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1.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 164-166, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It seems important to understand how was the life of young people during the Antiquity, in the Greek cities and in Rome. Furthermore, it can be useful to find if there is a stage that marks the transition to adulthood. Finally, as the Romans are considerate to be great codifiers of laws, it seems important to study the Roman law to understand the legal conception of adolescence at this period. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A literature review has been done about studies published between 1962 and 2015. Those publications were found in some historical databases (as Persée, Cairns, J-Stor, OpenEdition) and in academic libraries. RESULTS: In the Greek cities, the adolescent, at 18 years old, has to do a military service called the ephebia. At the end of this formation, the young man, aged of 20 years old, comes back to his city. However, he has to continue his (intellectual) training until about his 30 years old. Generally, at this age, a man marries a young girl and becomes a respected adult. In the Roman law, there is no conception of legal age for the majority: the young people stay under the authority of the pater familias (father of the family) until the death of the father. If the father is dead: the boy becomes a pupil and has a specific juridical status until his 25 years. Two important stages exist for the young Romans: wearing the toga virilis (toga of manhood) and the wedding. CONCLUSIONS: There is an evolution in the perception of the adolescence during the Antiquity: for the Greeks, the adolescence ends at 20 years old with an important stage, the ephebia. In the Roman law, there is no legal age because everyone lives under the authority of the pater familias.


Assuntos
História Antiga , Psicologia do Adolescente , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Casamento , Adulto Jovem
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 19760-19766, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747528

RESUMO

Strata from the Ediacaran Period (635 million to 538 million years ago [Ma]) contain several examples of enigmatic, putative shell-building metazoan fossils. These fossils may provide insight into the evolution and environmental impact of biomineralization on Earth, especially if their biological affinities and modern analogs can be identified. Recently, apparent morphological similarities with extant coralline demosponges have been used to assign a poriferan affinity to Namapoikia rietoogensis, a modular encrusting construction that is found growing between (and on) microbial buildups in Namibia. Here, we present three-dimensional reconstructions of Namapoikia that we use to assess the organism's proposed affinity. Our morphological analyses, which comprise quantitative measurements of thickness, spacing, and connectivity, reveal that Namapoikia produced approximately millimeter-thick meandering and branching/merging sheets. We evaluate this reconstructed morphology in the context of poriferan biology and determine that Namapoikia likely is not a sponge-grade organism.


Assuntos
Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Planeta Terra , Meio Ambiente , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Imageamento Tridimensional , Namíbia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237029, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764793

RESUMO

Paleomagnetic analysis of archaeological materials is crucial for understanding the behavior of the geomagnetic field in the past. As it is often difficult to accurately date the acquisition of magnetic information recorded in archaeological materials, large age uncertainties and discrepancies are common in archaeomagnetic datasets, limiting the ability to use these data for geomagnetic modeling and archaeomagnetic dating. Here we present an accurately dated reconstruction of the intensity and direction of the field in Jerusalem in August, 586 BCE, the date of the city's destruction by fire by the Babylonian army, which marks the end of the Iron Age in the Levant. We analyzed 54 floor segments, of unprecedented construction quality, unearthed within a large monumental structure that had served as an elite or public building and collapsed during the conflagration. From the reconstructed paleomagnetic directions, we conclude that the tilted floor segments had originally been part of the floor of the second story of the building and cooled after they had collapsed. This firmly connects the time of the magnetic acquisition to the date of the destruction. The relatively high field intensity, corresponding to virtual axial dipole moment (VADM) of 148.9 ± 3.9 ZAm2, accompanied by a geocentric axial dipole (GAD) inclination and a positive declination of 8.3°, suggests instability of the field during the 6th century BCE and redefines the duration of the Levantine Iron Age Anomaly. The narrow dating of the geomagnetic reconstruction enabled us to constrain the age of other Iron Age finds and resolve a long archaeological and historical discussion regarding the role and dating of royal Judean stamped jar handles. This demonstrates how archaeomagnetic data derived from historically-dated destructions can serve as an anchor for archaeomagnetic dating and its particular potency for periods in which radiocarbon is not adequate for high resolution dating.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Planeta Terra , Campos Magnéticos , Materiais de Construção/análise , Materiais de Construção/história , Fogo/história , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos/história , História Antiga , Humanos , Israel , Colapso Estrutural/história , Fatores de Tempo , Guerra/história
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236961, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790702

