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1.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486876

RESUMO

The pandemic of plague, that affected Eurasia in middle of 40s - early 50s of XIV century and remained in history as as "The Black Death", became one of the most death-dealing epidemics that ever stroke humankind and recorded in historical sources. Owing to that many documentary and narrative sources remained intact, the history of this pandemic is considered as well examined. This is evidenced by enormous historiography of the problem, including works of the most different character and orientation. Yet, it should be admitted that in national Russian historiography the issues related to history of this pandemic on the Russian land remain to be insufficiently studied. This condition is related to limitation of source base from one hand and to inadequate development of comprehensive approach to exploration of this page of national history. The article, on the basis of analysis of chronicle texts, reconstructs general picture of the pandemic in the Russian land and characterizes its consequences.


Assuntos
Peste , História do Século XX , História Medieval , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pandemias , Peste/epidemiologia , Federação Russa/epidemiologia
3.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(3): 89, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251537

RESUMO

We invite systematic consideration of the metaphors of cycles and circulation as a long-term theme in the history of the life and environmental sciences and medicine. Ubiquitous in ancient religious and philosophical traditions, especially in representing the seasons and the motions of celestial bodies, circles once symbolized perfection. Over the centuries cyclic images in western medicine, natural philosophy, natural history and eventually biology gained independence from cosmology and theology and came to depend less on strictly circular forms. As potent 'canonical icons', cycles also interacted with representations of linear and irreversible change, including arrows, arcs, scales, series and trees, as in theories of the Earth and of evolution. In modern times life cycles and reproductive cycles have often been held to characterize life, in some cases especially female life, while human efforts selectively to foster and disrupt these cycles have harnessed their productivity in medicine and agriculture. But strong cyclic metaphors have continued to link physiology and climatology, medicine and economics, and biology and manufacturing, notably through the relations between land, food and population. From the grand nineteenth-century transformations of matter to systems ecology, the circulation of molecules through organic and inorganic compartments has posed the problem of maintaining identity in the face of flux and highlights the seductive ability of cyclic schemes to imply closure where no original state was in fact restored. More concerted attention to cycles and circulation will enrich analyses of the power of metaphors to naturalize understandings of life and their shaping by practical interests and political imaginations.


Assuntos
Biologia/história , História da Medicina , Filosofia/história , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval
4.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202264

RESUMO

The present research investigates the relationship between dietary habits and mortality patterns in the Roman Imperial and Medieval periods. The reconstructions of population dynamics and subsistence strategies provide a fascinating source of information for understanding our history. This is particularly true given that the changes in social, economic, political, and religious aspects related to the transition from the Roman period to the Middle Ages have been widely discussed. We analyzed the isotopic and mortality patterns of 616 individuals from 18 archeological sites (the Medieval Latium sites of Colonna, Santa Severa, Allumiere, Cencelle, and 14 Medieval and Imperial funerary contexts from Rome) to compile a survivorship analysis. A semi-parametric approach was applied, suggesting variations in mortality patterns between sexes in the Roman period. Nitrogen isotopic signatures influenced mortality in both periods, showing a quadratic and a linear effect for Roman Imperial and Medieval populations, respectively. No influence of carbon isotopic signatures has been detected for Roman Imperial populations. Conversely, increased mortality risk for rising carbon isotopic values was observed in Medieval samples.


Assuntos
Dieta/história , Mortalidade/história , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Itália , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise
5.
Med Intensiva (Engl Ed) ; 45(6): 362-370, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103248

RESUMO

In 1348, a pandemic known as Black Death devastated humanity and changed social, economic and geopolitical world order, as is the current case with SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. The doctor of the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada, Ibn-Jatima from Almeria, wrote "Treatise on the Plague", in which it may be found epidemiological and clinical similarities between both plagues. In the context of Greco-Arab medicine, he discovered respiratory and contact contagion of Pestis and attributed its physiopathology to a lack of pulmonary cooling of the innate heat, generated in the heart and carried by the blood humor. The process described was equivalent to the oxygen transport system. Furthermore, it was supposed to generate toxic residues, such as free radicals, leading to an irreversible multiple organ failure (MOF), considered a mortality factor as in Covid-19. Due to its similitude, it would be the first antecedent of the MOF physiopathological concept, a finding that enriches the scientific and historical heritage of our clinical specialty.


