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1.
N C Med J ; 81(1): 14-22, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31908326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic that began in 2015 presented a risk for ZIKV infection among persons who traveled to ZIKV-affected countries. Latinas in North Carolina and their sexual partners may be exposed to ZIKV when traveling to these regions.METHODS We administered a cross-sectional survey, measuring ZIKV risk and knowledge, to a convenience sample of 262 reproductive-age Latinas attending a Federally Qualified Health Center in rural North Carolina. We described ZIKV risk and knowledge in the sample, and compared responses between those who were pregnant or recently pregnant, and those who were not pregnant. We further identified factors associated with 1) awareness of ZIKV and 2) high knowledge of ZIKV sequelae and prevention among those who were aware of ZIKV, using log-binomial regression.RESULTS Two-thirds of participants had ever heard of ZIKV, which was positively associated with educational attainment. Most participants aware of ZIKV had moderate/high knowledge of ZIKV transmission (92.5%) and symptoms (73.2%), but knowledge of preventing sexual and congenital transmission was limited. Travel was infrequent among pregnant or recently pregnant participants (5.4%) and their partners (7.1%). Despite low risk for ZIKV infection, participants were willing to practice ZIKV prevention.LIMITATIONS Our study is limited by a lack of generalizability to Latinas in other regions of the country, self-reporting bias, and lack of survey validation as an indicator of English language proficiency.CONCLUSIONS Providers should identify patients likely to become pregnant and travel to high-risk areas, inquire about partner travel history, and offer culturally appropriate ZIKV risk counseling.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Infecção por Zika virus/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , North Carolina , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Serviços de Saúde Rural
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(40): 873, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851655

RESUMO

National Latinx AIDS Awareness Day, October 15, is observed each year to focus on the continuing and disproportionate impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) on Hispanics/Latinos in the United States. In 2017, 26% of newly diagnosed HIV infections occurred in Hispanics/Latinos (1). Seventy-five percent of these newly diagnosed HIV infections in Hispanics/ Latinos were in men who have sex with men (MSM), and an additional 3% were in MSM who inject drugs (1).


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/etnologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Aniversários e Eventos Especiais , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Health Serv Res ; 54 Suppl 2: 1409-1418, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667831

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination among Latinos in the United States, which broadly contribute to their poor health outcomes. DATA SOURCE AND STUDY DESIGN: Data come from a nationally representative, probability-based telephone survey including 803 Latinos and a comparison group of 902 non-Hispanic white US adults, conducted January-April 2017. METHODS: We calculated the percent of Latinos reporting discrimination in several domains, including health care. We used logistic regression to compare the Latino-white difference in odds of discrimination, and among Latinos only to examine variation by socioeconomic status and country of birth. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One in five Latinos (20 percent) reported experiencing discrimination in clinical encounters, while 17 percent avoided seeking health care for themselves or family members due to anticipated discrimination. A notable share of Latinos also reported experiencing discrimination with employment (33 percent applying for jobs; 32 percent obtaining equal pay/promotions), housing (31 percent), and police interactions (27 percent). In adjusted models, Latinos had significantly higher odds than whites for reporting discrimination in health care visits (OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 1.61, 6.26) and across several other domains. Latinos with college degrees had significantly higher odds of reporting discrimination in multiple domains than those without college degrees, with few differences between foreign-born and US-born Latinos. CONCLUSIONS: Latinos in the United States report experiencing widespread discrimination in health care and other areas of their lives, at significantly higher levels than whites. Being born in the United States and earning a college degree are not protective against discrimination, suggesting that further health and social policy efforts to eliminate discrimination are needed.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Racismo/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telefone , Estados Unidos
4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1429, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The feminization and ethnic diversification of HIV infection, has resulted in a call for gender- and culture-specific prevention strategies for at-risk groups including Latinos in the United States. The steadily changing demographic profile of the AIDS epidemic challenges prevention strategies to remain relevant and up-to-date, particularly in populations of women midlife and older where an understanding of risk remains under explored. As the CDC requests country-specific HIV risk profiles for Latino communities in the US, understanding the socio-economic, behavioral and personal risk reasons of HIV risk for older Dominican women is critical for prevention. METHODS: We conducted focus group discussions informed by the Theory of Gender and Power (TGP). The three constructs of the TGP: 1) Affective influences/social norms; 2) Gender-specific norms and. 3) Power and Authority guided the thematic analysis and identified themes that described the socio-cultural and contextual reasons that that contribute to perceptions of HIV risk. RESULTS: Sixty Dominican American women ages 57-73 participated in our focus group discussions. Sexual Division of Labour: 1) Economic Dependence; 2) Financial Need and 3) Education and Empowerment. Sexual Division of Power: 4) HIV Risk and 5) Relationship Dynamics. Cathexis: Affective Influences/Social Norms: 6) HIV/AIDS Knowledge and 7) Prevention and Testing. Importantly, participants were concerned about partner fidelity when visiting the Dominican Republic, as the country accounts for the second highest HIV rates in the Caribbean. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm previous findings about perceptions of HIV risk and provide additional insight into aging-related aspects of HIV risk for Latino women midlife and older.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Idoso , República Dominicana/etnologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Estados Unidos
5.
Eat Behav ; 35: 101336, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731234