RESUMO

There is a significant number of funerary contexts for the Early Neolithic in the Iberian Peninsula, and the body of information is much larger for the Late Neolithic. In contrast, the archaeological information available for the period in between (ca. 4800-4400/4200 cal BC) is scarce. This period, generally called Middle Neolithic, is the least well-known of the peninsular Neolithic sequence, and at present there is no specific synthesis on this topic at the peninsular scale. In 2017, an exceptional funerary context was discovered at Dehesilla Cave (Sierra de Cádiz, Southern Iberian Peninsula), providing radiocarbon dates which place it at the beginning of this little-known Middle Neolithic period, specifically between ca. 4800-4550 cal BC. Locus 2 is a deposition constituted by two adult human skulls and the skeleton of a very young sheep/goat, associated with stone structures and a hearth, and a number of pots, stone and bone tools and charred plant remains. The objectives of this paper are, firstly, to present the new archaeological context documented at Dehesilla Cave, supported by a wide range of data provided by interdisciplinary methods. The dataset is diverse in nature: stratigraphic, osteological, isotopic, zoological, artifactual, botanical and radiocarbon results are presented together. Secondly, to place this finding within the general context of the contemporaneous sites known in the Iberian Peninsula through a systematic review of the available evidence. This enables not only the formulation of explanations of the singular new context, but also to infer the possible ritual funerary behaviours and practices in the 5th millennium cal BC in the Iberian Peninsula.


Assuntos
Comportamento Ritualístico , Rituais Fúnebres/história , Animais , Arqueologia , Cavernas , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Humanos , Portugal , Datação Radiométrica , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Espanha
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237573, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797087

RESUMO

The Late Mesolithic in Southern Europe is dated to the 7th and the first part of the 6th millennia BCE and is marked by profound changes which are mostly evident in the technical know-how and tool-kit of the last hunter-fisher-gatherer societies. The significance of this phase also relates to the fact that it precedes the Early Neolithic, another period of major transformations of human societies. Nonetheless, the Late Mesolithic still remains a poorly known age in this area. A burial discovered at Mondeval de Sora (Northern Italy) in 1987, represents a unique window into this period. In this paper, we provide a detailed analysis of more than 50 lithic and osseous artifacts associated with this burial. We highlight important contextual data regarding the techno-economic dimension and the notion of personal burial possessions. Based on the association and location of some items, we propose a new interpretation of the social status of this individual and the possible impact of technological innovation on the social organization and symbolic sphere of Late Mesolithic groups.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/química , Carbonato de Cálcio/análise , Lítio/análise , Magnésio/análise , Arqueologia , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Sepultamento , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Humanos
6.
Science ; 369(6505): 863-866, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792402

RESUMO

Early plant use is seldom described in the archaeological record because of poor preservation. We report the discovery of grass bedding used to create comfortable areas for sleeping and working by people who lived in Border Cave at least 200,000 years ago. Sheaves of grass belonging to the broad-leafed Panicoideae subfamily were placed near the back of the cave on ash layers that were often remnants of bedding burned for site maintenance. This strategy is one forerunner of more-complex behavior that is archaeologically discernible from ~100,000 years ago.


Assuntos
Cavernas , Fogo/história , Horticultura/história , Poaceae , Antropologia , Arqueologia , História Antiga , Humanos , África do Sul
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236522, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785236

