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1.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1140): 633-638, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907877

RESUMO

After the dramatic coronavirus outbreak at the end of 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, on 11 March 2020, a pandemic was declared by the WHO. Most countries worldwide imposed a quarantine or lockdown to their citizens, in an attempt to prevent uncontrolled infection from spreading. Historically, quarantine is the 40-day period of forced isolation to prevent the spread of an infectious disease. In this educational paper, a historical overview from the sacred temples of ancient Greece-the cradle of medicine-to modern hospitals, along with the conceive of healthcare systems, is provided. A few foods for thought as to the conflict between ethics in medicine and shortage of personnel and financial resources in the coronavirus disease 2019 era are offered as well.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Ética Médica/história , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/ética , Hospitais/história , Pandemias/história , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena/história , Betacoronavirus , Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/história , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Juramento Hipocrático , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/história , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/história , Alocação de Recursos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 18(1): 115-128, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638603

RESUMO

During the Byzantine Times, medicine and surgery developed as Greek physicians continued to practice in Constantinople. Healing methods were common for both adults and children, and pediatrics as a medical specialty did not exist. Already Byzantine hospitals became institutions to dispense medical services, rather than shelters for the homeless, which included doctors and nurses for those who suffered from the disease. A major improvement in the status of hospitals as medical centers took place in this period, and physicians were called archiatroi. Several sources prove that archiatroi were still functioning in the late sixth century and long afterward, but now as xenon doctors. Patients were averse to surgery due to the incidence of complications. The hagiographical literature repeated allusions to doctors. Concerns about children with a surgical disease often led parents to seek miraculous healings achieved by Christian Protectors - Saints. This paper is focused on three eminent Byzantine physicians and surgeons, Oribasius, Aetius of Amida, Paul of Aegina, who dealt with pediatric operations and influenced the European Medicine for centuries to come. We studied historical and theological sources in order to present a comprehensive picture of the curative techniques used for pediatric surgical diseases during the Byzantine Times.


Assuntos
Pediatria/história , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/história , Bizâncio , Mundo Grego/história , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos
5.
Surg Clin North Am ; 100(4): 787-806, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681877

RESUMO

Since the dawn of humanity, wounds have afflicted humans, and healers have held responsibility for treating them. This article tracks the evolution of wound care from antiquity to the present, highlighting the roles of surgeons, scientists, culture, and society in the ever-changing management of traumatic and iatrogenic injuries.


Assuntos
Cicatrização/fisiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/história , Antibacterianos/história , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/história , Conflitos Armados/história , Antigo Egito , Grécia Antiga , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Medicina Militar/história , Pinturas , Mundo Romano/história , Infecção dos Ferimentos/história , Infecção dos Ferimentos/prevenção & controle
6.
Science ; 369(6502)2020 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703849

RESUMO

Smallpox, one of the most devastating human diseases, killed between 300 million and 500 million people in the 20th century alone. We recovered viral sequences from 13 northern European individuals, including 11 dated to ~600-1050 CE, overlapping the Viking Age, and reconstructed near-complete variola virus genomes for four of them. The samples predate the earliest confirmed smallpox cases by ~1000 years, and the sequences reveal a now-extinct sister clade of the modern variola viruses that were in circulation before the eradication of smallpox. We date the most recent common ancestor of variola virus to ~1700 years ago. Distinct patterns of gene inactivation in the four near-complete sequences show that different evolutionary paths of genotypic host adaptation resulted in variola viruses that circulated widely among humans.


Assuntos
Varíola , Vírus da Varíola , Evolução Biológica , Europa (Continente) , Genoma Viral , História Medieval , Humanos , Varíola/história , Varíola/virologia , Vírus da Varíola/genética
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235005, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628680

RESUMO

Archaeology has yet to capitalise on the opportunities offered by bioarchaeological approaches to examine the impact of the 11th-century AD Norman Conquest of England. This study utilises an integrated multiproxy analytical approach to identify and explain changes and continuities in diet and foodways between the 10th and 13th centuries in the city of Oxford, UK. The integration of organic residue analysis of ceramics, carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analysis of human and animal bones, incremental analysis of δ13C and δ15N from human tooth dentine and palaeopathological analysis of human skeletal remains has revealed a broad pattern of increasing intensification and marketisation across various areas of economic practice, with a much lesser and more short-term impact of the Conquest on everyday lifestyles than is suggested by documentary sources. Nonetheless, isotope data indicate short-term periods of instability, particularly food insecurity, did impact individuals. Evidence of preferences for certain foodstuffs and cooking techniques documented among the elite classes were also observed among lower-status townspeople, suggesting that Anglo-Norman fashions could be adopted across the social spectrum. This study demonstrates the potential for future archaeological research to generate more nuanced understanding of the cultural impact of the Norman Conquest of England, while showcasing a method which can be used to elucidate the undocumented, everyday implications of other large-scale political events on non-elites.


