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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(40): 1437-1442, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031362

RESUMO

During 2018, estimated incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among Hispanic and Latino (Hispanic/Latino) persons in the United States was four times that of non-Hispanic White persons (1). Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) accounted for 24% (138,023) of U.S. MSM living with diagnosed HIV infection at the end of 2018 (1). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence is crucial for viral suppression, which improves health outcomes and prevents HIV transmission (2). Barriers to ART adherence among Hispanic/Latino MSM have been explored in limited contexts (3); however, nationally representative analyses are lacking. The Medical Monitoring Project reports nationally representative estimates of behavioral and clinical experiences of U.S. adults with diagnosed HIV infection. This analysis used Medical Monitoring Project data collected during 2015-2019 to examine ART adherence and reasons for missing ART doses among HIV-positive Hispanic/Latino MSM (1,673). On a three-item ART adherence scale with 100 being perfect adherence, 77.3% had a score of ≥85. Younger age, poverty, recent drug use, depression, and unmet needs for ancillary services were predictors of lower ART adherence. The most common reason for missing an ART dose was forgetting; 63.9% of persons who missed ≥1 dose reported more than one reason. Interventions that support ART adherence and access to ancillary services among Hispanic/Latino MSM might help improve clinical outcomes and reduce transmission.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Adesão à Medicação/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Natl Vital Stat Rep ; 69(9): 1-11, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054916

RESUMO

Objective-This report presents 2017-2018 infant mortality rates in the United States by maternal prepregnancy body mass index, and by infant age at death, maternal age, and maternal race and Hispanic origin. Methods-Descriptive tabulations of infant deaths by maternal and infant characteristics are presented using the 2017-2018 linked period birth/infant death files; the linked period birth/infant death file is based on birth and death certificates registered in all states and the District of Columbia. The 2017 linked birth/infant death file is the first year that national data on maternal prepregnancy body mass index were available. Results-Total infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality rates were lowest for infants of women who were normal weight prepregnancy, and then rose with increasing prepregnancy body mass index. Total, neonatal, and postneonatal rates were higher for infants of women who were underweight prepregnancy compared with infants of women who were normal or overweight before pregnancy. Mortality rates for infants of underweight women were generally, but not exclusively, lower than those of infants born to women with obesity. Infants born to women of normal weight generally had lower mortality rates than infants born to women who had obesity prepregnancy for all maternal age and race and Hispanic-origin groups.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Adulto , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/etnologia , Idade Materna , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Natl Vital Stat Rep ; 69(10): 1-12, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054922

RESUMO

Objectives-This report describes the methodology used in the preparation of the 2009-2011 decennial life tables for the United States by race, Hispanic origin, and sex based on the age-specific death rates for the period 2009-2011, appearing in the report, "U.S. Decennial Life Tables for 2009-2011, United States Life Tables" (1). Methods-Data used to prepare these life tables include population data by age on the census date April 1, 2010; deaths occurring in the 3-year period 2009-2011 classified by age at death; births for each of the years 2007-2011; and Medicare data for ages 66-99 for the 3 years 2009-2011. The methods used differ from those applied to the 1999-2001 decennial life tables in the estimation of mortality for ages 66 and over. For the total, white, black, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black populations, the method developed for the U.S. annual life tables beginning with data year 2008 was used. It consists of the application of the Kannisto logistic model to smooth death rates in the age range 85-99 and predict death rates for ages 100-120 (2,3). For the Hispanic population, which is added to the decennial series for the first time with the 2009-2011 set, the method developed for the U.S. annual life tables beginning with data year 2006 was used. This method consists of using the Brass relational logit model to estimate mortality for ages 80-120 (4).


