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2.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(10): 105164, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912544

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The incidence of lung cancer and acute ischemic stroke remains high in recent years, both of which occur mostly in people over 60 years old. In the present study, we aimed to further clarify the pathogenesis of lung cancer-associated acute ischemic stroke (LCA-AIS) by comparing and analyzing clinical characteristics of stroke patients with or without lung cancer. METHODS: A total of 51 patients with lung cancer were selected as the case group (LCSG), and 78 patients without cancer history were adopted as the control group (SG). The data collected in this study included sex, age, traditional cerebrovascular disease risk factors (TCDRFs), blood test index, imaging findings, etiological typing, and prognosis evaluation. SPSS21.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Normally distributed data were analyzed by t-test, and count data were analyzed by chi-square test or exact probability method. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: In the case group, the levels of plasma D-dimer, fibrinogen degradation products (FDPs) and NIHSS, as well as the mRS score and mortality of patients, were higher, while the levels of RBC, Hb and Hcy were lower compared with the control group. Imaging findings showed that multivessel involvement was more common in the case group, and the infarcts were more likely to be multiple and involved in both the anterior and posterior circulations. The TOAST classification of LCSG was dominated by stroke of undetermined etiology (SUE) and stroke of other determined etiology (SOE). Statistical analysis showed that the patients were more likely to suffer from acute ischemic stroke within 1 year after the diagnosis of lung cancer (41 cases, 80.39%). CONCLUSIONS: Hypercoagulability and acute multiple brain infarcts were more common in patients with LCA-AIS, and hypoproteinemia and hyponatremia were more likely to occur in these patients, leading to worse prognosis. Patients were most likely to have a stroke within 1 year after the diagnosis of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Infarto Encefálico/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Trombofilia/etiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Infarto Encefálico/diagnóstico , Infarto Encefálico/mortalidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , Hiponatremia/diagnóstico , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Hipoproteinemia/diagnóstico , Hipoproteinemia/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia/mortalidade , Trombofilia/diagnóstico , Trombofilia/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 53(5): 463-472, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691149

RESUMO

The aim of this continuing medical education (CME) article (part II) is to describe the particular challenge of the treatment of hyponatremia, which occurs in older patients. This part II follows on from part I concerning the diagnosis in the previous volume. A staged approach is necessary. The best treatment is always when the underlying cause can be eliminated. Hyponatremia in older patients is mainly induced by the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion. The authors use a concept for the first, second and third line strategy: (1) changing or discontinuation of drugs, (2) fluid restriction and (3) tolvaptan medication. The algorithm for treatment should be simple. It also contains recommendations for the correction rate. Caution is also needed in order to avoid the occurrence of an osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS).


Assuntos
Antagonistas dos Receptores de Hormônios Antidiuréticos/uso terapêutico , Hidratação/métodos , Hiponatremia/terapia , Síndrome de Secreção Inadequada de HAD/complicações , Solução Salina Hipertônica/uso terapêutico , Tolvaptan/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Hiponatremia/diagnóstico , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Síndrome de Secreção Inadequada de HAD/diagnóstico , Infusões Intravenosas , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Acta Gastroenterol Belg ; 83(2): 315-318, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603052

RESUMO

Most episodes of vomiting, reduced intake and diarrhoea in children can be evaluated and treated without additional tests. However, when the degree of clinical dehydration is not in line with the patient's medical history, other diagnoses should be suspected. In the presence of a hyponatraemic hypochloraemic metabolic alkalosis, cystic fibrosis (CF) should be included in the differential diagnosis, especially if there is failure to thrive even in the absence of respiratory symptoms. Furthermore, young patients diagnosed with CF have a higher risk for an acute electrolyte decompensation caused by increased salt and fluid losses. We present 4 paediatric cases to raise the awareness of electrolyte disturbances in CF patients.


Assuntos
Alcalose , Fibrose Cística , Desidratação , Hiponatremia , Criança , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Desidratação/complicações , Insuficiência de Crescimento , Humanos , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Vômito
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e21188, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702880

RESUMO

Retrospective single institution observational study.The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of early extensive posterior decompression on complications in patients with severe traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (tcSCI).Cervical SCI is associated with a high prevalence of hyponatremia and cardiopulmonary dysfunction. However, very few studies have focused on this exploration to reduce the incidence of SCI early complications.We reviewed the medical records of consecutive patients undergoing extensive posterior decompression within 24 h for severe tcSCI (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale [AIS] A to C) admitted between January 2009 and January 2018. The data collected retrospectively included age, gender, mechanism, and level of SCI, AIS grade, fracture or dislocation, electrolyte, and cardiopulmonary complications.Of the 97 enrolled patients, the baseline AIS grade was AIS A in 14, AIS B in 31, and AIS C in 52. Improvement of at least two AIS grades was found in 26 (26.8%), and improvement of at least one grade was found in 80.4% of patients at discharge. Twenty-nine (29.9%) patients had mild hyponatremia, 8 (8.2%) had moderate hyponatremia, and 3 (3.1%) had severe hyponatremia during hospitalization. The incidences of hyponatremia, hypotension, and tracheotomy were 41.2%, 13.4%, and 6.2%, respectively. The mean forced vital capacity (FVC) on admission and at discharge was 1.34 ±â€Š0.46 L and 2.21 ±â€Š0.41 L (P < .0001), respectively. Five patients developed pneumonia.Our results suggest that early expansive posterior decompression significantly reduces the incidence of hyponatremia, hypotension, and tracheotomy by promoting recovery of spinal cord function after severe tcSCI.