RESUMO

The Power of Food Scale (PFS) is an instrument designed to examine individual differences in the drive to eat for pleasure (as opposed to in response to physiological hunger) and the effect of living in an obesogenic environment. Previous research supports the validity and reliability of the PFS, however, it had yet to be validated in an ethnically diverse college sample. The purpose of the current study was to test the factor structure and measurement invariance of the PFS across gender, ethnicity, and weight status. A sample of 432 college students completed the PFS (males=113, females = 319; non-Hispanic white=181, Hispanic=251; non-overweight=302, overweight=130). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test a second-order, 3-factor (food available, food present, food tasted) structure of the PFS in each group separately (males, females, Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, non-overweight, and overweight) and tests of measurement invariance were conducted to test the equivalency of the measure across gender, ethnicity, and weight status. Results supported the measure's original factor structure (second-order, 3-factor model) and indicated that the measure is equivalent across each of these groups, respectively. Although the small, unbalanced groups may impact the stability of the findings, the results nonetheless suggest that the PFS is a psychometrically valid measure in a diverse college sample, and that mean comparisons on this measure are meaningful across gender, ethnicity, and weight status. Given the measurement invariance of the PFS, there is support for use of the PFS among diverse college students in future work.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Fatorial , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Mexico , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1458, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The overweight/obesity epidemic is a public health issue in the United States (US), that disproportionately affect certain racial/ethnic minority groups. Perceived discrimination has been implicated as a health risk factor. However, research on race/ethnicity, perceived discrimination, and obesity has been mixed. Researchers suggest that perceptions of discrimination may be dependent upon nativity status. This study evaluated the role that nativity status and race/ethnicity play in the relationship between perceived discrimination and overweight/obesity. METHODS: We used Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005) [N = 33,319]). Multinomial logistic regression assessed a three-way interaction (perceived discrimination × race/ethnicity × nativity) on overweight and obesity, adjusting for sociodemographic factors and health-related behaviors. RESULTS: The three-way interaction was significant for overweight [F (17, 49) = 3.35; p < 0.001] and obesity [F (17, 49) = 5.05; p < 0.001]. Among US-born individuals, US-born non-Hispanic Blacks had a decreased risk of being obese compared to US-born non-Hispanic Whites at mean levels of perceived discrimination [aRRR = 0.71; 95% CI (0.51-0.98); p = 0.04). Among foreign-born individuals, foreign-born South Americans had an increased risk of being overweight at mean levels of perceived discrimination compared to foreign-born non-Hispanic Whites [aRRR = 8.07; 95% CI (1.68-38.77); p = 0.01], whereas foreign-born Dominicans had a decreased risk of being obese compared to foreign-born non-Hispanic Whites [aRRR = 0.05; 95% CI (0.01-0.20); p < 0.001]. CONCLUSION: Perceived racial discrimination is a risk factor for overweight/obesity for certain groups. Race/ethnicity and nativity may play important roles in the relationship between perceived discrimination and overweight/obesity. Future research is needed to identify the behavioral and psychological pathways that link perceived discrimination and overweight/obesity.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Percepção , Fatores de Risco , Discriminação Social/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(40): 873-879, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600183