Assuntos
Tábuas de Vida , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Censos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Natl Vital Stat Rep ; 69(8): 1-73, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054929

RESUMO

Objectives-This report presents period life tables for the United States, based on age-specific death rates for the period 2009-2011. These tables are the most recent in a 110-year series of decennial life tables for the United States. Methods-This report presents complete life tables for the United States by race, Hispanic origin, and sex, based on age- specific death rates during 2009-2011. This is the first set of life tables by Hispanic origin presented in the U.S. decennial life table series. Data used to prepare these life tables include population estimates based on the 2010 decennial census; deaths occurring in the United States to U.S. residents in the 3 years 2009 through 2011; counts of U.S. resident births in the years 2007 through 2011; and population and death counts from the Medicare program for years 2009 through 2011. The methodology used to estimate life tables for the Hispanic population is based on the method first implemented with the 2006 annual U.S. life tables by Hispanic origin. The methodology used to estimate the life tables for all other groups is based on the method first implemented with the 2008 annual U.S. life tables. Results-During 2009-2011, life expectancy at birth was 78.60 years for the total U.S. population, representing an increase of 29.36 years from a life expectancy of 49.24 years in 1900. Between 1900 and 2010, life expectancy increased by 42.88 years for black females (from 35.04 to 77.92), by 39.21 years for black males (from 32.54 to 71.75), by 30.15 years for white females (from 51.08 to 81.23), and by 28.26 years for white males (from 48.23 to 76.49). During 2009-2011, Hispanic females had the highest life expectancy at birth (84.05), followed by non-Hispanic white females (81.06), Hispanic males (78.83), non-Hispanic black females (77.62), non-Hispanic white males (76.30), and non-Hispanic black males (71.41).


Assuntos
Expectativa de Vida/etnologia , Tábuas de Vida , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Censos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(11): 2787-2789, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050982

RESUMO

We conducted a cohort study to determine sociodemographic risk factors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection among obstetric patients in 2 urban hospitals in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Prevalence of infection was highest among women who were Hispanic, were uninsured, or lived in high-density neighborhoods.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Georgia/epidemiologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Prevalência , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(9): e2015470, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876682

RESUMO

Importance: Home health care is one of the fastest growing postacute services in the US and is increasingly important in the era of coronavirus disease 2019 and payment reform, yet it is unknown whether patients who need home health care are receiving it. Objective: To examine how often patients referred to home health care at hospital discharge receive it and whether there is evidence of disparities. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used Medicare data regarding the postacute home health care setting from October 1, 2015, through September 30, 2016. The participants were Medicare fee-for-service and Medicare Advantage beneficiaries who were discharged alive from a hospital with a referral to home health care (2 379 506 discharges). Statistical analysis was performed from July 2019 to June 2020. Exposures: Hospital referral to home health care. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes included whether discharges received their first home health care visit within 14 days of hospital discharge and the number of days between hospital discharge and the first home health visit. Differences in the likelihood of receiving home health care across patient, zip code, and hospital characteristics were also examined. Results: Among 2 379 506 discharges from the hospital with a home health care referral, 1 358 697 patients (57.1%) were female, 468 762 (19.7%) were non-White, and 466 383 (19.6%) were dually enrolled in Medicare and Medicaid; patients had a mean (SD) age of 73.9 (11.9) years and 4.1 (2.1) Elixhauser comorbidities. Only 1 284 300 patients (54.0%) discharged from the hospital with a home health referral received home health care services within 14 days of discharge. Of the remaining 1 095 206 patients (46.0%) discharged, 37.7% (896 660 discharges) never received any home health care, while 8.3% (198 546 discharges) were institutionalized or died within 14 days without a preceding home health care visit. Patients who were Black or Hispanic received home health at lower rates than did patients who were White (48.0% [95% CI, 47.8%-48.1%] of Black and 46.1% [95% CI, 45.7%-46.5%] of Hispanic discharges received home health within 14 days compared with 55.3% [95% CI, 55.2%-55.4%] of White discharges). In addition, disadvantaged patients waited longer for their first home health care visit. For example, patients living in high-unemployment zip codes waited a mean of 2.0 days (95% CI, 2.0-2.0 days), whereas those living in low-unemployment zip codes waited 1.8 days (95% CI, 1.8-1.8 days). Conclusions and Relevance: Disparities in the use of home health care remain an issue in the US. As home health care is increasingly presented as a safer alternative to institutional postacute care during coronavirus disease 2019, and payment reforms continue to pressure hospitals to discharge patients home, ensuring the availability of safe and equitable care will be crucial to maintaining high-quality care.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare , Medicare Part C , Alta do Paciente , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
7.
Ann Epidemiol ; 49: 61-67, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951805