RESUMO

In current practice, when dating the root of a Bayesian language phylogeny the researcher is required to supply some of the information beforehand, including a distribution of root ages and dates for some nodes serving as calibration points. In addition to the potential subjectivity that this leaves room for, the problem arises that for many of the language families of the world there are no available internal calibration points. Here we address the following questions: Can a new Bayesian framework which overcomes these problems be introduced and how well does it perform? The new framework that we present is generalized in the sense that no family-specific priors or calibration points are needed. We moreover introduce a way to overcome another potential source of subjectivity in Bayesian tree inference as commonly practiced, namely that of manual cognate identification; instead, we apply an automated approach. Dates are obtained by fitting a Gamma regression model to tree lengths and known time depths for 30 phylogenetically independent calibration points. This model is used to predict the time depths of both the root and the internal nodes for 116 language families, producing a total of 1,287 dates for families and subgroups. It turns out that results are similar to those of published Bayesian studies of individual language families. The performance of the method is compared to automated glottochronology, which is an update of the classical method of Swadesh drawing upon automated cognate recognition and a new formula for deriving a time depth from percentages of shared cognates. It is also compared to a third dating method, that of the Automated Similarity Judgment Program (ASJP). In terms of errors and correlations with known dates, ASJP works better than the new method and both work better than automated glottochronology.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , Idioma/história , Filogenia , Fósseis , História Antiga , Humanos , Linguística
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236314, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756558

RESUMO

New World archaeologists have amply demonstrated that fluted point technology is specific to Terminal Pleistocene American cultures. Base-fluted, and rarer tip-fluted, projectile points from the Americas have been well-documented by archaeologists for nearly a century. Fluting is an iconic stone tool manufacturing method and a specific action that involves the extraction of a channel flake along the longitudinal axis of a bifacial piece. Here we report and synthesize information from Neolithic sites in southern Arabia, demonstrating the presence of fluting on a variety of stone tool types including projectile points. Fluted projectile points are known from both surface sites and stratified contexts in southern Arabia. Fluting technology has been clearly identified at the Manayzah site (Yemen) dating to 8000-7700 cal. BP. Examination of fluted points and channel flakes from southern Arabia enable a reconstruction of stone tool manufacturing techniques and reduction sequences (chaines opératoires). To illustrate the technological similarities and contrasts of fluting methods in Arabia and the Americas, comparative studies and experiments were conducted. Similarities in manufacturing approaches were observed on the fluting scars of bifacial pieces, whereas technological differences are apparent in the nature and localization of the flute and, most probably, the functional objective of fluting in economic, social and cultural contexts. Arabian and American fluted point technologies provide an excellent example of convergence of highly specialized stone tool production methods. Our description of Arabian and American fluting technology demonstrates that similar innovations and inventions were developed under different circumstances, and that highly-skilled and convergent production methods can have different anthropological implications.


Assuntos
Tecnologia/história , América , Arábia , Arqueologia , História Antiga , Humanos , Invenções/história , Indústria Manufatureira/história , Iêmen
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235386, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785221

RESUMO

Renewed excavations at the Neolithic site of Beisamoun (Upper Jordan Valley, Israel) has resulted in the discovery of the earliest occurrence of an intentional cremation in the Near East directly dated to 7031-6700 cal BC (Pre-Pottery Neolithic C, also known as Final PPNB, which spans ca. 7100-6400 cal BC). The funerary treatment involved in situ cremation within a pyre-pit of a young adult individual who previously survived from a flint projectile injury. In this study we have used a multidisciplinary approach that integrates archaeothanatology, spatial analysis, bioanthropology, zooarchaeology, soil micromorphological analysis, and phytolith identification in order to reconstruct the different stages and techniques involved in this ritual: cremation pit construction, selection of fuel, possible initial position of the corpse, potential associated items and funerary containers, fire management, post-cremation gesture and structure abandonment. The origins and development of cremation practices in the region are explored as well as their significance in terms of Northern-Southern Levantine connections during the transition between the 8th and 7th millennia BC. The bones are distributed throughout the bottom of the pit, partly superimposed one on the other to a thickness of 40 cm. However, the density of remains was not very marked except at the centre of the pit (Fig 6). If there was an apparent anatomical disorder at first glance, by looking at the details some interesting patterning could be observed. Cranial and mandibular fragments were found only in the southern half of the structure. Next to the south wall on the upper level, we found the base of the skull (mandible reversed and occipital fragments); the rest of the cranial vault and face (frontal, maxillars, parietals and temporals) were found slightly lower down at the centre of the pit. Conversely, the cervical vertebrae were dispersed out from the centre to the northern half of the pit. The thoracic column and some of the ribs were concentrated in the centre, roughly following a west-east direction. The lumbar vertebrae were found in the middle and against the south-western wall of the structure with several vertebral fragments in close proximity to the sacrum, coccyx and the left coxal. The right coxal is found diametrically opposite to this coherent group, lying almost complete not far from the north-eastern wall of the pit. Altogether, despite an absence of articulated joints and dispersion of certain elements, the bones of the axial skeleton show some anatomical coherence.


