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1.
JAMA ; 324(7): 714, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808995
2.
JAMA ; 324(7): 714, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808996
4.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 42(3): 37, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779044

RESUMO

Within eighteenth-century debates on animal cognition we can distinguish at least three main theoretical positions: (i) Buffon's mechanism, (ii) Reimarus' theory of instincts, and (iii) the sensationalism of Condillac and Leroy. In this paper, I adopt a philosophical perspective on this debate and argue that in order to fully understand the justification Buffon, Reimarus, Condillac, and Leroy gave for their respective theories, we must pay special attention to the theoretical virtues these naturalists alluded to while justifying their position. These theoretical virtues have received little to no attention in the literature on eighteenth-century animal cognition, but figure prominently in the justification of the mechanist, instinctive, and sensationalist theories of animal behavior. Through my philosophical study of the role of theoretical virtues in eighteenth-century debates on animal cognition, we obtain a deeper understanding of how theoretical virtues were conceptualized in eighteenth-century science and how they influenced the justification of theories of animal cognition.


Assuntos
Cognição , História Natural/história , Filosofia/história , Animais , História do Século XVIII
5.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 42(3): 31, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676894

RESUMO

Several problems with Hegel's conception of the organism in the Encyclopaedia are due to the separation between individual life in Nature and the universal life of the Concept. This discontinuity between ontogenesis and phylogenesis in his dialectics of organic life will be studied here by following his presentation of physiological development, especially reproduction, and by reconstructing the historical model he criticizes-Leibniz's organic machines and their development in Buffon's Natural History-a model that was also of crucial importance to the philosophy of nature of Schelling and his followers.


Assuntos
Metamorfose Biológica , História Natural/história , Reprodução , Evolução Biológica , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX
6.
Asclepio ; 71(2): 0-0, jul.-dic. 2019.
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-191058

RESUMO

Este artigo centra-se no vasto e complexo processo científico e institucional ligado à recolha de artefactos e à formação de colecções científico-naturais, etnológicas e antropológicas, provenientes de vários espaços coloniais extra-europeus em Portugal durante a segunda metade do século XVIII. Faz ainda referência às instituições que albergaram estes materiais. Neste período em que a ciência era, por definição, útil e devia servir ao interesse público na prossecução do bem-estar, do progresso e da felicidade dos povos, os estudos produzidos tiveram como objectivo contribuir para um levantamento científico com pretensões enciclopedistas, destinado a produzir um conhecimento minucioso dos espaços imperiais através da identificação, recolecção e estudo das produções naturais e das "características físicas e morais" dos indígenas. A curiosidade científica que caracterizou os grupos sociais envolvidos neste processo permitiu a corporização dum conjunto de práticas que era pensado em Lisboa e implementado pelos vassalos da coroa em todo o império. Deste conjunto de práticas, quero destacar as viagens filosóficas, explorações científicas vocacionadas para a descrição física e económica dos territórios e para a inventariação dos recursos naturais, consideradas como instrumento de modernização política e administrativa do império numa altura em que a ciência e a técnica eram vistas como ferramentas imprescindíveis ao desenvolvimento do Estado Moderno


This article focuses on the vast and complex scientific and institutional process related to the collection of artefacts and the formation of scientific-natural, ethnological and anthropological collections from various extra-European colonial spaces in Portugal during the second half of the eighteenth century. It also addresses the institutions that housed these materials. In a period when science was, by definition, useful and should serve the public interest in the pursuit of welfare, progress and the happiness of peoples, scientific studies had the objective of contributing to a scientific survey with encyclopaedic pretensions of the imperial spaces through the identification, collection and study of the natural productions and the "physical and moral characteristics" of the natives. The scientific curiosity that characterized the social groups involved in this process allowed the embodiment of a set of practices that was thought in Lisbon and implemented by Portuguese subjects throughout the empire. From this set of practices, I would like to highlight the philosophical voyages, scientific explorations aimed at the physical and economic description of the territories and the inventory of natural resources, considered as an instrument of political and administrative modernization of the empire at a time when science and technology were considered as essential tools for the development of the Modern State