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nondaily smoking is increasing in the United States and common among Hispanic/Latino smokers. We characterized factors related to longitudinal smoking transitions in Hispanic/Latino nondaily smokers. METHODS: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos is a population-based cohort study of Hispanics/Latinos aged 18-74 years. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the baseline factors (2008-2011) associated with follow-up smoking status (2014-2017) in nondaily smokers (n = 573), accounting for complex survey design. RESULTS: After ∼6 years, 41% of nondaily smokers became former smokers, 22% became daily smokers, and 37% remained nondaily smokers. Factors related to follow-up smoking status were number of days smoked in the previous month, household smokers, education, income, and insurance. Those smoking 16 or more of the last 30 days had increased risk of becoming a daily smoker [vs. < 4 days; relative risk ratio (RRR) = 5.65, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.96-16.33]. Greater education was inversely associated with transitioning to daily smoking [>high school vs.

Assuntos
Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Tabaco/etnologia , Tabagismo/psicologia , Aculturação , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Ansiedade , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Fumantes/psicologia , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Tabagismo/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238262, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886682

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents 15%-20% of all breast cancer types. It is more common among African American (AA) and Hispanic-Latina (HL) women. The biology of TNBC in HL women has been poorly characterized, but some data suggest that the molecular drivers of breast cancer might differ. There are no clinical tools to aid medical oncologists with decisions regarding appropriate individualized therapy, and no way to predict long-term outcomes. The aim of this study was to characterize individual patient gene mutation profiles and to identify the relationship with clinical outcomes. We collected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumors (FFPE) from women with TNBC. We analyzed the gene mutation profiles of the collected tumors and compared the results with individual patient's clinical histories and outcomes. Of 25 patients with TNBC, 24 (96%) identified as HL. Twenty-one (84%) had stage III-IV disease. The most commonly mutated genes were TP53, NOTCH1, NOTCH2, NOTCH3, AKT, MEP3K, PIK3CA, and EGFR. Compared with other international cancer databases, our study demonstrated statistically significant higher frequencies of these genes among HL women. Additionally, a worse clinical course was observed among patients whose tumors had mutations in NOTCH genes and PIK3CA. This study is the first to identify the most common genetic alterations among HL women with TNBC. Our data strongly support the notion that molecular drivers of breast cancer could differ in HL women compared with other ethnic backgrounds. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the biological mechanisms behind NOTCH gene and PIK3CA mutations may lead to a new treatment approach.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/etnologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/genética , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mutação , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/etnologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
10.
J Rural Health ; 36(4): 602-608, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894612