RESUMO

Correct and consistent condom use and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are protective against sexual transmission of HIV (1,2). The incidence of HIV infection among Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States is increasing (3). HIV risk among Hispanic/Latino MSM differs based on their place of birth and years of U.S. residence (4). Data from CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS)* for 2011-2017 were analyzed to assess changes in sexual risk behaviors among Hispanic/Latino MSM by place of birth and years of U.S. residence. Overall, condomless anal sex during the previous 12 months increased from 63% in 2011 to 74% in 2017, and PrEP use during the previous 12 months increased from 3% in 2014 to 24% in 2017. Regardless of place of birth, nearly 75% of Hispanic/Latino MSM reported condomless anal sex during 2017. However, because of PrEP use, <60% of non-U.S.-born Hispanic/Latino MSM and <50% of U.S.-born Hispanic/Latino MSM reported unprotected anal sex (condomless anal sex and no PrEP use) during 2017. Results indicate that PrEP can be a vital tool for reducing HIV transmission among Hispanic/Latino MSM, especially those who have condomless anal sex. Interventions to prevent HIV acquisition, including increasing PrEP uptake, could address cultural and linguistic needs of Hispanic/Latino MSM, as well as other barriers to prevention of HIV infection typically faced by all MSM.


Assuntos
Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Assunção de Riscos , Sexo sem Proteção/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(37): 801-806, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536484

RESUMO

In 2017, preliminary data show that gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) accounted for 67% of new diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, that MSM who inject drugs accounted for an additional 3%, and that African American/black (black) and Hispanic/Latino (Hispanic) MSM were disproportionately affected (1). During 2010-2015, racial/ethnic disparities in HIV incidence increased among MSM; in 2015, rates among black and Hispanic MSM were 10.5 and 4.9 times as high, respectively, as the rate among white MSM (compared with 9.2 and 3.8 times as high, respectively, in 2010) (2). Increased use of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which reduces the risk for sexual acquisition of HIV infection by approximately 99% when taken daily as prescribed,* would help to reduce these disparities and support the Ending the HIV Epidemic: A Plan for America initiative† (3). Although PrEP use has increased among all MSM since 2014 (4), racial/ethnic disparities in PrEP use could increase existing disparities in HIV incidence among MSM (5). To understand racial/ethnic disparities in PrEP awareness, discussion with a health care provider, and use (steps in the HIV PrEP continuum of care) (6), CDC analyzed 2017 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) data. Black and Hispanic MSM were significantly less likely than were white MSM to be aware of PrEP, to have discussed PrEP with a health care provider, or to have used PrEP within the past year. Among those who had discussed PrEP with a health care provider within the past year, 68% of white MSM, 62% of Hispanic MSM, and 55% of black MSM, reported PrEP use. Prevention efforts need to increase PrEP use among all MSM and target eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in PrEP use.§.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Med Inform ; 130: 103941, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE: Data-driven interventions for health can help to personalize self-management of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), but lack of sustained engagement with self-monitoring among disadvantaged populations may widen existing health disparities. Prior work developing approaches to increase motivation and engagement with self-monitoring holds promise, but little is known about applicability of these approaches to underserved populations. OBJECTIVE: To explore how low-income, Latino adults with T2D respond to different design concepts for data-driven solutions in health that require self-monitoring, and what features resonate with them the most. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We developed a set of mockups that incorporated different design features for promoting engagement with self-monitoring in T2D. We conducted focus groups to examine individuals' perceptions and attitudes towards mockups. Multiple interdisciplinary researchers analyzed data using directed content analysis. RESULTS: We conducted 14 focus groups with 25 English- and Spanish-speaking adults with T2D. All participants reacted positively to external incentives. Social connectedness and healthcare expert feedback were also well liked because they enhanced current social practices and presented opportunities for learning. However, attitudes were more mixed towards goal setting, and very few participants responded positively to self-discovery and personalized decision support features. Instead, participants wished for personalized recommendations for meals and other health behaviors based on their personal health data. CONCLUSION: This study suggests connections between individuals' degree of internal motivation and motivation for self-monitoring in health and their attitude towards designs of self-monitoring apps. We relate our findings to the self-determination continuum in self-determination theory (SDT) and propose it as a blueprint for aligning incentives for self-monitoring to different levels of motivation.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Monitorização Fisiológica , Motivação , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
Public Health Genomics ; 22(1-2): 58-68, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Translational research in genomics has limited reach and requires efforts to broaden access and utility in diverse populations. Skin cancer is common and rates are rising, including among Hispanics. Germline variants in the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene are common in the population and confer moderate risk for melanoma and basal cell cancers across skin types. Feedback about MC1R risk status may promote skin cancer risk awareness and risk reduction. AIMS: We examined the level of interest in pursuing MC1R testing, and patterns of interest across skin cancer perceived threat and control attitudes, cultural beliefs (family influence on health, health system distrust, cancer fatalism, skin cancer misconceptions), and health literacy. METHODS: We used a study website to inform primary care patients in Albuquerque, NM about the benefits and drawbacks of MC1R testing. Website logon, request of a saliva test kit, and return of the test kit (yes vs. no) were primary assessments of study interest and uptake. RESULTS: Of 499 participants provided with a test offer, 33% requested and returned the test. Lower family influence on participants' health was an important factor both overall and within ethnicity subgroups, and may indicate that primary care patients interested in skin cancer genetic testing see themselves as proactive health seekers, independent from family encouragement. Lower self-efficacy for skin cancer prevention was also an important characteristic of those who tested. CONCLUSION: As evidence for common genetic markers for skin cancer accumulates, these findings suggest characteristics of those most likely to pursue genetic testing for skin cancer risk.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Diversidade Cultural , Alfabetização em Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Melanoma , Psicologia , Receptor Tipo 1 de Melanocortina , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Adulto , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/etnologia , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Mexico/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Receptor Tipo 1 de Melanocortina/análise , Receptor Tipo 1 de Melanocortina/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etnologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/psicologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416123