Assuntos
Medula Cervical/fisiopatologia , Descompressão Cirúrgica/reabilitação , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/cirurgia , Disfunção Ventricular/etiologia , Adulto , Medula Cervical/lesões , Medula Cervical/cirurgia , Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Descompressão Cirúrgica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Hiponatremia/sangue , Hiponatremia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/sangue , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular/fisiopatologia
7.
Am J Med Sci ; 360(4): 392-401, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of sex on mortality in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) is unresolved. We aimed to investigate the impact of sex on both short- and long-term mortality outcomes after hospitalization for AHF. METHODS: We analyzed data of 2,328 patients with AHF who were enrolled in the multicenter national survey in Israel between March and April 2003 and followed up until December 2014. RESULTS: Women comprised 45% of the study population. In comparison with men, women were older, had higher rates of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction as well as hypertensive heart disease and had a lower rate of coronary artery disease (all P < 0.001). Survival analysis showed that at 1 year the rate of all-cause mortality was 31% among women compared to 28% among men (P = 0.19). At 10-year follow-up mortality rates were significantly higher among women compared to men (87% vs. 83%, P = 0.048). However, this sex association disappeared once multivariable analysis was carried out, (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.93; CI = 0.79-1.09, P = 0.36). Renal dysfunction, older age and severe heart failure were consistent independent predictors of mortality among men and women. Hyponatremia was a prognostic predictor only among men, whereas digoxin use predicted mortality only among women. CONCLUSIONS: There are important differences in the clinical characteristics between women and men hospitalized with AHF. There were no significant differences in both short- and long-term mortality following multivariable analysis. Although, most independent predictors of mortality were consistent among both sexes, few sex-based differences in prognostic predictors were identified.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Caracteres Sexuais , Idoso , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Hiponatremia/mortalidade , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Sobrevida
10.
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 53(4): 347-356, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488305

RESUMO

Old age is a strong independent risk factor for hyponatremia. Dizziness, fatigue, reduced vigilance, cognitive impairment, gait deficits, nausea, vomiting, headache, falls, osteoporosis and fractures, coma and seizures are more frequent and severe than in middle-aged patients. Hyponatremia is mainly caused by the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion and also including drugs. Hyponatremia is multifactorial in a significant proportion of older patients. Hyponatremia requires a staged diagnostic approach to identify the underlying cause. The aim of this continuing medical education (CME) report (part I) is to emphasize the special challenges in the diagnostics of hyponatremia, which occur in older patients. Diagnostics should be kept simple. A special algorithm is presented. Part II concerning treatment will follow.


Assuntos
Hiponatremia/diagnóstico , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Síndrome de Secreção Inadequada de HAD/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Humanos , Hiponatremia/metabolismo , Síndrome de Secreção Inadequada de HAD/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Secreção Inadequada de HAD/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
13.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(1): G9-G15, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-548771

RESUMO

COVID-19 has changed the nature of medical consultations, emphasizing virtual patient counseling, with relevance for patients with diabetes insipidus (DI) or hyponatraemia. The main complication of desmopressin treatment in DI is dilutional hyponatraemia. Since plasma sodium monitoring is not always possible in times of COVID-19, we recommend to delay the desmopressin dose once a week until aquaresis occurs allowing excess retained water to be excreted. Patients should measure their body weight daily. Patients with DI admitted to the hospital with COVID-19 have a high risk for mortality due to volume depletion. Specialists must supervise fluid replacement and dosing of desmopressin. Patients after pituitary surgery should drink to thirst and measure their body weight daily to early recognize the development of the postoperative syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD). They should know hyponatraemia symptoms. The prevalence of hyponatraemia in patients with pneumonia due to COVID-19 is not yet known, but seems to be low. In contrast, hypernatraemia may develop in COVID-19 patients in ICU, from different multifactorial reasons, for example, due to insensible water losses from pyrexia, increased respiration rate and use of diuretics. Hypernatraemic dehydration may contribute to the high risk of acute kidney injury in COVID-19. IV fluid replacement should be administered with caution in severe cases of COVID-19 because of the risk of pulmonary oedema.


