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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(9): e24980, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655968

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Cardiotoxicity is a common cause of death in tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) intoxication. Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is effective in critically ill poisoned patients who do not respond to conventional therapies, and targeted temperature management (TTM) is associated with improved neurological outcomes and mortality in comatose out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors. However, few reports have documented cases of TCA intoxication that required intensive care, including VA-ECMO or TTM. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 19-year-old Japanese man with a history of depression was brought to our hospital because he was in a comatose state with a generalized seizure. Before admission, he had taken an unknown amount of amitriptyline. DIAGNOSIS: After intubation, the electrocardiogram (ECG) displayed a wide QRS complex tachycardia, and the patient suffered from cardiovascular instability despite intravenous bolus of sodium bicarbonate. At 200 minutes after ingestion, he experienced a TCA-induced cardiac arrest. INTERVENTIONS: We initiated VA-ECMO 240 minutes after ingestion. The hemodynamic status stabilized, and the ECG abnormality improved gradually. In addition, we initiated targeted temperature management (TTM) with a target temperature of 34°C. OUTCOMES: Twenty seven hours after starting the pump, the patient was weaned off the VA-ECMO. After completing the TTM, his mental status improved, and he was extubated on day 5. He was discharged on day 15 without neurological impairment, and the post-discharge course was uneventful. LESSONS: First, VA-ECMO is effective in patients with TCA-induced cardiac arrest. Second, routine ECG screening during VA-ECMO support is useful for assessing the timing to wean off the VA-ECMO, as well as the degree of cardiotoxicity. Third, TTM is safe in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest caused by severe TCA intoxication.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos Tricíclicos/efeitos adversos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Parada Cardíaca/induzido quimicamente , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Eletrocardiografia , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
3.
Am J Emerg Med ; 41: 46-50, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The management of cardiac arrest patients receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an essential aspect of emergency medicine (EM) training. At our institution, we have a 1-month Resuscitation Rotation designed to augment resident training in managing critical patients. The objective of this study is to compare 30-day mortality between cardiac arrest patients with resuscitation resident (RR) involvement versus patients without. Our secondary outcome is to determine if RR involvement altered rates of initiating targeted temperature management (TTM). METHODS: This study was conducted at a single site tertiary care Level-1 trauma center with an Emergency Department (ED) census of nearly 130,000 visits per year. Data was collected from 01/01/2015 to 01/01/2018 using electronic medical records via query. Patients admitted with cardiac arrest were separated into two groups, one with RR involvement and one without. Initial rhythm of ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia (VFIB/VTACH), 30-day mortality, history of coronary artery disease (CAD), and initiation of TTM were compared. Statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS: Out of 885 patient encounters, 91 (10.28%) had RR participation. There was no statistical difference in 30-day mortality between patients with RR involvement compared to those without (71.42% vs 66.36%; P = 0.3613). However, TTM was initiated more in the RR group (20.70% vs 8.86%; P = 0.0025). Patients who received TTM also had a lower 30-day mortality compared to those without TTM (52.94% vs 70.87%; P = 0.0020). Patients who were older and had no history of CAD were also noted to have a statistically significant higher 30-day mortality. All other variables were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Resuscitation resident involvement with the care of cardiac arrest patients had no impact in 30-day mortality. However, the involvement of RR was associated with a statistically significant increase in the initiation of TTM. One limitation is that RR participated in 10.28% of the cases analyzed herein, thus the two arms are unbalanced in size. Future work may investigate if the increase in TTM in the RR involved cases may portend improved rates of neurologically intact survival or more rapid achievement of goal temperatures.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Medicina de Emergência/educação , Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Internato e Residência , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotermia Induzida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 34(1): 40-47, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369933