Assuntos
Restos Mortais/química , Culinária/história , Dieta/história , Classe Social/história , Animais , Arqueologia/métodos , Osso e Ossos/química , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Bovinos , Cerâmica/análise , Feminino , Cabras , História Medieval , Humanos , Masculino , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Ovinos , Suínos , Dente/química , Reino Unido
9.
Nature ; 583(7817): 572-577, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641827

RESUMO

The possibility of voyaging contact between prehistoric Polynesian and Native American populations has long intrigued researchers. Proponents have pointed to the existence of New World crops, such as the sweet potato and bottle gourd, in the Polynesian archaeological record, but nowhere else outside the pre-Columbian Americas1-6, while critics have argued that these botanical dispersals need not have been human mediated7. The Norwegian explorer Thor Heyerdahl controversially suggested that prehistoric South American populations had an important role in the settlement of east Polynesia and particularly of Easter Island (Rapa Nui)2. Several limited molecular genetic studies have reached opposing conclusions, and the possibility continues to be as hotly contested today as it was when first suggested8-12. Here we analyse genome-wide variation in individuals from islands across Polynesia for signs of Native American admixture, analysing 807 individuals from 17 island populations and 15 Pacific coast Native American groups. We find conclusive evidence for prehistoric contact of Polynesian individuals with Native American individuals (around AD 1200) contemporaneous with the settlement of remote Oceania13-15. Our analyses suggest strongly that a single contact event occurred in eastern Polynesia, before the settlement of Rapa Nui, between Polynesian individuals and a Native American group most closely related to the indigenous inhabitants of present-day Colombia.


Assuntos
Fluxo Gênico/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Migração Humana/história , Índios Centro-Americanos/genética , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Ilhas , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/genética , América Central/etnologia , Colômbia/etnologia , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Genética Populacional , História Medieval , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Polinésia , América do Sul/etnologia , Fatores de Tempo
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235819, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701950

RESUMO

Past human societies have left persistent marks on forests worldwide. However, the degree to which pre-colonial Amerindian societies have affected forest structure is still not fully understood, especially in southern Brazil. This study investigated the influence of two distinct Amerindian groups (Southern-Jê and Guarani) over tree composition of forest fragments in the State of Santa Catarina. Vegetation data was obtained from the Santa Catarina Forest and Floristic Inventory (SCFFI): a statewide systematic vegetation sampling project. Archaeological data was collated from literature reviews as well as existing databases for archaeological sites occupied by Guarani and Southern-Jê groups. Using these sites of known Amerindian occupation, and corresponding environmental variables, ecological niche models were developed for each Amerindian group, predicting potential archaeological sites occupied by these groups across southern Brazil. Maps of these potential occupation sites of pre-colonial Amerindian groups were compared with 417 corresponding floristic inventory plots. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to identify floristic composition patterns linked to areas with a high probability of Southern-Jê or Guarani presence. Southern-Jê and Guarani pre-colonial occupations overlapped near main rivers; however, Southern-Jê groups generally occupied elevated areas whereas Guarani occupied mostly coastal areas. We observed differences in forest composition associated with the predicted occurrence of these pre-colonial Amerindian groups. Based on these results, we argue there is a relationship between tree species distribution and pre-colonial human occupation by these two Amerindian groups.


Assuntos
Ecologia/história , Florestas , Arqueologia , Brasil , Clima , Ecossistema , Fósseis/história , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235226, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639968

