multifunctional aldose reductase (AKR1B1) inhibitors for anti-diabetic complications, a novel series of 2-phenoxypyrido[3,2-b]pyrazin-3(4H)-one derivatives were designed and synthesised. Most of the derivatives were found to be potent and selective against AKR1B1, and 2-(7-chloro-2-(3,5-dihydroxyphenoxy)-3-oxopyrido[3,2-b]pyrazin-4(3H)-yl) acetic acid (4k) was the most active with an IC50 value of 0.023 µM. Moreover, it was encouraging to find that some derivatives showed strong antioxidant activity, and among them, the phenolic 3,5-dihydroxyl compound 4l with 7-bromo in the core structure was proved to be the most potent, even comparable to that of the well-known antioxidant Trolox. Thus the results suggested success in the construction of potent and selective AKR1B1 inhibitors with antioxidant activity.


Assuntos
Aldeído Redutase/antagonistas & inibidores , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Desenho de Drogas , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Picratos/química , Pirazinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(8): e1900183, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361076

RESUMO

This work describes the study of the chemical composition and bioactivity of the essential oils (EOs) of the different organs (leaves, flowers, stems and roots) from Eruca vesicaria. According to the GC and GC/MS analysis, all the EOs were dominated by erucin (4-methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate) with a percentage ranging from 17.9 % (leaves) to 98.5 % (roots). The isolated EOs were evaluated for their antioxidant (DPPH, ABTS and ß-carotene/linoleic acid), antibacterial and inhibitory property against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Most EOs exhibited an interesting α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory potential. The roots essential oil was found to be the most active with IC50 values of 0.80±0.06 and 0.11±0.01 µg mL-1 , respectively. The essential oil of roots exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (DPPH, PI=92.76±0.01 %; ABTS, PI=78.87±0.19; and ß-carotene, PI=56.1±0.01 %). The isolated oils were also tested for their antibacterial activity against two Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria. Moderate results have been noted by comparison with Gentamicin used as positive control.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Brassicaceae/química , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/química , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
13.
Food Chem ; 297: 124942, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253329

RESUMO

The formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) may affect life quality and cut lifespan. With the increasingly utilization of new foods and booming development of international trade, large amounts of newly emerging teas have come into our sight. In this study, we evaluated the antiglycative capabilities of five popular herbal teas. Results showed that Chinese Hong Dou Shan (Taxus chinensis; HDS) leaf tea had particularly strong antiglycative activity via scavenging methylglyoxal (MGO) in both chemical (glucose-BSA, fructose-BSA, and MGO-BSA) and cell models (HUVECs). Furthermore, the intracellular AGEs level was alleviated to normal state by the two HDS leaf tea fractions, H-47 and H-57 which were almost as effective as EGCG when added at the same level (50 µg/mL). The effective components against glycation were further separated and tentatively identified as catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, procyanidin B2, a dihydromyricetin dimer, and a quercetin glucoside by HPLC-DAD and LC-Q-TOF/MS analysis.


Assuntos
Hipoglicemiantes/análise , Taxus/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/química , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Aldeído Pirúvico/química , Aldeído Pirúvico/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Taxus/metabolismo
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(24): 6765-6772, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180676

RESUMO

One unusual resveratrol tetramer, paeonilactiflorol (1), and 14 known compounds (2-15) were isolated from peony seeds ( Paeonia lactiflora) under the guidance of bioassay. Paeonilactiflorol (1) was determined by extensive HRESIMS, UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses. Most of the stilbenes showed obvious inhibition on PTP1B and α-glucosidase, superior to the monoterpene glycosides. Especially, the stilbene tetramer (1) and trimer (8) exhibited high activity inhibiting both PTP1B with IC50 values of 27.23 and 27.81 µM and α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 13.57 and 14.39 µM. Two trans-dimers (4 and 5) also showed dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPPIV) inhibitory activity (55.35% and 61.26%, 500 µM) in addition to PTP1B and α-glucosidase. Enzyme kinetic study indicated that the types of inhibition on PTP1B were noncompetitive for 3 and 5 and mixed for 8 and 10. Quantitative analysis suggested that the stilbene trimers 8 (23.17 ± 0.36 mg/g) and 10 (15.24 ± 0.25 mg/g) were the main contents in peony seeds and should be responsible for the antidiabetic effects. This investigation supports the therapeutic potential of peony seeds in the treatment of diabetes with stilbenes as the active constituents.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Paeonia/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Estilbenos/química , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/química , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 1/química , Sementes/química , Estilbenos/isolamento & purificação , alfa-Glucosidases/química
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(25): 7025-7039, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240933