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the epidemiology, prognostication, and treatment of out- and in-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA and IHCA) in elderly patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Elderly patients undergoing cardiac arrest (CA) challenge the appropriateness of attempting cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Current literature suggests that factors traditionally associated with survival to hospital discharge and neurologically intact survival after CA cardiac arrest in general (e.g. presenting ryhthm, bystander CPR, targeted temperature management) may not be similarly favorable in elderly patients. Alternative factors meaningful for outcome in this special population include prearrest functional status, comorbidity load, the specific age subset within the elderly population, and CA location (i.e., nursing versus private home). Age should therefore not be a standalone criterion for withholding CPR. Attempts to perform CPR in an elderly patient should instead stem from a shared decision-making process. SUMMARY: An appropriate CPR attempt is an attempt resulting in neurologically intact survival. Appropriate CPR in elderly patients requires better risk classification. Future research should therefore focus on the associations of specific within-elderly age subgroups, comorbidities, and functional status with neurologically intact survival. Reporting must be standardized to enable such evaluation.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Hipotermia Induzida , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Parada Cardíaca , Humanos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Ordens quanto à Conduta (Ética Médica)
5.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(1): 437-443, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388615

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Scalp cooling during chemotherapy infusion has been recently reported to have moderate efficacy in the mitigation of chemotherapy-induced alopecia; however, there are few reports on Asian patients. We aimed to clarify the effects of scalp cooling in Japanese women. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Female Japanese breast cancer patients who planned to receive (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy participated in this prospective study on the efficacy of scalp cooling using the Paxman Scalp Cooling System for alopecia prevention. The primary outcomes were the rates of patients with Grade 3 alopecia (defined as hair loss of > 50%) and the rates of patients who used a wig or hat to conceal hair loss 1 month after the last infusion of chemotherapy. The subjects were given a brief questionnaire regarding headaches, bad mood, fatigue, and chills shortly after each cooling. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-three patients participated in the study and used the cooling cap at least once. The mean and median ages of the subjects were 50.6 and 50, respectively (age range 28-76). One hundred and twenty-nine patients completed the planned chemotherapy of 4 to 8 cycles. Among them (7 patients were not evaluable), 74 patients (60.7%) had Grade 3 alopecia 1 month after chemotherapy. Of 80 patients who used the scalp cooling system throughout the planned chemotherapy (1 patient was not evaluable), 36 patients (45.6%) experienced Grade 3 alopecia. CONCLUSION: The efficacy of scalp cooling during chemotherapy infusion for hair loss mitigation in Asian women is similar to that in Caucasian women.


Assuntos
Alopecia/prevenção & controle , Alopecia/terapia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Couro Cabeludo/irrigação sanguínea , Adulto , Idoso , Alopecia/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: 42281, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1094844

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar evidências acerca do uso seguro da hipotermia terapêutica em recém-nascidos. Método: revisão integrativa realizada entre junho e julho de 2018, em fontes eletrônicas da Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde e PubMed, por meio da pergunta:"Que evidências podem subsidiar o cuidado de enfermagem voltado para a redução de sequelas em recém-nascidos submetidos à hipotermia terapêutica?".Foram eleitos nove artigos para análise, sendo oito internacionais e um nacional. Resultados:o resfriamento deve acontecer por 72 horas, com hipotermia leve. As indicações para inclusão no protocolo foram: primeiras seis horas de vida, idade gestacional maior que 35 semanas e acidose na primeira hora de vida.São cuidados essenciais: monitoração hemodinâmica, observação da pele, controle térmico retal, vigilância do Eletroencefalograma de Amplitude Integrada. Conclusão: a terapêutica apresenta benefícios, porém sua aplicação depende de protocolo institucional e treinamento das equipes com foco nas potenciais complicações.


Objective: to identify the evidence on safe use of therapeutic hypothermia in newborns. Method: integrative review of the literature, conducted between June and July of 2018, in electronic sources from the Virtual Health Library and PubMed, through the question: "What evidence can support nursing care aimed at reducing sequelae in newborns undergoing therapeutic hypothermia?". Analysis was conducted for nine selected article, being eight from international literature and one from Brazilian national literature. Results: cooling should occur for 72 hours with mild hypothermia. Indications for inclusion in the protocol were: first six hours of life, gestational age greater than 35 weeks and acidosis in the first hour of life. Essential care includes hemodynamic monitoring, skin observation, rectal thermal control, Integrated Amplitude Electroencephalogram surveillance. Conclusion: the therapy has benefits, but its application depends on institutional protocol and team training focusing on potential complications.