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study compared the average daily increase in COVID-19 mortality rates by county racial/ethnic composition (percent non-Hispanic Black and percent Hispanic) among US rural counties. METHODS: COVID-19 daily death counts for 1,976 US nonmetropolitan counties for the period March 2-July 26, 2020, were extracted from USAFacts and merged with county-level American Community Survey and Area Health Resource File data. Covariates included county percent poverty, age composition, adjacency to a metropolitan county, health care supply, and state fixed effects. Mixed-effects negative binomial regression with random intercepts to account for repeated observations within counties were used to predict differences in the average daily increase in the COVID-19 mortality rate across quartiles of percent Black and percent Hispanic. FINDINGS: Since early March, the average daily increase in the COVID-19 mortality rate has been significantly higher in rural counties with the highest percent Black and percent Hispanic populations. Compared to counties in the bottom quartile, counties in the top quartile of percent Black have an average daily increase that is 70% higher (IRR = 1.70, CI: 1.48-1.95, P < .001), and counties in the top quartile of percent Hispanic have an average daily increase that is 50% higher (IRR = 1.50, CI: 1.33-1.69, P < .001), net of covariates. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 mortality risk is not distributed equally across the rural United States, and the COVID-19 race penalty is not restricted to cities. Among rural counties, the average daily increase in COVID-19 mortality rates has been significantly higher in counties with the largest shares of Black and Hispanic residents.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
11.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003379, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing concern that racial and ethnic minority communities around the world are experiencing a disproportionate burden of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We investigated racial and ethnic disparities in patterns of COVID-19 testing (i.e., who received testing and who tested positive) and subsequent mortality in the largest integrated healthcare system in the United States. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This retrospective cohort study included 5,834,543 individuals receiving care in the US Department of Veterans Affairs; most (91%) were men, 74% were non-Hispanic White (White), 19% were non-Hispanic Black (Black), and 7% were Hispanic. We evaluated associations between race/ethnicity and receipt of COVID-19 testing, a positive test result, and 30-day mortality, with multivariable adjustment for a wide range of demographic and clinical characteristics including comorbid conditions, health behaviors, medication history, site of care, and urban versus rural residence. Between February 8 and July 22, 2020, 254,595 individuals were tested for COVID-19, of whom 16,317 tested positive and 1,057 died. Black individuals were more likely to be tested (rate per 1,000 individuals: 60.0, 95% CI 59.6-60.5) than Hispanic (52.7, 95% CI 52.1-53.4) and White individuals (38.6, 95% CI 38.4-38.7). While individuals from minority backgrounds were more likely to test positive (Black versus White: odds ratio [OR] 1.93, 95% CI 1.85-2.01, p < 0.001; Hispanic versus White: OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.74-1.94, p < 0.001), 30-day mortality did not differ by race/ethnicity (Black versus White: OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.80-1.17, p = 0.74; Hispanic versus White: OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.73-1.34, p = 0.94). The disparity between Black and White individuals in testing positive for COVID-19 was stronger in the Midwest (OR 2.66, 95% CI 2.41-2.95, p < 0.001) than the West (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.11-1.39, p < 0.001). The disparity in testing positive for COVID-19 between Hispanic and White individuals was consistent across region, calendar time, and outbreak pattern. Study limitations include underrepresentation of women and a lack of detailed information on social determinants of health. CONCLUSIONS: In this nationwide study, we found that Black and Hispanic individuals are experiencing an excess burden of SARS-CoV-2 infection not entirely explained by underlying medical conditions or where they live or receive care. There is an urgent need to proactively tailor strategies to contain and prevent further outbreaks in racial and ethnic minority communities.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238356, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A lack of patient-centered communication (PCC) with health providers plays an important role in perpetuating disparities in health care outcomes and experiences for minority men. This study aimed to identify factors associated with any racial differences in the experience of PCC among Black and Latino men in a nationally representative sample. METHODS: We employed a cross-sectional analysis of four indicators of PCC representative of interactions with doctors and nurses from (N = 3082) non-Latino White, Latino, and Black males from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Core and the linked HRS Health Care Mail in Survey (HCMS). Men's mean age was 66.76 years. The primary independent variable was Race/Ethnicity (i.e. Black and Hispanic/Latino compared to white males) and covariates included age, education, marital status, insurance status, place of care, and self-rated health. RESULTS: Bivariate manova analyses revealed racial differences across each of the four facets of PCC experience such that non-Hispanic white men reported PC experiences most frequently followed by black then Hispanic/Latino men. Multivariate linear regressions predictive of PCC by race/ethnicity revealed that for Black men, fewer PCC experiences were predicted by discriminatory experiences, reporting fewer chronic conditions and a lack of insurance coverage. For Hispanic/Latino men, access to a provider proved key where not having a place of usual care solely predicted lower PCC frequency. IMPLICATIONS: Researchers and health practitioners should continue to explore the impact of inadequate health care coverage, time-limited medical visits and implicit racial bias on medical encounters for underrepresented patients, and to advocate for accessible, inclusive and responsive communication between minority male patients and their health providers.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Crônica/terapia , Comunicação , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/normas , Relações Médico-Paciente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Seguimentos , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Prognóstico , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(38): 1337-1342, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970045