RESUMO

As a functional food, the unripe fruits of Rubus chingii Hu have been widely used in China for thousands of years. Twenty-five major ellagitannins (ETs) were identified from the unripe fruits, and a novel ellagitannin, chingiitannin A (1), together with four other known ETs (2-5) were isolated and identified by HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS and 2D-NMR. Chingiitannin A showed the highest α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities (IC50 2.89 and 4.52 µM, respectively), which occurred in a reversible and noncompetitive manner. Static quenching was indicated in a fluorescence quenching assay. Molecular docking results revealed that chingiitannin A interacted with the enzymes mainly by hydrogen bonding and was bound in the allosteric site. Chingiitannin A was nontoxic, and it increased the glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. The results suggested that the unripe fruits of Rubus chingii Hu are rich sources of ETs, and chingiitannin A might be a good candidate for functional foods or antidiabetic drugs.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rubus/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Mioblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , alfa-Glucosidases/química
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(26): 7348-7364, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180673

RESUMO

A chemical study on the peels of the cultivated edible mushroom Wolfiporia cocos led to the isolation and identification of 47 lanostane triterpenoids including 16 new compounds (1-16). The structures of the new compounds were determined by analysis of the NMR, MS, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. Compounds 1 and 2 represent new members of the family of 4,5-secolanostane triterpenes. Compound 3 is a new aromatic lanostane triterpene with an unusual methyl rearrangement from C-10 to C-6. The absolute configurations of 1 and 8 were assigned by ECD spectra calculation. All compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity (K562, SW480, and HepG2) and glucose-uptake-stimulating effects. Compounds 23, 25, 29, and 31 showed weak inhibition on the K562 cells with IC50 in the range of 25.7 to 68.2 µM, respectively. Compounds 21, 28, and 30 increased the glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells by 25%, 14%, and 50% at 5 µM, respectively. In addition, compounds 14, 23, 29, 35, and 43 showed insulin-sensitizing activity by increasing the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake at 2.5 µM in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. A preliminary structure-activity relationship analysis indicates that the 6/6/6/5 ring skeleton and the double bond between C-8 and C-9 are beneficial for the glucose-uptake-stimulating and insulin-sensitizing activities. Furthermore, the alkaline-insoluble fraction mainly containing compounds 22, 24, 28, and 31 were confirmed to have hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity on high-fat-diet-induced obese mice. This work confirms the potential of the peels' extracts of W. cocos as a functional food or dietary supplements.


Assuntos
Glucose/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Wolfiporia/química , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
17.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 17(1): 74, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is one of the biggest medical challenges worldwide. The key to efficiently treat type 1 diabetes is to accurately inject insulin according to the blood glucose levels. In this study, we aimed to develop an intelligent insulin-releasing gold nanocluster system that responds to environmental glucose concentrations. RESULTS: We employed gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) as a novel carrier nanomaterial by taking advantage of their high drug-loading capacity. We prepared AuNCs in the protection of bovine serum albumin, and we decorated AuNCs with 3-aminophenylboronic acid (PBA) as a glucose-responsive factor. Then we grafted insulin onto the surface to obtain the glucose-responsive insulin-releasing system, AuNC-PBA-Ins complex. The AuNC-PBA-Ins complex exhibited high sensitivity to glucose concentration, and rapidly released insulin in high glucose concentration in vitro. In the type 1 diabetic mouse model in vivo, the AuNC-PBA-Ins complex effectively released insulin and regulated blood glucose level in the normoglycemic state for up to 3 days. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully developed a phenylboronic acid-functionalized gold nanocluster system (AuNC-PBA-Ins) for responsive insulin release and glucose regulation in type 1 diabetes. This nanocluster system mimics the function of blood glucose regulation of pancreas in the body and may have potential applications in the theranostics of diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Ouro/química , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Ácidos Borônicos/química , Bovinos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Insulina/química , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Soroalbumina Bovina/química
18.
Top Curr Chem (Cham) ; 377(4): 19, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165274