Assuntos
Medicina Arábica/história , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/história , Pandemias/história , Peste/história , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Febre/fisiopatologia , História Medieval , Humanos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Modelos Biológicos , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/fisiopatologia , Flebotomia/história , Peste/complicações , Peste/fisiopatologia , Peste/terapia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Respiratórios , SARS-CoV-2 , Mudança Social , Espanha
6.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 68(3): 519-531, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044981

RESUMO

Humans have long sought to be provided with optimal health care, and the research continues in the twenty-first century. In the spirit of Galen from 19 centuries ago, empowering the patient's physician remains an important approach in health care. There is an emphasis on primary care and integration of behavioral consultation services in primary care. It remains a work in progress with help from the past and realistic hope for the future.


Assuntos
Doença/história , Saúde/história , História da Medicina , Serviços de Saúde Mental/história , Pediatria/história , Criança , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Saúde Mental/história
7.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(Suppl 3): S299-S308, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010255

RESUMO

Ibn Sina (Avicenna) is primarily known for his philosophy and medicine, but there is almost no scientific discipline in which this great man didn't leave a significant mark. This paper gives a brief overview of his contribution to medicine and psychology through which his unique scientific and religious approach to the study of the phenomena of human being can be best seen. Medical works of Ibn Sina represent a pinnacle of most important medical achievements of his time. These works contain synthesis of all Greek, Indian and Iranian medical schools, but also new breakthroughs achieved by Muslim scholars through their own experimentation and practice. Although he wrote many medical works, his most important one is El-Kanun fit-tib, which can be translated as The Canon of Medicine. It's made out of five books which systematically show everything known in the area of medicine up until that point in time. In it, Ibn Sina discusses, among other things, the structure of psychological apparatus of human being and the connection of psychological functions with the brain. He considered psychology to be very important for medicine, so in his psychological works he discusses, in great detail, the essence of human soul, consciousness, intellect and other psychological functions. He observed a man in his entirety, taking into consideration all aspects of his existence, paying special attention to spiritual knowledge and spiritual perfection, religiosity, and methods of achieving inner peace and well-being.


Assuntos
Medicina Arábica , Medicina , História Medieval , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Islamismo
8.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 320(5): F972-F983, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818125

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides are essential host defense mechanisms that prevent urinary tract infections. Recent studies have demonstrated that peptides in the ribonuclease A superfamily have antimicrobial activity against uropathogens and protect the urinary tract from uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Little is known about the antibacterial function or expression of ribonuclease 4 (RNase 4) in the human urinary tract. Here, we show that full-length recombinant RNase 4 peptide and synthetic amino-terminal RNase 4 peptide fragment have antibacterial activity against UPEC and multidrug-resistant (MDR)-UPEC. RNASE4 transcript expression was detected in human kidney and bladder tissue using quantitative real-time PCR. Immunostaining or in situ hybridization localized RNase 4 expression to proximal tubules, principal and intercalated cells in the kidney's collecting duct, and the bladder urothelium. Urinary RNase 4 concentrations were quantified in healthy controls and females with a history of urinary tract infection. Compared with controls, urinary RNase 4 concentrations were significantly lower in females with a history of urinary tract infection. When RNase 4 was neutralized in human urine or silenced in vitro using siRNA, urinary UPEC replication or attachment to and invasion of urothelial and kidney medullary cells increased. These data show that RNase 4 has antibacterial activity against UPEC, is expressed in the human urinary tract, and can contribute to host defense against urinary tract infections.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Ribonuclease 4 (RNase 4) is a newly identified host defense peptide in the human kidney and bladder. RNase 4 kills uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and multidrug-resistant UPEC. RNase 4 prevents invasive UPEC infection and suppressed RNase 4 expression may be a risk factor for more severe or recurrent urinary tract infection.


Assuntos
Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Rim/enzimologia , Ribonucleases/metabolismo , Bexiga Urinária/enzimologia , Adolescente , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos , Criança , Células Endoteliais/enzimologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Inativação Gênica , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Ribonucleases/genética , Ribonucleases/urina , Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica , Urotélio/citologia
9.
Adv Anat Pathol ; 28(3): 171-177, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825719

RESUMO

Dissections and autopsies are critical for understanding human anatomy, pathology, and uncovering mechanisms of disease. This review presents an historical journey from ancient times until the late Middle Ages. The major steps and developments are summarized with key figures and events presented.