RESUMO

As a result of various barriers, several pediatric populations are at risk for poor oral health, including children with disabilities and children from under-represented populations, such as Latinos. To this end, this study aimed to better understand the factors that affect the oral health experiences of 32 Latino parents/caregivers from 18 families (n = 8 with a typically developing child and n = 10 with a child with Autism). Using a qualitative descriptive methodology, each family was interviewed twice. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded thematically to identify the individual, social, systemic, and culturally rooted factors contributing to oral health disparities in the families. The three themes that arose were "Why would I want to start trouble?": Latino parents' dissatisfaction with dental treatments, costs, and fear of the dentist and health care providers because of their ethnic minority status as key factors inhibiting receipt of dental care; "We have to put our children first": prioritizing the oral care activities of their children over their own individual oral care needs; and "We always keep baking soda around": familial and cultural influences on oral care habits. Understanding the oral health beliefs and experiences of Latino parents and caregivers of children with and without autism is critical for developing targeted prevention and intervention programs and reducing oral health disparities.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Assistência Odontológica/psicologia , Crianças com Deficiência/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Saúde Bucal , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Criança , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Los Angeles , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia
12.
Sleep Health ; 5(6): 587-591, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422914

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Sleep Health Index was developed to address limitations with existing sleep scales, particularly in the measurement of healthy sleep in non-clinical populations. The purpose of the current study was to examine this measure in relation to two widely-used sleep scales and two standardized stress scales. METHODS: A sample of 416 undergraduate students completed an online survey that included the Sleep Health Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory, Insomnia Severity Index, Perceived Stress Scale, and Index of College Students' Recent Life Events. RESULTS: Sleep health was negatively correlated with self-perceived stress and life-events (-.41 and- .45, respectively), insomnia severity (-.59), and poor sleep quality (-.58). CONCLUSIONS: Although other measures assessing sleep health exist, there is a paucity of data-driven support for their validity. Our findings provide support for the Sleep Health Index as a measure of healthy sleep and demonstrate an association between psychological stress and sleep health in an undergraduate student population.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etnologia , Sono , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(11): 4375-4389, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378833