RESUMO

This review is an effort to summarize recent developments in synthesis of O-glycosides and N-, C-glycosyl molecules with promising antidiabetic potential. Articles published after 2000 are included. First, the O-glycosides used in the treatment of diabetes are presented, followed by the N-glycosides and finally the C-glycosides constituting the largest group of antidiabetic drugs are described. Within each group of glycosides, we presented how the structure of compounds representing potential drugs changes and when discussing chemical compounds of a similar structure, achievements are presented in the chronological order. C-Glycosyl compounds mimicking O-glycosides structure, exhibit the best features in terms of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Therefore, the largest part of the article is concerned with the description of the synthesis and biological studies of various C-glycosides. Also N-glycosides such as N-(ß-D-glucopyranosyl)-amides, N-(ß-D-glucopyranosyl)-ureas, and 1,2,3-triazolyl derivatives belong to the most potent classes of antidiabetic agents. In order to indicate which of the compounds presented in the given sections have the best inhibitory properties, a list of the best inhibitors is presented at the end of each section. In summary, the best inhibitors were selected from each of the summarizing figures and the results of the ranking were placed. In this way, the reader can learn about the structure of the compounds having the best antidiabetic activity. The compounds, whose synthesis was described in the article but did not appear on the figures presenting the structures of the most active inhibitors, did not show proper activity as inhibitors. Thus, the article also presents studies that have not yielded the desired results and show directions of research that should not be followed. In order to show the directions of the latest research, articles from 2018 to 2019 are described in a separate Sect. 5. In Sect. 6, biological mechanisms of action of the glycosides and patents of marketed drugs are described.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus/enzimologia , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Glicogênio Fosforilase/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicogênio Fosforilase/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/farmacocinética , Glicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacocinética , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 1/metabolismo , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/química , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacocinética , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 5881-5889, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The suppression of α-glucosidase activity to retard glucose absorption is an important therapy for type-2 diabetes. Corosolic acid (CRA) is a potential antidiabetic component in many plant-based foods and herbs. In this study, the interplay mechanism between α-glucosidase and corosolic acid was investigated by several methods, including three-dimensional fluorescence spectra, circular dichroism spectra, and molecular simulation. RESULTS: Corosolic acid significantly inhibited α-glucosidase reversibly in an uncompetitive manner and its IC50 value was 1.35 × 10-5 mol L-1 . A combination of CRA with myricetin exerted a weak synergy against α-glucosidase. The intrinsic fluorescence of α-glucosidase was quenched via a static quenching course and the binding constant was 3.47 × 103 L mol-1 at 298 K. The binding of CRA to α-glucosidase was mainly driven by hydrophobic forces and resulted in a partial extension of the protein polypeptide chain with a loss of α-helix content. The molecular simulation illustrated that CRA bound to the entrance part of the active center of α-glucosidase and interacted with the amino acid residues Ser157, Arg442, Phe303, Arg315, Tyr158, and Gln353, which could hinder the release of substrate and catalytic reaction product, eventually suppressing the catalytic activity of α-glucosidase. CONCLUSIONS: These results may suggest new insights into corosolic acid from food sources as a potential α-glucosidase inhibitor that could better control diabetes. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Triterpenos/química , alfa-Glucosidases/química , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Dicroísmo Circular , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
20.
Med Chem ; 15(6): 624-633, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of new classes of blood glucose-lowering medications has increased the number of treatment opportunities available for type 2 diabetes. Nevertheless, long term complicated treatments and side effects of available antidiabetic therapies have urged huge demands for effective affordable anti-diabetic agents that can lessen negative health consequences. In this sense, the exploration of alternative medicinal remedies associated with new significant antidiabetic efficiencies with minimized adverse effects is an active domain of research. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to synthesize a series of benzothiazole-pyrazolidinedione hybrids and evaluate their antidiabetic activity along with molecular docking and in silico analysis. METHODS: The hybrids were synthesized by a multi-step synthesis and were further subjected for in vivo anti-hyperglycemic assessment on rat models of type II diabetes. Molecular modelling study was undertaken against peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) to highlight possible key interactions. RESULTS: Docking studies revealed that appropriate substituents on benzothiazole ring interacted favorably with the hydrophobic Ω-pocket of PPARγ binding site resulting in improving their antihyperglycemic activity. All the synthesized hybrids manifested promising anti-hyperglycemic potency. Excitingly, 5a, 5b and 5c were even more potent than the standard drug. CONCLUSION: The newly synthesized hybrids can be considered as a new class of antidiabetic agents and this study provided useful information on further optimization.


Assuntos
Benzotiazóis/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Pirazolonas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Benzotiazóis/síntese química , Benzotiazóis/química , Benzotiazóis/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Desenho de Drogas , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/síntese química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , PPAR gama/química , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Pirazolonas/síntese química , Pirazolonas/química , Pirazolonas/metabolismo , Ratos
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