Assuntos
Anatomia/história , Autopsia/história , Patologia/história , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História Medieval , Humanos
10.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(3)2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807111

RESUMO

Nomadic groups of conquering Hungarians played a predominant role in Hungarian prehistory, but genetic data are available only from the immigrant elite strata. Most of the 10-11th century remains in the Carpathian Basin belong to common people, whose origin and relation to the immigrant elite have been widely debated. Mitogenome sequences were obtained from 202 individuals with next generation sequencing combined with hybridization capture. Median joining networks were used for phylogenetic analysis. The commoner population was compared to 87 ancient Eurasian populations with sequence-based (Fst) and haplogroup-based population genetic methods. The haplogroup composition of the commoner population markedly differs from that of the elite, and, in contrast to the elite, commoners cluster with European populations. Alongside this, detectable sub-haplogroup sharing indicates admixture between the elite and the commoners. The majority of the 10-11th century commoners most likely represent local populations of the Carpathian Basin, which admixed with the eastern immigrant groups (which included conquering Hungarians).


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Migrantes/história , Cemitérios , Genética Populacional , Haplótipos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , História Medieval , Humanos , Hungria/etnologia , Herança Materna , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
11.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(3)2021 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808521

RESUMO

The genetic signature of modern Europeans is the cumulated result of millennia of discrete small-scale exchanges between multiple distinct population groups that performed a repeated cycle of movement, settlement, and interactions with each other. In this study we aimed to highlight one such minute genetic cycle in a sea of genetic interactions by reconstructing part of the genetic story of the migration, settlement, interaction, and legacy of what is today the Transylvanian Saxon. The analysis of the mitochondrial DNA control region of 13 medieval individuals from Feldioara necropolis (Transylvania region, Romania) reveals a genetically heterogeneous group where all identified haplotypes are different. Most of the perceived maternal lineages are of Western Eurasian origin, except for the Central Asiatic haplogroup C seen in only one sample. Comparisons with historical and modern populations describe the contribution of the investigated Saxon settlers to the genetic history of this part of Europe.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo/análise , DNA Mitocondrial/história , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Ásia/etnologia , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genética Populacional , História Medieval , Humanos , Filogenia , Dinâmica Populacional , Romênia/etnologia
12.
An Bras Dermatol ; 96(3): 332-345, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814211

RESUMO

The study of skin, the science of dermatology, has undergone significant transformations throughout the centuries. From the first descriptions of skin diseases in Egyptian papyri and in Hippocratic writings to the first treatises on dermatology, important individuals and discoveries have marked the specialty. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the specialty consolidated itself as a field of medical study based on the first classifications of dermatoses, diagnostic methods, and drug treatments. In the 20th century, the scientific and technological revolution transformed dermatological practice, incorporating new therapeutic resources, as well as surgical and aesthetic procedures. In the face of such a vigorous process, it is important to provide a historical synthesis for the medical community to recognize and understand the origins that supported one of the most relevant specialties in the current medical scenario.


Assuntos
Dermatologia , Dermatopatias , Egito , Estética , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Pele , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias/terapia
13.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247167, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690656

RESUMO

The megalithic jar sites of Laos (often referred to as the Plain of Jars) remain one of Southeast Asia's most mysterious and least understood archaeological cultures. The sites, recently inscribed as UNESCO World Heritage, host hollowed stone jars, up to three metres in height, which appear scattered across the landscape, alone or clustered in groups of up to more than 400. Until now, it has not been possible to estimate when the jars were first placed on the landscape or from where the stone was sourced. Geochronological analysis using the age of detrital zircons demonstrates a likely quarry source for one of the largest megalithic jar sites. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating suggests the jars were positioned at the sites potentially as early as the late second millennium BC. Radiocarbon dating of skeletal remains and charcoal samples places mortuary activity around the jars from the 9-13th century AD, suggesting the sites have maintained ritual significance from the period of their initial placement until historic times.