Objetivo: identificar la evidencia sobre el uso seguro de la hipotermia terapéutica en recién nacidos. Método: revisión integradora de la literatura, realizada entre junio y julio de 2018, en fuentes electrónicas de la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud y PubMed, a través de la pregunta: "¿Qué evidencia puede apoyar la atención de enfermería dirigida a reducir las secuelas en los recién nacidos que sufren hipotermia terapéutica?". Se realizaron análisis para nueve artículos seleccionados, ocho de literatura internacional y uno de literatura nacional brasileña. Resultados: el enfriamiento debe ocurrir durante 72 horas con hipotermia leve. Las indicaciones para la inclusión en el protocolo fueron: primeras seis horas de vida, edad gestacional mayor de 35 semanas y acidosis en la primera hora de vida. El cuidado esencial incluye monitoreo hemodinámico, observación de la piel, control térmico rectal, vigilancia integrada de electroencefalograma de amplitud. Conclusión: la terapia tiene beneficios, pero su aplicación depende del protocolo institucional y del entrenamiento del equipo, enfocándose en posibles complicaciones.


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Protocolos Clínicos/normas , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Hipotermia Induzida/normas , Asfixia Neonatal/complicações , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Hipotermia Induzida/efeitos adversos , Hipotermia Induzida/enfermagem
7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(24): e016652, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317367

RESUMO

Background Despite the benefits of targeted temperature management (TTM) for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest), implementation within the United States remains low. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with TTM use in a large, urban-suburban regional system of care. Methods and Results This was a retrospective analysis from the Los Angeles County regional cardiac system of care serving a population of >10 million residents. All adult patients aged ≥18 years with non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest transported to a cardiac arrest center from April 2011 to August 2017 were included. Patients awake and alert in the emergency department and patients who died in the emergency department before consideration for TTM were excluded. The primary outcome measure was prevalence of TTM use. The secondary analysis were annual trends in TTM use over the study period and factors associated with TTM use. The study population included 8072 patients; 4154 patients (51.5%) received TTM and 3767 patients (46.7%) did not receive TTM. Median age was 67 years, 4780 patients (59.2%) were men, 4645 patients (57.5%) were non-White, and the most common arrest location was personal residence in 4841 patients (60.0%). In the adjusted analysis, younger age, male sex, an initial shockable rhythm, witnessed arrest, and receiving coronary angiography were associated with receiving TTM. Conclusions Within this regional system of care, use of TTM was higher than previously reported in the literature at just over 50%. Use of integrated systems of care may be a novel method to increase TTM use within the United States.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Idoso , Efeito Espectador/ética , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotermia Induzida/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipotermia Induzida/tendências , Incidência , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , /fisiologia
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(45): e22513, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157915

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Therapeutic hypothermia is an effective medical treatment for neurological recovery after cardiac arrest. Here, we describe a case of successful mild therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest during living-donor liver transplantation. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 54-year-old woman with alcoholic liver cirrhosis was admitted for living-donor liver transplantation. Cardiac arrest occurred during the anhepatic phase. After cardiopulmonary resuscitation, spontaneous circulation returned, but the bispectral index level remained below 10 until the end of surgery. DIAGNOSES: Neurological injury caused by global cerebral hypoperfusion was suspected. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was treated with mild therapeutic hypothermia for 24hours after resuscitation targeting a core body temperature of 34°C with surface cooling using ice bags. OUTCOMES: The patient recovered consciousness about 22 hours after the event. However, she showed symptoms of delirium even when discharged. At the 3-month follow-up exam, she showed no specific neurological complications. The transplanted liver showed no problems with regeneration. LESSONS: Mild therapeutic hypothermia may be safely adopted in cases of cardiac arrest in liver transplant patients and is beneficial for neurological recovery.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Hipotermia Induzida , Transplante de Fígado , Feminino , Humanos , Doadores Vivos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(45): e23159, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158002