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Viagem/história , Museus/organização & administração , Coleções como Assunto , História Natural/história , Ciência/história , Portugal , História do Século XVIII , Exposições Científicas , Disciplinas das Ciências Naturais/história , Universidades/história
7.
Asclepio ; 71(2): 0-0, jul.-dic. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-191059

RESUMO

Este trabalho analisará o significado das coleções reunidas em duas séries de expedições científicas realizadas no Brasil, desde o início até meados do século XX. Em primeiro lugar, trata-se de analisar as coleções reunidas durante a chamada Comissão Rondon, na verdade, várias expedições, realizadas entre 1907 e 1915, no início do período republicano no Brasil, período fortemente marcado pelo pensamento positivista. Tinha o objetivo de demarcar estações telegráficas, criando intercomunicação entre os diversos Estados do País e destes com a capital federal e ou o mundo. Em segundo lugar serão consideradas as expedições lideradas pelo antropólogo Luiz de Castro Faria, durante as décadas de 1940 e 1950, no litoral do país, desde o Rio Grande do Sul, até a Bahia. Nesta série, será considerada ainda a conhecida expedição à Serra do Norte, no Mato Grosso, em 1938, cujo chefe foi Claude Lévi-Straus e da qual Castro Faria participou como representante do Museu Nacional e do Conselho de Fiscalização das Expedições Artísticas e Científicas. As coleções reunidas em ambas as séries de expedições destinaram-se ao Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro


This work will analyze the meaning of the collections gathered in two series of scientific expeditions carried out in Brazil from the early to the mid-twentieth century. First, it will present the collections gathered during the so-called Rondon Commission, that comprises, in fact, several expeditions held between 1907 and 1915 at the beginning of the republican period in Brazil, a period strongly marked by positivist thinking. The main objective was to construct telegraph lines in order to create intercommunication between the various States of the country and these with the federal capital and or the world. Second, it will approach the expeditions led by the anthropologist Luiz de Castro Faria, during the 1940s and 1950s, along the coast of the country, from Rio Grande do Sul to Bahia. Also, will be considered in this series, the well-known expedition to the Serra do Norte, in Mato Grosso, in 1938, whose head was Claude Lévi-Straus and of which Castro Faria participated as representative of the National Museum and of the Council of Inspection of the Artistic and Scientific Expeditions. The collections assembled in both series of expeditions were destined for the National Museum of Rio de Janeiro


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Coleções como Assunto , Expedições/história , Antropologia Cultural/história , História Natural/história , Construção Social da Identidade Étnica , Brasil , História do Século XX , Ecossistema Amazônico
8.
Asclepio ; 71(2): 0-0, jul.-dic. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191063

RESUMO

Los edificios culturales y científicos de Madrid se vieron muy perjudicados por la guerra civil española (1936-1939). Madrid fue una ciudad asediada y bombardeada por los sublevados. En la capital se encontraban los más importantes museos, la Biblioteca Nacional y las principales instituciones científicas y de humanidades, en donde trabajaban los más relevantes investigadores de la época. A comienzos de la guerra tuvo lugar la incautación de bibliotecas y colecciones de ciencias naturales en palacios y edificios pertenecientes a aristócratas, financieros, personas contrarias a la República y colegios de religiosos. Los naturalistas del Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Naturales organizaron la conservación y protección de las colecciones biológicas, mientras que bombas y obuses impactaban en las instituciones científicas de la zona republicana


The cultural and scientific buildings of Madrid were severely damaged by the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). Madrid was a city besieged and bombed by the rebels. In the capital were the most important museums, the National Library and the main scientific and humanities institutions, where the most important researchers of the time worked. At the beginning of the war the confiscation of libraries and collections of natural sciences took place in palaces and buildings belonging to aristocrats, financiers, people opposed to the Republic and religious schools. The naturalists of the National Institute of Natural Sciences organized the conservation and protection of the biological collections, while bombs and howitzers fell on the scientific institutions of the republican zone