Assuntos
Fósseis/história , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Dosimetria por Luminescência Estimulada Opticamente/métodos , Arqueologia , Carvão Vegetal/história , Cultura , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Laos , Chumbo/análise , Datação Radiométrica/métodos , Silicatos/análise , Zircônio/análise
14.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247647, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651801

RESUMO

Demographic events shape a population's genetic diversity, a process described by the coalescent-with-recombination model that relates demography and genetics by an unobserved sequence of genealogies along the genome. As the space of genealogies over genomes is large and complex, inference under this model is challenging. Formulating the coalescent-with-recombination model as a continuous-time and -space Markov jump process, we develop a particle filter for such processes, and use waypoints that under appropriate conditions allow the problem to be reduced to the discrete-time case. To improve inference, we generalise the Auxiliary Particle Filter for discrete-time models, and use Variational Bayes to model the uncertainty in parameter estimates for rare events, avoiding biases seen with Expectation Maximization. Using real and simulated genomes, we show that past population sizes can be accurately inferred over a larger range of epochs than was previously possible, opening the possibility of jointly analyzing multiple genomes under complex demographic models. Code is available at https://github.com/luntergroup/smcsmc.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Demografia/história , Genética Populacional , Genoma Humano , Cadeias de Markov , Modelos Genéticos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Teorema de Bayes , Simulação por Computador , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Variação Genética , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Linhagem , Densidade Demográfica
16.
World Neurosurg ; 150: 101-109, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771747

RESUMO

The neurosurgical management of spinal neoplasms has undergone immense development in parallel with advancements made in general spine surgery. Laminectomies were performed as the first surgical procedures used to treat spinal neoplasms. Since then, neurosurgical spinal oncology has started to incorporate techniques that have developed from recent advances in minimally invasive spine surgery. Neurosurgery has also integrated radiotherapy into the treatment of spine tumors. In this historical vignette, we present a vast timeline spanning from the Byzantine period to the current day and recount the major advancements in the management of spinal neoplasms.


Assuntos
Neurocirurgia/história , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/história , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/história , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/história , Neurocirurgia/métodos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos
17.
Hist Psychol ; 24(1): 1-12, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661676

RESUMO

This contribution aims to promote a dialogue between history and psychology by outlining a direction for future research at the intersection of these disciplines. In particular, it seeks to demonstrate the potential contributions of history to psychology by employing the category of mental health in a historical context. The analysis focuses on notions of psychological health that were developed in late antiquity, especially the equation between "health of the soul" and dispassion (apatheia) within the Christian monastic movement. This theologically informed notion of what constitutes positive human functioning and well-being is examined in view of modern attempts, in mainstream and positive psychology, to define mental health. The optimism concerning the naturalness of virtue and the malleability of human nature that underlies late antique notions of "health of the soul" becomes noticeable in its absence once we turn to modern notions of mental health. It thus provides an illuminating counter-example against which to compare and analyze modern attempts to define mental health. A comparison of these alternative notions human flourishing offers an opportunity to reflect on and test the validity of contemporary attempts to define this condition in a culturally sensitive manner. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cristianismo/história , Historiografia , Saúde Mental/história , Psicologia/história , Cristianismo/psicologia , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Monges/história , Monges/psicologia
18.
Hist Psychol ; 24(1): 22-33, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661679

RESUMO

Following three turning points in the historical development of psychology this study examines how the relation between mental health and the state of illness is linked to the concept of "passions." The first was the birth of modern psychiatry in 18th century France. The second was the development of the field of inquiry in antiquity about the psuche and its mental activities, and the third was the turn of early Christian thought about mind and soul. A comparison between early modern and ancient concepts of "the passions" reveals the moral and ethical aspects of the concept "mental health," and shows that more than for any other kind of illness, the history of mental illness and mental health is embedded within a moralistic philosophical perspective. Pathology as a field of study of "the passions," whatever their definition was, enabled thinkers to refer to mental illness and health in moral terms. Although "passions" meant different things to different authors in different times, it was used by all as means to link between inner mental activities and the way the body react to the outside world. We can see it as an obligatory element to conceptualize illness, disorder, and health in regards to mental activities. Pagan ancient authors as well as early Christian authors used it to construct new theories and praxes about mental health, while early modern psychiatrists used it to develop corporeal methods of cure. In all currents of thought the concept of "passions" and the definition of the ways in which they affected the mind were used to distinguish mental illness and mental health from any other type of illness and health. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Saúde Mental/história , Princípios Morais , Psiquiatria/história , Psicopatologia/história , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/história , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Filosofia/história
19.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 31(4): 99-107, 2021 02.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728880

RESUMO

Within this work are approached some historical elements on the history of the evolution of the perception of the links between the soul and the body and the modification of the place of the soul within canon and Roman rights.


Assuntos
Relações Metafísicas Mente-Corpo , Cristianismo/história , Estado de Consciência , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Psicologia/história , Cidade de Roma
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