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Unprecedented heatwaves over the past several years are getting worse with longer duration in the course of global warming. Heatstroke is a medical emergency with multiple organ involvement and life-threatening illness with a high mortality rate of up to 71%. Uncontrolled damage to the central nervous system can result in severe cerebral edema, permanent neurological sequelae, and death. However, regarding the therapeutic aspects of heat stroke, there was no therapeutic strategy after the rapid cooling of the core body temperature to <39°C to prevent further injury. PATIENT CONCERNS: Each of 3 patients developed a change of mental statuses after the exposure to summer heatwaves or relatively high environmental temperatures with high humidity in the sauna. DIAGNOSES: The patients were diagnosed with severe heatstroke since they showed cerebral edema and multiple organ dysfunction based on the results from laboratory tests and the findings in brain computed tomography scan. INTERVENTIONS: The patients underwent induced therapeutic hypothermia (<36°C) between 24 and 36 hours in the management of severe heatstroke. OUTCOMES: The patients survived from cerebral edema and multiple organ dysfunction. LESSONS: We believe that targeted temperature management (<36°C) will help treat severe heatstroke. Thus it should be considered for reducing the chance of development of complications in multiple organs, especially in the central nervous system, when managing patients with severe heatstroke.


Assuntos
Golpe de Calor/terapia , Hipotermia Induzida , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
10.
Pol Merkur Lekarski ; 48(287): 365-369, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130801

RESUMO

Myocardial infarction is one of the main causes of death worldwide. Since the introduction of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), the rate of patients who die of a myocardial infarction or suffer from numerous complications afterwards has significantly decreased. During PPCI, the patient sustains postreperfusion myocardial injury, which entails an extension of the myocardial infarct size related to ischemia. Research on the ways of limiting this phenomenon has been carried out for years. One of the investigated methods is hypothermia. The first animal studies have yielded promising results. The application of hypothermia has been proved to reduce the myocardial injury size provided that the cooling commenced before reperfusion. Moreover, the trial conducted by Götberg M. et al. showed a significant reduction of microvascular obstruction (MVO) in pigs subjected to hypothermia before reperfusion. MVO was assessed via ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging. The conducted randomized clinical trials have shown the possibility of applying mild hypothermia in conscious patients without causing significant complications. In the presented trials, hypothermia was induced and maintained using an intravascular catheter inserted into the inferior vena cava, cold saline solution infusions into peripheral veins or directly into the coronary arteries or via peritoneal hypothermia. The myocardial injury size was assessed via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Despite the promising results obtained by Young-Sheng Wang et al., who applied selective intracoronary hypothermia and the myocardial infarct size (IS/MaR) was significantly reduced (p=0.022), it has not been unambiguously confirmed yet that hypothermia is effective as an adjunctive therapy for revascularization in myocardial injury size reduction during a myocardial infarction.