RESUMO

During 2018, gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) accounted for 69.4% of all diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the United States (1). Moreover, in all 42 jurisdictions with complete laboratory reporting of CD4 and viral load results,* percentages of MSM linked to care within 1 month (80.8%) and virally suppressed (viral load <200 copies of HIV RNA/mL or interpreted as undetected) within 6 months (68.3%) of diagnosis were below target during 2018 (2). African American/Black (Black), Hispanic/Latino (Hispanic), and younger MSM disproportionately experience HIV diagnosis, not being linked to care, and not being virally suppressed. To characterize trends in these outcomes, CDC analyzed National HIV Surveillance System† data from 2014 to 2018. The number of diagnoses of HIV infection among all MSM decreased 2.3% per year (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.9-2.8). However, diagnoses did not significantly change among either Hispanic MSM or any MSM aged 13-19 years; increased 2.2% (95% CI = 1.0-3.4) and 2.0% (95% CI = 0.6-3.3) per year among Black and Hispanic MSM aged 25-34 years, respectively; and were highest in absolute count among Black MSM. Annual percentages of linkage to care within 1 month and viral suppression within 6 months of diagnosis among all MSM increased (2.9% [95% CI = 2.4-3.5] and 6.8% [95% CI = 6.2-7.4] per year, respectively). These findings, albeit promising, warrant intensified prevention efforts for Black, Hispanic, and younger MSM.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Idade , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Carga Viral/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMJ Open ; 10(8): e039849, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784264

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Data on race and ethnic disparities for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are limited. We analysed sociodemographic factors associated with higher likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection and explore mediating pathways for race and ethnic disparities in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of the COVID-19 Surveillance and Outcomes Registry, which captures data for a large healthcare system, comprising one central tertiary care hospital, seven large community hospitals and an expansive ambulatory/emergency care network in the Greater Houston area. Nasopharyngeal samples for individuals inclusive of all ages, races, ethnicities and sex were tested for SARS-CoV-2. We analysed sociodemographic (age, sex, race, ethnicity, household income, residence population density) and comorbidity (Charlson Comorbidity Index, hypertension, diabetes, obesity) factors. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to provide adjusted OR (aOR) and 95% CI for likelihood of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. Structural equation modelling (SEM) framework was used to explore three mediation pathways (low income, high population density, high comorbidity burden) for the association between non-Hispanic black (NHB) race, Hispanic ethnicity and SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Among 20 228 tested individuals, 1551 (7.7%) tested positive. The overall mean (SD) age was 51.1 (19.0) years, 62% were females, 22% were black and 18% were Hispanic. NHB and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with lower socioeconomic status and higher population density residence. In the fully adjusted model, NHB (vs non-Hispanic white; aOR, 2.23, CI 1.90 to 2.60) and Hispanic ethnicity (vs non-Hispanic; aOR, 1.95, CI 1.72 to 2.20) had a higher likelihood of infection. Older individuals and males were also at higher risk of infection. The SEM framework demonstrated a significant indirect effect of NHB and Hispanic ethnicity on SARS-CoV-2 infection mediated via a pathway including residence in densely populated zip code. CONCLUSIONS: There is strong evidence of race and ethnic disparities in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic that are potentially mediated through unique social determinants of health.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Fatores Raciais , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Densidade Demográfica , Vigilância da População , Sistema de Registros , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Texas/epidemiologia
18.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate racial and/or ethnic and socioeconomic differences in rates of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among children. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of children tested for SARS-CoV-2 at an exclusively pediatric drive-through and walk-up SARS-CoV-2 testing site from March 21, 2020, to April 28, 2020. We performed bivariable and multivariable logistic regression to measure the association of patient race and/or ethnicity and estimated median family income (based on census block group estimates) with (1) SARS-CoV-2 infection and (2) reported exposure to SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Of 1000 children tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection, 20.7% tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. In comparison with non-Hispanic white children (7.3%), minority children had higher rates of infection (non-Hispanic Black: 30.0%, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-4.4]; Hispanic: 46.4%, aOR 6.3 [95% CI 3.3-11.9]). In comparison with children in the highest median family income quartile (8.7%), infection rates were higher among children in quartile 3 (23.7%; aOR 2.6 [95% CI 1.4-4.9]), quartile 2 (27.1%; aOR 2.3 [95% CI 1.2-4.3]), and quartile 1 (37.7%; aOR 2.4 [95% CI 1.3-4.6]). Rates of reported exposure to SARS-CoV-2 also differed by race and/or ethnicity and socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of children tested for SARS-CoV-2 through a community-based testing site, racial and/or ethnic minorities and socioeconomically disadvantaged children carry the highest burden of infection. Understanding and addressing the causes of these differences are needed to mitigate disparities and limit the spread of infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Epidemias , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Fatores Raciais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Public Health Rep ; 135(5): 685-690, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Racial/ethnic disparities in HIV diagnosis rates remain despite the availability of effective treatment and prevention tools in the United States. In 2019, President Trump announced the "Ending the HIV Epidemic: A Plan for America" (EHE) initiative to reduce new HIV infections in the United States at least 75% by 2025 and at least 90% by 2030. The objective of this study was to show the potential effect of the EHE initiative on racial/ethnic disparities in HIV diagnosis rates at the national level. METHODS: We used 2017 HIV diagnoses data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National HIV Surveillance System. We developed a counterfactual scenario to determine changes in racial/ethnic disparities if the 2017 HIV diagnosis rates were reduced by 75% in the geographic regions targeted by the EHE initiative. We used 4 measures to calculate results: rate ratio, population-attributable proportion (PAP), Gini coefficient, and Index of Disparity. RESULTS: The relative measures of racial/ethnic disparity decreased by 9%-21% in the EHE scenario compared with the 2017 HIV diagnoses data. The largest decrease was in the Hispanic/Latino:white rate ratio (-20.6%) and in the black:white rate ratio (-18.2%). The PAP measure decreased by 11.5%. The absolute versions of the Index of Disparity (unweighted and weighted) were approximately 50% lower in the EHE scenario than in the 2017 HIV diagnoses data. CONCLUSIONS: EHE efforts could reduce but will not eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in HIV diagnosis rates. Efforts to address racial/ethnic disparities should continue, and innovative approaches, specifically those that focus on social and structural factors, should be developed and implemented for populations that are disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States.