Assuntos
Sepultamento/história , Cremação/história , História Antiga , Humanos
10.
Science ; 369(6507)2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855310

RESUMO

Strategies for 21st-century environmental management and conservation under global change require a strong understanding of the biological mechanisms that mediate responses to climate- and human-driven change to successfully mitigate range contractions, extinctions, and the degradation of ecosystem services. Biodiversity responses to past rapid warming events can be followed in situ and over extended periods, using cross-disciplinary approaches that provide cost-effective and scalable information for species' conservation and the maintenance of resilient ecosystems in many bioregions. Beyond the intrinsic knowledge gain such integrative research will increasingly provide the context, tools, and relevant case studies to assist in mitigating climate-driven biodiversity losses in the 21st century and beyond.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática/história , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Extinção Biológica , Animais , Arquivos , História Antiga , Paleontologia
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 19780-19791, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719145

RESUMO

The international scope of the Mediterranean wine trade in Late Antiquity raises important questions concerning sustainability in an ancient international economy and offers a valuable historical precedent to modern globalization. Such questions involve the role of intercontinental commerce in maintaining sustainable production within important supply regions and the vulnerability of peripheral regions believed to have been especially sensitive to environmental and political disturbances. We provide archaeobotanical evidence from trash mounds at three sites in the central Negev Desert, Israel, unraveling the rise and fall of viticulture over the second to eighth centuries of the common era (CE). Using quantitative ceramic data obtained in the same archaeological contexts, we further investigate connections between Negev viticulture and circum-Mediterranean trade. Our findings demonstrate interrelated growth in viticulture and involvement in Mediterranean trade reaching what appears to be a commercial scale in the fourth to mid-sixth centuries. Following a mid-sixth century peak, decline of this system is evident in the mid- to late sixth century, nearly a century before the Islamic conquest. These findings closely correspond with other archaeological evidence for social, economic, and urban growth in the fourth century and decline centered on the mid-sixth century. Contracting markets were a likely proximate cause for the decline; possible triggers include climate change, plague, and wider sociopolitical developments. In long-term historical perspective, the unprecedented commercial florescence of the Late Antique Negev appears to have been unsustainable, reverting to an age-old pattern of smaller-scale settlement and survival-subsistence strategies within a time frame of about two centuries.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/economia , Cerâmica/química , Arqueologia/história , Cerâmica/economia , Cerâmica/história , Mudança Climática/história , Comércio , Cultura , História Antiga , Humanos , Israel
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234924, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640002

RESUMO

Glycymeris shell beads found in Middle Palaeolithic sites are understood to be artifacts collected by modern humans for symbolic use. In Misliya Cave, Israel, dated to 240-160 ka BP, Glycymeris shells were found that were neither perforated nor manipulated; nevertheless, transportation to the cave is regarded as symbolic. In about 120 ka BP at Qafzeh Cave, Israel, modern humans collected naturally perforated Glycymeris shells also for symbolic use. Use-wear analyses backed by experiments demonstrate that the Qafzeh shells were suspended on string, thus suggesting that the collection of perforated shells was intentional. The older Misliya shells join a similar finding from South Africa, while the later-dated perforated shells from Qafzeh resemble other assemblages from North Africa and the Levant, also dated to about 120 ka BP. We conclude that between 160 ka BP and 120 ka BP there was a shift from collecting complete valves to perforated ones, which reflects both the desire and the technological ability to suspend shell beads on string to be displayed on the human body.