Assuntos
Hipotermia Induzida , Infarto do Miocárdio , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Animais , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Suínos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD006304, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perineal trauma is common during childbirth and may be painful. Contemporary maternity practice includes offering women numerous forms of pain relief, including the local application of cooling treatments. This Cochrane Review is an update of a review last updated in 2012. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of localised cooling treatments compared with no treatment, placebo, or other cooling treatments applied to the perineum for pain relief following perineal trauma sustained during childbirth. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (7 October 2019) and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Published and unpublished randomised and quasi-randomised trials (RCTs) that compared a localised cooling treatment applied to the perineum with no treatment, placebo, or another cooling treatment applied to relieve pain related to perineal trauma sustained during childbirth. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Data were double checked for accuracy. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included 10 RCTs that enrolled 1233 women randomised to the use of one cooling treatment (ice, cold gel pad, cooling plus compression, cooling plus compression plus (being) horizontal) compared with another cooling treatment, no treatment, or placebo (water pack, compression). The included trials were at low or uncertain risk of bias overall, with the exception that the inability to blind participants and personnel to group allocation meant that we rated all trials at unclear or high risk for this domain. We undertook a number of comparisons to evaluate the different treatments. Cooling treatment (ice pack or cold gel pad) versus no treatment There was limited very low-certainty evidence that cooling treatment may reduce women's self-reported perineal pain within four to six hours (mean difference (MD) -4.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) -5.07 to -3.85 on a 10-point scale; 1 study, 100 participants) or between 24 and 48 hours of giving birth (risk ratio (RR) 0.73, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.94; 1 study, 316 participants). The evidence is very uncertain about the various measures of wound healing, for example, wound edges gaping when inspected five days after giving birth (RR 2.56, 95% CI 0.58 to 11.33; 1 study, 315 participants). Women generally rated their satisfaction with perineal care similarly following cooling or no treatment. The potential exception was that there may be a trivially lower mean difference of -0.1 on a five-point scale of psychospiritual comfort with cooling treatment, that is unlikely to be of clinical importance. Cooling treatment (cold gel pad) + compression versus placebo (gel pad + compression) There was limited low-certainty evidence that there may be a trivial MD of -0.43 in pain on a 10-point scale at 24 to 48 hours after giving birth (95% CI -0.73 to -0.13; 1 study, 250 participants) when a cooling treatment plus compression from a well-secured perineal pad was compared with the placebo. Levels of perineal oedema may be similar for the two groups (low-certainty evidence) and perineal bruising was not observed. There was low-certainty evidence that women may rate their satisfaction as being slightly higher with perineal care in the cold gel pad and compression group (MD 0.88, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.38; 1 trial, 250 participants). Cooling treatment (ice pack) versus placebo (water pack) One study reported that no women reported pain after using an ice pack or a water pack when asked within 24 hours of giving birth. There was low-certainty evidence that oedema may be similar for the two groups when assessed at four to six hours (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.50 to 1.86; 1 study, 63 participants) or within 24 hours of giving birth (RR 0.36, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.59). No women were observed to have perineal bruising at these times. The trialists reported that no women in either group experienced any adverse effects on wound healing. There was very low-certainty evidence that women may rate their views and experiences with the treatments similarly (for example, satisfied with treatment: RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.08; 63 participants). Cooling treatment (ice pack) versus cooling treatment (cold gel pad) The evidence is very uncertain about the effects of using ice packs or cold gel pads on women's self-rated perineal pain, on perineal bruising, or on perineal oedema at four to six hours or within 24 hours of giving birth. Perineal oedema may persist 24 to 48 hours after giving birth in women using the ice packs (RR 1.69, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.7; 2 trials, 264 participants; very low-certainty). The risk of gaping wound edges five days after giving birth may be decreased in women who had used ice packs (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.05 to 1.01; 215 participants; very low-certainty). However, this did not appear to persist to day 10 (RR 3.06, 95% CI 0.63 to 14.81; 214 participants). Women may rate their opinion of treatment less favourably following the use of ice packs five days after giving birth (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.68; 1 study, 49 participants) and when assessed on day 10 (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.92; 1 study, 208 participants), both very low-certainty. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is limited very low-certainty evidence that may support the use of cooling treatments, in the form or ice packs or cold gel pads, for the relief of perineal pain in the first two days following childbirth. It is likely that concurrent use of several treatments is required to adequately address this issue, including prescription and non-prescription analgesia. Studies included in this review involved the use of cooling treatments for 10 to 20 minutes, and although no adverse effects were noted, these findings came from studies of relatively small numbers of women, or were not reported at all. The continued lack of high-certainty evidence of the benefits of cooling treatments should be viewed with caution, and further well-designed trials should be conducted.