RESUMO

Although evidence of organic materials has consistently been reported in the archaeology of southern Africa little attention has been given to how this evidence, so slight in comparison to pottery and lithics, might be used to understand the transition from foraging to livestock-keeping in southern African Archaeology. We have compiled a geo-referenced, radiocarbon database of these organic, material culture remains, with particular reference to containers made of ostrich eggshell, wood, gourd, tortoise shell, twine, and leather over a 2300-year period to capture the periods before and after the appearance of livestock. We have mapped the organic materials for the period 800 cal BC to cal AD 1500 and explored the subsistence base of those who used them. This distribution is compared to that of pottery and livestock remains-conventionally the two archaeological markers of pastoralists. The paper interrogates what this might add to the vexed question of how the practice of livestock-keeping and pottery-making spread into and through the region (the hunter-herder debate). Our analysis suggests that ostrich eggshell containers can be used as a proxy for hunter-gatherers. By comparing areas of bead manufacture with those that have evidence only of bead use, we show the areas to which items may have travelled, along already established hunter-gatherer exchange networks. Our results suggest that hunter-gatherers widely and quickly adopted pottery across southern Africa in a process of cultural diffusion and local innovation, and that this was possibly the main mechanism for the dispersal of livestock at 2100 years ago.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/história , Embalagem de Produtos/história , África Austral , Animais , Arqueologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Casca de Ovo/química , História do Século XV , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Gado
13.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 50(1): 28-32, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564534

RESUMO

Jin Gui Yu Han Jing(, The Jade Case Classic of the Golden Cabinet) and Shanghan Lun(, Treatise on Febrile Diseases) have similar contents but different names, and they were handed down after being collated by the Medical Records Bureau in 1066, the third year of the Northern Song Dynasty. At present, Jin Gui Yu Han Jing is Chen Shijie's edition in the Qing Dynasty. Chen Shijie got the manuscript of Song Dynasty from He Zhuo, a scholar of Qing Dynasty, then corrected it, and published it in 1717. By searching the citations from Jin Gui Yu Han Jing in medical works from 1066 to 1717, and dividing them into two categories: direct quotation and indirect quotation, so as to investigate the spreading situation of Jin Gui Yu Han Jing since Song Dynasty. According to this, it can be inferred that Jin Gui Yu Han Jing had not been found by doctors in Yuan and Ming Dynasties.


Assuntos
Livros/história , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , China , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História Medieval
14.
Notas enferm. (Córdoba) ; 20(35): 48-51, jun. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1119049

RESUMO

La palabra hospital se define como un establecimiento destinado al diagnóstico y tratamiento de enfermos, donde a menudo se practican la investigación y la docencia. Sin embargo esta definición poco se aproxima a la realidad de los hospitales de los siglos pasados. En este trabajo se analiza la evolución de los hospitales desde la Edad Media a la Edad Moderna desde el punto de vista arquitectónico y de cuidados sanitarios. Se resalta el hospital de los Inocentes como ejemplo de hospital entre la Edad Media y la Edad Moderna y se comparan con los hospitales en la actualidad[AU]


Assuntos
História Medieval , História da Medicina , História da Enfermagem , Arquitetura Hospitalar , História do Século XVII
18.
J Anesth Hist ; 6(1): 17-26, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473762

RESUMO

For millennia, mankind has sought a means of altering consciousness, often aided by naturally occurring elements. Psychotropic substances have been an integral part of spiritual, medicinal, and recreational aspects of life. The origin of anesthesiology stems directly from the use of recreational drugs; early inhaled anesthetics were first used as a means of entertainment. Hence, it is no surprise that many medications in the anesthesiologist's armamentarium are diverted for recreational use. In the 172 years following the first successful public demonstration of ether anesthesia, many drugs with abuse potential have been introduced to the practice of anesthesia. Although anesthesiologists are aware of the abuse potential of these drugs, how these drugs are obtained and used for recreational purposes is worthy of discussion. There are articles describing the historical and recreational use of specific drug classes. However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive review focusing on the breadth of drugs used by anesthesiologists.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/história , Analgésicos/história , Anestesiologia/história , Anestésicos Inalatórios/história , Anestésicos Intravenosos/história , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos
19.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 47: e20202597, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520135

RESUMO

Medical Uniforms date back from medieval times. Nursing uniforms were based on nuns clothes whereas doctors used the famous "plague costumes" and black "frock" coats from about 15th to early 19th century. In latter half 19th century medical uniforms started to change. Nursing uniforms gradually lost their similarities to religious outfits. Doctors started to use white clothing. With great emphasis on hygiene and sanitation, the idea of personal protective equipment (PPE) started to evolve with William Stewart Halsted introducing the use of rubber gloves in 1889. In the 1960s-1970s it became more usual to wear green and blue `scrubs in order to look for a greater contrast in clothing with the all-white hospital environment. In contemporary times, some specialties even stopped using specific uniforms, while others still use them. At the same time, PPE became more and more important, up to nowadays "plague costume" in the combat of the COVID-19 epidemics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Roupa de Proteção/história , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos
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