Assuntos
Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237504, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk perception (RP) describes patient´s judgment of the likelihood of experiencing something unpleasant, and has been associated to the adoption of health behaviors. Current rheumatoid arthritis (RA) guidelines recommend early and intensive treatment, although patients also commonly use Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). We aimed to investigate if significant RP was associated to CAM use in Hispanic RA outpatients and to describe additional associated factors. METHODS: Between March and August 2019, 266 consecutive outpatients were invited to a face-to-face interview to collect socio-demographic and RA-related information, to assess comorbidity and the following patient-reported-outcomes: pain, overall-disease and treatment adherence with visual analogue scales, disease activity with RAPID-3, RP with a validated questionnaire, and CAM use with a translated and cross-culturally adapted for Argentina version of the International CAM questionnaire. Medical records were reviewed to corroborate the data provided by the patients. CAM use definition was restricted to "in the last 3 months". Significant RP was defined based on published cut-off. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors associated to CAM use. The study received IRB approval. RESULTS: There were 246 patients included, primarily middle-aged women, with substantial disease duration, moderate disease activity and 70 patients (28.5%) had significant RP. Two hundreds patients (81.3%) were CAM users. Significant RP (OR: 2.388, 95%CI: 1.044-5.464, p = 0.039) and access to Federal health care system (OR: 2.916, 95%CI: 1.081-7.866, p = 0.035) were associated to CAM use. CONCLUSIONS: Patient´s perception of RA-related negative consequences was associated to recent CAM use in Hispanic RA outpatients.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/terapia , Terapias Complementares/métodos , Terapias Complementares/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Argentina , Artrite Reumatoide/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Inquéritos e Questionários
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