Assuntos
Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Períneo/lesões , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotermia Induzida/efeitos adversos , Manejo da Dor/efeitos adversos , Parto , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 156: 103093, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To review and summarize the available literature on the management of chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) including complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and to present CIA's effect on quality of life (QoL). METHODS: Nine databases were searched for CIA-related keywords, including the effect on QoL, and management options. Among 1019 articles found, 54 articles focusing on treatment/prevention or QoL were retrieved. References of selected articles were also checked manually. RESULTS: CIA was found to negatively affect QoL and body image, regardless of head covering status (i.e., for cultural or religious reasons). Most studies related to treatment/prevention of CIA reported on the use of scalp-cooling. The efficacy of CAM treatments was found to be questionable. CONCLUSION: A high incidence rate of CIA exists with certain chemotherapies, and it significantly impairs QoL. Preventive and treatment strategies are incompletely effective. Additional literature is needed to explore potential preventive or therapeutic options for CIA.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Hipotermia Induzida , Alopecia/induzido quimicamente , Alopecia/tratamento farmacológico , Alopecia/epidemiologia , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Couro Cabeludo
13.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5061-5064, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019124

RESUMO

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common dose-limiting adverse effect of neurotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. Recent studies have suggested clinical utility of limb hypothermia in reducing CIPN. However, conventional cooling methods such as ice packs are unable to provide thermoregulated cooling and cause frostbites. Cooling modalities offering thermoregulation have been developed for sports injury and orthopaedic indications, but not explored for preventing CIPN. This study aims to determine the safety, tolerability and optimal parameters of three cooling modalities for delivery of limb hypothermia in healthy subjects, prior to testing in cancer patients for prevention of CIPN. Healthy subjects underwent limb hypothermia by either: continuous-flow cooling, cryocompression or frozen gloves. Skin temperatures and tolerance scores were monitored. Overall, 58 subjects underwent limb hypothermia. No adverse events were observed barring transient erythema. Both continuous-flow cooling and cryocompression are feasible, safe and tolerable methods for delivery of limb hypothermia. Cryocompression achieved lower skin temperatures than continuous-flow cooling with similar safety profiles. Frozen gloves were minimally tolerated. Cryocompression may provide greater efficacy in preventing CIPN, with clinical trials currently underway.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Hipotermia Induzida , Hipotermia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Extremidades , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/induzido quimicamente
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD006811, 2020 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability, with an estimated 5.5 million people experiencing severe TBI worldwide every year. Observational clinical studies of people with TBI suggest an association between raised body temperature and unfavourable outcome, although this relationship is inconsistent. Additionally, preclinical models suggest that reducing temperature to 35 °C to 37.5 °C improves biochemical and histopathological outcomes compared to reducing temperature to a lower threshold of 33 °C to 35 °C. It is unknown whether reducing body temperature to 35 °C to 37.5 °C in people admitted to hospital with TBI is beneficial, has no effect, or causes harm. This is an update of a review last published in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of pharmacological interventions or physical interventions given with the intention of reducing body temperature to 35 °C to 37.5 °C in adults and children admitted to hospital after TBI. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and PubMed on 28 November 2019. We searched clinical trials registers, grey literature and references lists of reviews, and we carried out forward citation searches of included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with participants of any age admitted to hospital following TBI. We included interventions that aimed to reduce body temperature to 35 °C to 37.5 °C: these included pharmacological interventions (such as paracetamol, or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), or physical interventions (such as surface cooling devices, bedside fans, or cooled intravenous fluids). Eligible comparators were placebo or usual care. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risks of bias. We assessed the certainty of the evidence with GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We included one RCT with 41 participants. This study recruited adult participants admitted to two intensive care units in Australia, and evaluated a pharmacological intervention. Researchers gave participants 1 g paracetamol or a placebo intravenously at four-hourly intervals for 72 hours. We could not be certain whether intravenous paracetamol influenced mortality at 28 days (risk ratio 2.86, 95% confidence interval 0.32 to 25.24). We judged the evidence for this outcome to be very low certainty, meaning we have very little confidence in this effect estimate, and the true result may be substantially different to this effect. We downgraded the certainty for imprecision (because the evidence was from a single study with very few participants), and study limitations (because we noted a high risk of selective reporting bias). This study was otherwise at low risk of bias. The included study did not report the primary outcome for this review, which was the number of people with a poor outcome at the end of follow-up (defined as death or dependency, as measured on a scale such as the Glasgow Outcome Score), or any of our secondary outcomes, which included the number of people with further intracranial haemorrhage, extracranial haemorrhage, abnormal intracranial pressure, or pneumonia or other serious infections. The only other completed trial that we found was of a physical intervention that compared advanced fever control (using a surface cooling device) versus conventional fever control in 12 participants. The trial was published as an abstract only, with insufficient details to allow inclusion, so we have added this to the 'studies awaiting classification' section, pending further information from the study authors or publication of the full study report. We identified four ongoing studies that will contribute evidence to future updates of the review if they measure relevant outcomes and, in studies with a mixed population, report data separately for participants with TBI. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: One small study contributed very low-certainty evidence for mortality to this review. The uncertainty is largely driven by limited research into reduction of body temperature to 35 °C to 37.5 °C in people with TBI. Further research that evaluates pharmacological or physical interventions, or both, may increase certainty in this field. We propose that future updates of the review, and ongoing and future research in this field, incorporate outcomes that are important to the people receiving the interventions, including side effects of any pharmacological agent (e.g. nausea or vomiting), and discomfort caused by physical therapies.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Antipiréticos/administração & dosagem , Temperatura Corporal , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Adulto , Viés , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/mortalidade , Humanos , Hipotermia Induzida/mortalidade , Injeções Intravenosas , Placebos
15.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(35): 2785-2790, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972061