Assuntos
Fósseis/história , Joias/história , África do Norte , Exoesqueleto , Animais , Cavernas , História Antiga , Hominidae , Humanos , Israel , África do Sul , Tecnologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235692, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697783

RESUMO

Nowadays, opportunistic small predators, such as foxes (Vulpes vulpes and Vulpes lagopus), are well known to be very adaptable to human modified ecosystems. However, the timing of the start of this phenomenon in terms of human impact on ecosystems and of the implications for foxes has hardly been studied. We hypothesize that foxes can be used as an indicator of past human impact on ecosystems, as a reflection of population densities and consequently to track back the influence of humans on the Pleistocene environment. To test this hypothesis, we used stable isotope analysis (δ13C, δ15N) of bone collagen extracted from faunal remains from several archaeological sites located in the Swabian Jura (southwest Germany) and covering a time range over three important cultural periods, namely the Middle Palaeolithic (older than 42,000 years ago) attributed to Neanderthals, and the early Upper Palaeolithic periods Aurignacian and Gravettian (42,000 to 30,000 years ago) attributed to modern humans. We then ran Bayesian statistic systems (SIBER, mixSIAR) to reconstruct the trophic niches and diets of Pleistocene foxes. We observed that during the Middle Palaeolithic period, when Neanderthals sparsely populated the Swabian Jura, the niches occupied by foxes suggest a natural trophic behavior. In contrast, during the early Upper Palaeolithic periods, a new trophic fox niche appeared, characterized by a restricted diet on reindeer. This trophic niche could be due to the consumption of human subsidies related to a higher human population density and the resulting higher impact on the Pleistocene environment by modern humans compared to Neanderthals. Furthermore, our study suggests that, a synanthropic commensal behavior of foxes started already in the Aurignacian, around 42,000 years ago.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Ecossistema , Raposas/fisiologia , Animais , Arqueologia , Teorema de Bayes , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Colágeno/química , Colágeno/metabolismo , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Humanos , Homem de Neandertal , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235080, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639959

RESUMO

Detailed information about the lives and deaths of children in antiquity is often in short supply. Childhood dietary histories are, however, recorded and maintained in the teeth of both juveniles and adults. Primary tooth dentinal collagen does not turn over, preserving a sequential record of dietary changes. The use of nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) isotope values of incrementally sampled dentin are used in the study of breastfeeding practices but evidence for the addition of weaning foods, both in terms of mode and, particularly, duration, has remained analytically inaccessible to date. Here, we demonstrate how the novel use hydrogen isotope (δ2H) values of sequentially micro-sampled dentin collagen, measured from individuals excavated from a Punic cemetery, in Sardinia, Italy, can serve as a proxy for weaning food type and duration in ancient childhood diet. The weaning rate and age, based on the decline in δ15N and δ13C values of permanent first molars and the concomitant increase in δ2H, appears to be broadly similar among six individuals. Hydrogen isotopes vary systematically from a low value soon after birth, rising through early childhood. The early post-birth values can be explained by the influence of 2H-depleted lipids from mother's breastmilk and the later δ2H rise is consistent with, among other things, a substantial portion of boiled foodstuffs, such as the higher δ2H values observed in porridge. Overall δ2H in dentin shows great promise to elucidate infant and childhood feeding practices, and especially the introduction of supplementary foods during the weaning process.


Assuntos
Dieta/história , Aleitamento Materno/história , Pré-Escolar , Colágeno/análise , Dentina/química , Deutério/análise , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Lactente , Itália , Desmame
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235226, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639968

RESUMO

Although evidence of organic materials has consistently been reported in the archaeology of southern Africa little attention has been given to how this evidence, so slight in comparison to pottery and lithics, might be used to understand the transition from foraging to livestock-keeping in southern African Archaeology. We have compiled a geo-referenced, radiocarbon database of these organic, material culture remains, with particular reference to containers made of ostrich eggshell, wood, gourd, tortoise shell, twine, and leather over a 2300-year period to capture the periods before and after the appearance of livestock. We have mapped the organic materials for the period 800 cal BC to cal AD 1500 and explored the subsistence base of those who used them. This distribution is compared to that of pottery and livestock remains-conventionally the two archaeological markers of pastoralists. The paper interrogates what this might add to the vexed question of how the practice of livestock-keeping and pottery-making spread into and through the region (the hunter-herder debate). Our analysis suggests that ostrich eggshell containers can be used as a proxy for hunter-gatherers. By comparing areas of bead manufacture with those that have evidence only of bead use, we show the areas to which items may have travelled, along already established hunter-gatherer exchange networks. Our results suggest that hunter-gatherers widely and quickly adopted pottery across southern Africa in a process of cultural diffusion and local innovation, and that this was possibly the main mechanism for the dispersal of livestock at 2100 years ago.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/história , Embalagem de Produtos/história , África Austral , Animais , Arqueologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Casca de Ovo/química , História do Século XV , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Gado
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235196, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639970