Assuntos
Antidiuréticos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Desamino Arginina Vasopressina/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/terapia , Hidratação/métodos , Hipernatremia/terapia , Hiponatremia/terapia , Síndrome de Secreção Inadequada de HAD/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Desidratação/terapia , Diabetes Insípido/complicações , Diabetes Insípido/terapia , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/complicações , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Hiponatremia/prevenção & controle , Soluções Hipotônicas/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Solução Salina/uso terapêutico , Choque/etiologia , Choque/terapia
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(20): e20129, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443324

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Drug-induced fever is easy to overlook in respiratory departments. High fever is a rare side effect of trihexyphenidyl, which can be used clinically to treat Parkinson's disease. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is a group of clinical syndromes caused by various diseases, resulting in water retention and refractory hyponatremia. However, pneumonia combined with malignant hyperthermia and SIADH has rarely been reported. We describe an unusual case of malignant hyperthermia and refractory hyponatremia due to trihexyphenidyl adverse reaction. PATIENT CONCERNS: Fifty-five-year-old male with pneumonia presented with malignant hyperthermia and refractory hyponatremia has a history of Parkinson's disease. DIAGNOSIS: Early considerations related the described hyperthermia findings to the manifestations of pneumonia. However, the last findings were due to trihexyphenidyl adverse reaction. INTERVENTIONS: Broad-spectrum antibiotics, oral and intravenous supplement of concentrated sodium chloride, drug, and physical cooling. OUTCOMES: The patient survived. During the 3-month follow up, the patient was no recurrence of fever or hyponatremia. CONCLUSION: High fever and SIADH can be a rare adverse reaction to trihexyphenidyl. Therefore, possible drug factors should be considered in the case. Consideration of other possible causes can improve early diagnosis and treatment of patients with fever of unknown origins.


Assuntos
Antiparkinsonianos/efeitos adversos , Hipertermia Maligna/etiologia , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/complicações , Triexifenidil/efeitos adversos , Antiparkinsonianos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Hiponatremia/terapia , Masculino , Hipertermia Maligna/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Pneumonia/terapia , Triexifenidil/uso terapêutico
16.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(1): G9-G15, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380474

RESUMO

COVID-19 has changed the nature of medical consultations, emphasizing virtual patient counseling, with relevance for patients with diabetes insipidus (DI) or hyponatraemia. The main complication of desmopressin treatment in DI is dilutional hyponatraemia. Since plasma sodium monitoring is not always possible in times of COVID-19, we recommend to delay the desmopressin dose once a week until aquaresis occurs allowing excess retained water to be excreted. Patients should measure their body weight daily. Patients with DI admitted to the hospital with COVID-19 have a high risk for mortality due to volume depletion. Specialists must supervise fluid replacement and dosing of desmopressin. Patients after pituitary surgery should drink to thirst and measure their body weight daily to early recognize the development of the postoperative syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD). They should know hyponatraemia symptoms. The prevalence of hyponatraemia in patients with pneumonia due to COVID-19 is not yet known, but seems to be low. In contrast, hypernatraemia may develop in COVID-19 patients in ICU, from different multifactorial reasons, for example, due to insensible water losses from pyrexia, increased respiration rate and use of diuretics. Hypernatraemic dehydration may contribute to the high risk of acute kidney injury in COVID-19. IV fluid replacement should be administered with caution in severe cases of COVID-19 because of the risk of pulmonary oedema.


Assuntos
Antidiuréticos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Desamino Arginina Vasopressina/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/terapia , Hidratação/métodos , Hipernatremia/terapia , Hiponatremia/terapia , Síndrome de Secreção Inadequada de HAD/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Desidratação/terapia , Diabetes Insípido/complicações , Diabetes Insípido/terapia , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/complicações , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Hiponatremia/prevenção & controle , Soluções Hipotônicas/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Solução Salina/uso terapêutico , Choque/etiologia , Choque/terapia
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(20): e20365, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443389

RESUMO

Postoperative hyponatremia (POH) is thought to be a fearsome complication of orthopedic surgery. Primary aim of this cohort study was to evaluate the incidence of POH and its clinical relevance in elective surgery, outlining differences between total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty, looking for the presence of any risk factor commonly related to POH.Four hundred two patients that underwent total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty performed between 2016 and 2017 were retrospectively examined. Serum electrolytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, and creatinine were evaluated preoperatively and at day 0-I-II from surgery. Age, sex, body mass index, comorbidities, drugs, surgery data, transfusions, postoperative symptoms, and length of stay (LOS) were determined. All surgeries were performed by the same equipe. Patients had the same perioperative management, excluded those that took thiazides, already at risk of POH.Patients were divided in 2 groups: group A, patients with normal postoperative natremia (294 patients) and group B, patients who developed POH (108, 26.9%); 66.7% of these developed POH within 24 hours postoperatively. In group B mean postoperative natremia was 133.38 (127.78-134.85) mmol/L. Two patients (1.8%) developed moderate hyponatremia, no severe hyponatremia was documented. Type of surgery, operation time, LOS, and presence of postoperative symptoms did not show statistically significant differences within groups. At multivariate logistic analysis chronic use of thiazides was the only variable associated to a decreased risk of developing POH (OR = 0.39; P = .03). Hemoglobin postoperative values (OR = 1.22; P = .03), the need of postoperative transfusion (OR = 2.50; P = .02) and diabetes (OR = 2.70; P = .01) were associated to an increased risk of POH.Although 26.9% of our patients exhibited POH, the onset of this disorder had no implication on postoperative symptoms and on LOS. Diabetes and transfusion are factors most often associated to POH.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Glicemia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comorbidade , Creatinina/sangue , Eletrólitos/sangue , Feminino , Hematócrito , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
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