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effect of mild hypothermia therapy on liver after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Methods: Thirty-three inbred Chinese Wuzhishan (WZS) minipigs, weighted (28±2) kg, were used to establish a ventricular fibrillation model. And 30 animals survived after cardiopulmonary resuscitation reached basic life support. The surviving animals were randomly divided into two groups: mild hypothermia group (group M, n=15) and conventional treatment group (group C, n=15). All the animals were observed for 24 hours. Blood samples were extracted at baseline, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 h after successful resuscitation. The concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were detected at the time points. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). The data were compared between the two groups, LSD test was used when the variance was homogeneous, and Tamhane T2 test was used when the variance was uneven. Results: Eleven pigs (73.3%) in the group M and 8(53.3%) in the group C survived at 24 h after successful resuscitation, with no statistically significant difference between the two groups (χ(2)=1.229, P=0.225). After successful resuscitation, the AST, ALT increased in both group but less in M group (all P<0.05). After successful resuscitation, the concentrations of TFN-α and IL-6 in the blood increased in both groups, reached the peak at 4h, and then decreased gradually. The concentrations of TFN-α in group M were lower than those in group C at 0.5, 2, 4 and 6 h after successful resuscitation (t=0.01, 0.01, 0.87, 0.86, all P<0.05). The concentrations of IL-6 in the group M were lower than those in group C at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h after successful resuscitation (t=0.23, 0.78, 0.11, 0.80, all P<0.05). Conclusions: After successful resuscitation, the release of inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α and IL-6, and cell apoptosis may involve in liver ischemia reperfusion injury. After successful resuscitation, the liver undergoes ischemia-reperfusion injury, which may be related to the release of inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α and IL-6. Mild hypothermia therapy can prevent the release of TNF-α, IL-6 to reduce the degree of liver damage after resuscitation.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Hipotermia Induzida , Hipotermia , Animais , Fígado , Suínos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Fibrilação Ventricular
16.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(4): 755-769, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981615

RESUMO

There are approximately 350,000 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests and 200,000 in-hospital cardiac arrests annually in the United States, with survival rates of approximately 5% to 10% and 24%, respectively. The critical factors that have an impact on cardiac arrest survival include prompt recognition and activation of prehospital care, early cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and rapid defibrillation. Advanced life support protocols are continually refined to optimize intracardiac arrest management and improve survival with favorable neurologic outcome. This article focuses on current treatment recommendations for adult nontraumatic cardiac arrest, with emphasis on the latest evidence and controversies regarding intracardiac arrest management.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Antiarrítmicos/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Diástole , Ecocardiografia , Cardioversão Elétrica , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Epinefrina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Hipotermia Induzida , Infusões Intraósseas , Infusões Intravenosas , Monitorização Fisiológica , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Vasoconstritores/administração & dosagem
17.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(4): 819-839, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981620