RESUMO

This study contributes to the knowledge of continental fishes recovered from sedimentary successions corresponding to the Bonaerean Stage/Age (late mid-Pleistocene) in the locality of Centinela del Mar, General Alvarado County, Buenos Aires province, Argentina. At this site we describe fossil fishes from a palaeolagoon, including Corydoras sp., Pimelodella sp., Rhamdia sp., Oligosarcus sp., small undetermined characids, Jenynsia sp. and Odontesthes sp. The recovered ichthyofaunal assemblage comprises at least seven taxa of Paranaean lineage. The taxonomic composition of the palaeoichthyofauna is quite comparable to that presently found in Bonaerean Watercourses of the Atlantic Drainage ecoregion. This suggests that local ichthyofaunal communities have remained relatively stable since the late mid-Pleistocene.


Assuntos
Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Argentina , Ciprinodontiformes/anatomia & histologia , Ciprinodontiformes/classificação , Peixes/classificação , Fósseis/história , Água Doce , História Antiga , Moluscos/anatomia & histologia , Moluscos/classificação
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18393-18400, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661154

RESUMO

In the past decade, the early Acheulean before 1 Mya has been a focus of active research. Acheulean lithic assemblages have been shown to extend back to ∼1.75 Mya, and considerable advances in core reduction technologies are seen by 1.5 to 1.4 Mya. Here we report a bifacially flaked bone fragment (maximum dimension ∼13 cm) of a hippopotamus femur from the ∼1.4 Mya sediments of the Konso Formation in southern Ethiopia. The large number of flake scars and their distribution pattern, together with the high frequency of cone fractures, indicate anthropogenic flaking into handaxe-like form. Use-wear analyses show quasi-continuous alternate microflake scars, wear polish, edge rounding, and striae patches along an ∼5-cm-long edge toward the handaxe tip. The striae run predominantly oblique to the edge, with some perpendicular, on both the cortical and inner faces. The combined evidence is consistent with the use of this bone artifact in longitudinal motions, such as in cutting and/or sawing. This bone handaxe is the oldest known extensively flaked example from the Early Pleistocene. Despite scarcity of well-shaped bone tools, its presence at Konso shows that sophisticated flaking was practiced by ∼1.4 Mya, not only on a range of lithic materials, but also occasionally on bone, thus expanding the documented technological repertoire of African Early Pleistocene Homo.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/química , Fósseis/história , Artefatos , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Etiópia , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , História Antiga
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18359-18368, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661160

RESUMO

Ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis provides a powerful means of investigating human migration, social organization, and a plethora of other crucial questions about humanity's past. Recently, specialists have suggested that the ideal research design involving aDNA would include multiple independent lines of evidence. In this paper, we adopt a transdisciplinary approach integrating aDNA with archaeological, biogeochemical, and historical data to investigate six individuals found in two cemeteries that date to the Late Horizon (1400 to 1532 CE) and Colonial (1532 to 1825 CE) periods in the Chincha Valley of southern Peru. Genomic analyses indicate that these individuals are genetically most similar to ancient and present-day populations from the north Peruvian coast located several hundred kilometers away. These genomic data are consistent with 16th century written records as well as ceramic, textile, and isotopic data. These results provide some of the strongest evidence yet of state-sponsored resettlement in the pre-Colonial Andes. This study highlights the power of transdisciplinary research designs when using aDNA data and sets a methodological standard for investigating ancient mobility in complex societies.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , DNA Antigo/química , Migração Humana , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Índios Sul-Americanos/história , Hispano-Americanos , História Antiga , Humanos , Peru
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