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to adapt and validate the abbreviated version of the "Autism-Spectrum Quotient" (AQ-Short) in a sample of Spanish native adults. A total of 46 individuals with ASD, 41 ASD-relatives, 17 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 190 non-clinical adults were administered the Spanish version of the AQ-Short. The results of the confirmatory factorial analysis found two high-order factors (Social Behaviour and Numbers/Patterns) and four subscales (Social Skills, Routines, Switching and Imagination). The reliability analysis showed very good internal structure and test-retest reliability. The AQ-Short also showed moderate convergent validity with ADOS-2. Differences by group were found in the ASD group when compared to other groups. Gender differences were only found in the non-clinical group.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Testes Psicológicos/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamento Social , Habilidades Sociais , Traduções , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nurs Res ; 68(5): 348-357, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Through its influence on social interactions, simpatía may have a wide-ranging influence on Latinx health. Simpatía-which does not have a direct English translation-refers to being perceived as likeable, pleasant, and easygoing. Research to investigate the influence simpatía on Latinx health is limited, likely due to a lack of options for measuring simpatía among diverse Latinx populations. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this research was to develop a bilingual, survey-based simpatía scale for use among ethnically diverse Latinx adults in health-related settings. METHODS: Data were obtained through a telephone survey data of 1,296 Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban American adults living in the United States. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish. Exploratory factor analysis, item response theory analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and computation of estimates of internal consistency reliability were conducted to inform the development of the final simpatía scale. RESULTS: Results indicate that the final, nine-item, simpatía scale has high internal consistency (α = .83) and measurement invariance among Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban American adults. Two dimensions were identified, as indicated by a perceptions subscale and a behavior subscale. Cuban Americans were found to have the highest simpatía scores, followed by Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans. DISCUSSION: Culture is often identified as a powerful potential influence on health-related behaviors, but measures are often not available to assess specific cultural traits. By developing a new tool for measuring simpatía, this research advances opportunities for understanding and promoting Latinx health.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Multilinguismo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Idoso , Cuba/etnologia , Características Culturais , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Porto Rico/etnologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estados Unidos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443609

RESUMO

In the U.S., immigrants and racial/ethnic minorities (e.g., Latinos) often report unfavorable neighborhood environments, which may hinder physical activity (PA). Among Latinos, PA levels are disproportionately lower in foreign-born, female, older, and low-education individuals. It is unclear whether these subgroups, including those from multiple disadvantaged backgrounds (e.g., low education, foreign-born), perceive worse neighborhood environments for PA. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine differences in neighborhood environment perceptions among Latinos in the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (N = 4643; 59% foreign-born). Logistic regression models examined nativity-and its interactions with age, gender, and education-in relation to the perceived presence of transportation infrastructure (two items) and destinations (four items), controlling for self-reported walking. Models used sample weights and accounted for the complex survey design. Nativity was not significantly associated with neighborhood environment perceptions. However, nativity interactions with age and education showed the greatest inequities (lowest perceptions) of neighborhood infrastructure (e.g., fewer sidewalks) or destinations (e.g., fewer places to relax) among disadvantaged U.S.-born (older or low education) and advantaged foreign-born (higher education) Latinos. Findings suggest neighborhood perceptions are shaped by complex interactions of nativity with structural (education) and contextual (age) factors. Additional research is needed to complement our findings and inform environmental interventions targeting Latinos.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Características de Residência , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Transportes , Estados Unidos , Caminhada , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1181, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research on Hispanics' activity preferences suggest that they prefer engaging in group-oriented physical activities, such as organized exercise. Yet, little is known about pathways to participation in organized exercise among Hispanics. This study used a reasoned action approach (RAA) framework to explore beliefs and determinants of organized exercise among Hispanics. Specifically, we examined the impact of participants' intentions on reported organized exercise behavior, and the relation between intentions and attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and self-efficacy. METHODS: Our mixed-methods study was part of a larger pre-post design intervention study. Participants completed an interview containing open- and closed-ended questions to identify salient beliefs and practices about attending organized exercise activities. We conducted two separate regression models to assess the effects of intentions on behavior (n = 330) and the associations of RAA constructs on intentions (n = 101), both adjusting for demographics. Qualitative analysis of a sub-sample (n = 105) of responses to open-ended questions identified salient beliefs related to organized exercise attendance. RESULTS: Our results showed that intentions predicted behavior at follow up (IRR = 2.03, p < .05), and that attitudes and perceived behavioral control were associated with intentions (ß = .36, p < .05; ß = .36, p <. 05, respectively). Qualitative findings suggest participants value health and the behavioral benefits of attending organized exercise activities; feel approval from family and friends; and identify transportation, time, distance, and costs as factors that influence their attendance to organized exercise activities. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with theoretical expectations, we identified statistically significant determinants of intentions and attendance to organized exercise. Findings can inform the development of persuasive messages and interventions to promote exercise in low-income Hispanic populations facing obesity disparities.