RESUMO

Pediatric cardiac arrest is a relatively rare but devastating presentation in infants and children. In contrast to adult patients, in whom a primary cardiac dysrhythmia is the most likely cause of cardiac arrest, pediatric patients experience cardiovascular collapse most frequently after an initial respiratory arrest. Aggressive treatment in the precardiac arrest state should be initiated to prevent deterioration and should focus on support of oxygenation, ventilation, and hemodynamics, regardless of the presumed cause. Unfortunately, outcomes for pediatric cardiac arrest, whether in hospital or out of hospital, continue to be poor.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Ressuscitação/métodos , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Glicemia/análise , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/terapia , Cardioversão Elétrica , Eletroencefalografia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/terapia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Hipotermia/complicações , Hipotermia/terapia , Hipotermia Induzida , Pneumopatias/terapia , Pais , Exame Físico , Envenenamento/terapia , Avaliação de Processos em Cuidados de Saúde , Valores de Referência , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Taxa Respiratória , Ordens quanto à Conduta (Ética Médica) , Sepse/terapia , Choque/etiologia , Choque/terapia , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
18.
Nursing ; 50(10): 24-30, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947373

RESUMO

This article provides nurses with up-to-date evidence to empower them in contributing to the 33°C versus 36°C discussion in postcardiac arrest targeted temperature management (TTM). Presented in debate format, this article addresses the pros and cons of various target temperatures, examines the evidence around TTM, and applies it to clinical scenarios.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca/enfermagem , Hipotermia Induzida/enfermagem , Temperatura Corporal , Enfermagem Baseada em Evidências , Parada Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21452, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) for patients following cardiac arrest with non-shockable rhythm is debated. We plan to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis with all available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to explore the efficacy and safety of TH in in this population. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library will be searched to identify RCTs published from inception through December 2020 without language restriction. Patients following cardiac arrest due to non-shockable rhythm will be included. The primary outcome is the hospital mortality. The secondary outcome is the favorable neurological outcome. The pooled effects will be analyzed as mean differences using the inverse-variance method for continuous data or as risk ratios using the Mantel-Haenszel method for dichotomous data. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses will be conducted. The Egger's test and/or the funnel plot will be used to test the publication bias. The grades of recommendation assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) methodology will be used to assess the quality of evidence. The trial sequential analysis will be used to test whether the meta-analysis is conclusive. RESULTS: The RCTs on the effectiveness of TH for patients following cardiac arrest with non-shockable rhythm will be systematically reviewed and advance evidence will be provided. CONCLUSION: Advanced evidence of TH for cardiac arrest due to non-shockable rhythm will be provided for physicians. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020161823.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca/complicações , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Segurança , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 29(8): 1011-1016, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820870

RESUMO

Despite the progress in perinatal care, perinatal asphyxia (PA) remains a significant problem in neonatology. The development of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has improved the prognosis, but it still remains uncertain in hypoxic neonates. The evaluation of the severity of ischemia/hypoxia after birth is crucial to the choice of treatment, and with accurate long-term prognosis, appropriate further patient care can be planned. This article presents various methods for the preliminary assessment of brain damage and prognosis in newborns with PA treated with TH. The importance of assessing the neurological condition and the usefulness of laboratory and electrophysiological testing and imaging are discussed. New methods are also noted, which are at the stage of clinical trials. A combination of the prognostic tests presented in this article can provide greater prognostic accuracy for predicting long-term neurological outcomes in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) undergoing TH than either of these tests independently. Acknowledging the limitations of individual tools in certain clinical situations and the integration of the information available from multiple biomarkers may help improve the accuracy of prognostication.


Assuntos
Asfixia Neonatal , Hipotermia Induzida , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica , Asfixia , Asfixia Neonatal/complicações , Asfixia Neonatal/diagnóstico , Asfixia Neonatal/terapia , Humanos , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Prognóstico
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