Assuntos
Exercício/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teoria Psicológica , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Body Image ; 30: 165-169, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374390

RESUMO

Latino sexual minority men (SMM) have elevated anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) misuse in comparison to their heterosexual and non-Latino peers. Within a gender role framework, desire to present as masculine through heightened muscularity may be related to increased AAS misuse. To assess the association between AAS misuse and a culturally-distinct masculinity, this study examined the relationship of two aspects of machismo, traditional machismo and caballerismo, with AAS misuse in the past month. Participants were 141 young adult Latino SMM recruited from the San Diego area. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire online in English or Spanish, which included measures of machismo and AAS misuse. Out of 141 participants, 27 reported AAS misuse (19.1%). Traditional machismo was positively associated with AAS misuse and caballerismo was negatively associated with AAS misuse. Traditional machismo, which emphasizes dominance, may be positively associated with AAS misuse due to its facilitation of muscle development, which could enable physical intimidation; greater musculature may also counteract assumptions about femininity and sexual orientation. Caballerismo may be negatively associated with AAS by providing a flexible masculinity model that emphasizes social cohesion over dominance. Future AAS misuse interventions could include values-based work and cognitive restructuring of masculinity schemas.


Assuntos
Anabolizantes , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Masculinidade , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Congêneres da Testosterona , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(27): 597-603, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298662

RESUMO

In February 2019, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services proposed a strategic initiative to end the human immunodeficiency (HIV) epidemic in the United States by reducing new HIV infections by 90% during 2020-2030* (1). Phase 1 of the Ending the HIV Epidemic initiative focuses on Washington, DC; San Juan, Puerto Rico; and 48 counties where the majority of new diagnoses of HIV infection in 2016 and 2017 were concentrated and on seven states with a disproportionate occurrence of HIV in rural areas relative to other states.† One of the four pillars in the initiative is protecting persons at risk for HIV infection using proven, comprehensive prevention approaches and treatments, such as HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is the use of antiretroviral medications that have proven effective at preventing infection among persons at risk for acquiring HIV. In 2014, CDC released clinical PrEP guidelines to health care providers (2) and intensified efforts to raise awareness and increase the use of PrEP among persons at risk for infection, including gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM), a group that accounted for an estimated 68% of new HIV infections in 2016 (3). Data from CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) were collected in 20 U.S. urban areas in 2014 and 2017, covering 26 of the geographic areas included in Phase I of the Ending the HIV Epidemic initiative, and were compared to assess changes in PrEP awareness and use among MSM. From 2014 to 2017, PrEP awareness increased by 50% overall, with >80% of MSM in 17 of the 20 urban areas reporting PrEP awareness in 2017. Among MSM with likely indications for PrEP (e.g., sexual risk behaviors or recent bacterial sexually transmitted infection [STI]), use of PrEP increased by approximately 500% from 6% to 35%, with significant increases observed in all urban areas and in almost all demographic subgroups. Despite this progress, PrEP use among MSM, especially among black and Hispanic MSM, remains low. Continued efforts to improve coverage are needed to reach the goal of 90% reduction in HIV incidence by 2030. In addition to developing new ways of connecting black and Hispanic MSM to health care providers through demonstration projects, CDC has developed resources and tools such as the Prescribe HIV Prevention program to enable health care providers to integrate PrEP into their clinical care.§ By routinely testing their patients for HIV, assessing HIV-negative patients for risk behaviors, and prescribing PrEP as needed, health care providers can play a critical role in this effort.


Assuntos
Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Med Care ; 57(8): 625-632, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respondents in longitudinal health interview surveys may inconsistently report their chronic diseases across interview waves. Racial/ethnic minority adults have an increased burden of chronic diseases and may dispute chronic disease reports more frequently. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the longitudinal association between race/ethnicity, nativity, and language of interview with disputing previously reported chronic diseases. METHODS: We performed secondary data analysis of nationally representative longitudinal data (Health and Retirement Study, 1998-2010) of adults 51 years or older (n=23,593). We estimated multilevel mixed-effects logistic models of disputes of previously reported chronic disease (hypertension, heart disease, lung disease, diabetes, cancer, stroke, arthritis). RESULTS: Approximately 22% of Health and Retirement Study respondents disputed prior chronic disease self-reports across the entire study period; 21% of non-Latino white, 20.5% of non-Latino black, and 28% of Latino respondents disputed. In subgroup comparisons of model-predicted odds using postestimation commands, Latinos interviewed in Spanish have 34% greater odds of disputing compared with non-Latino whites interviewed in English and 35% greater odds of dispute relative to non-Latino blacks interviewed in English. CONCLUSIONS: The odds of disputing a prior chronic disease report were substantially higher for Latinos who were interviewed in Spanish compared with non-Latino white or black counterparts interviewed in English, even after accounting for other sociodemographic factors, cognitive declines, and time-in-sample considerations. Our findings point toward leveraging of multiple sources of data to triangulate information on chronic disease status as well as investigating potential mechanisms underlying the higher probability of dispute among Spanish-speaking Latino respondents.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Linguagem , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica/etnologia , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/etnologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 990, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary care-based behavior change obesity treatment has long featured the Calorie restriction (CC), portion control approach. By contrast, the MyPlate-based obesity treatment approach encourages eating more high-satiety/high-satiation foods and requires no calorie-counting. This report describes study methods of a comparative effectiveness trial of CC versus MyPlate. It also describes baseline findings involving demographic characteristics and their associations with primary outcome measures and covariates, including satiety/satiation, dietary quality and acculturation. METHODS: A comparative effectiveness trial was designed to compare the CC approach (n = 130) versus a MyPlate-based approach (n = 131) to treating patient overweight. Intervenors were trained community health workers. The 11 intervention sessions included two in-home health education sessions, two group education sessions, and seven telephone coaching sessions. Questionnaire and anthropometric assessments occurred at baseline, 6- and 12 months; food frequency questionnaires were administered at baseline and 12 months. Participants were overweight adult primary care patients of a federally qualified health center in Long Beach, California. Two measures of satiety/satiation and one measure of post-meal hunger comprised the primary outcome measures. Secondary outcomes included weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, dietary quality, sugary beverage intake, water intake, fruit and vegetable fiber intake, mental health and health-related quality of life. Covariates included age, gender, nativity status (U.S.-born, not U.S.-born), race/ethnicity, education, and acculturation. ANALYSIS: Baseline characteristics were compared using chi square tests. Associations between covariates and outcome measures were evaluated using multiple regression and logistic regression. RESULTS: Two thousand eighty-six adult patients were screened, yielding 261 enrollees who were 86% Latino, 8% African American, 4% White and 2% Other. Women predominated (95%). Mean age was 42 years. Most (82%) were foreign-born; 74% chose the Spanish language option. Mean BMI was 33.3 kg/m2; mean weight was 82 kg; mean waist circumference was 102 cm. Mean blood pressure was 122/77 mm. Study arms on key baseline measures did not differ except on dietary quality and sugary beverage intake. Nativity status was significantly associated with dietary quality. CONCLUSIONS: The two treatment arms were well-balanced demographically at baseline. Nativity status is inversely related to dietary quality. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02514889 , posted on 8/4/2015.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Política Nutricional , Pobreza/psicologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , California , Centros Comunitários de Saúde , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Pesquisa Comparativa da Efetividade , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Projetos de Pesquisa
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