Assuntos
Humanos , Guerra/história , Museus/organização & administração , Coleções como Assunto , História Natural/história , Ciência/história , Exposição à Guerra/história , Exposições Científicas , Disciplinas das Ciências Naturais/história , Efeitos de Desastres nas Edificações
9.
Asclepio ; 71(2): 0-0, jul.-dic. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191064

RESUMO

Este trabajo quiere mostrar una faceta del papel desempeñado por el coleccionismo y las colecciones científicas en la formación de los naturalistas durante la Edad de Plata de la ciencia española. El objetivo es evidenciar que la Junta para Ampliación de Estudios, principal institución que impulsó ese proyecto, aspiraba a crear intelectuales con capacidad de participar en la gobernanza del país (una nueva cultura política). La JAE encarnó un proyecto científico racionalista que se oponía a las visiones más conservadoras, defensoras de una ciencia católica, en una lucha que no se restringía a la ciencia, sino que alcanzaba lo social, lo político y lo cultural. Para ello recurrimos a la biografía del botánico José Cuatrecasas partiendo del enfoque de una historia sociocultural de la ciencia y una historia de las ideas


This work aims to show a piece of the important role that collecting and scientific collections played in the training to become naturalist during the Silver Age of Spanish science (1900-1936). It attempts to show that the Junta para Ampliación de Estudios (JAE), the main institution that promoted such a modern scientific project, aspired to create an intellectual elite with the capacity to participate in the governance of the State (a new political culture). The JAE incarnated a rationalist scientific model that opposed the ultraconservative positions, which were defenders of a Catholic science. Both of them were involved in a struggle that was not only restricted to science, but it reached all social, political and cultural aspects of national living. This article takes the biography of the botanic José Cuatrecasas as starting point and its analysis will be processed from the sociocultural History of Science and the History of Ideas


Assuntos
Humanos , Museus/organização & administração , Coleções como Assunto , História Natural/história , Ciência/história , Disciplinas das Ciências Naturais/história , Pesquisa/história , Pesquisadores/história , Botânica/história , Flora/história , Religião e Ciência
10.
Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci ; 78: 101191, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353304

RESUMO

In this paper I propose a new account of living natural products in Kant's physical geography. I argue that Kant adopts Buffon's twofold conception of natural history, which consists of a general theory of nature as a physical nexus of causes and a particular account of living natural products in the setting of the earth. Yet in contrast to Buffon, who placed the two parts of natural history on equal epistemic footing, Kant's physical geography can be understood as a second, pragmatic level of inquiry that stands under the formal conditions of nature outlined in Universal Natural History. On the higher, formal level, natural history provides a physical account of time and space as an expanding causal sequence. On the lower, pragmatic level, physical geography provides a causal account of particular natural products as developing within a specific place. I argue that this two-tiered account not only clarifies the relation between metaphysics and experience in Kant's pre-critical philosophy, it also sheds light on the continuity between the method of physical geography and the systematisation of nature presented in the critical philosophy.


Assuntos
Geografia/história , História Natural/história , Filosofia/história , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Metafísica/história
12.
Asclepio ; 71(1): 0-0, ene.-jun. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191055

RESUMO

Si la historia de la ciencia ha pasado las últimas tres décadas desmantelando los mitos de la revolución científica y de la revolución de la imprenta, así como la feliz conjunción de ambas en la Edad Moderna, poca atención ha prestado a una de las sombras arrojadas por tales narrativas modernizadoras: la incontestable pervivencia de una sofisticada cultura manuscrita entre los practicantes del saber en tiempos de la llamada "cultura impresa". Prestaremos aquí atención a algunas prácticas amanuenses en el trabajo de la historia natural, utilizando para ello los ricos fondos del Muséum national d'histoire naturelle en París. Nos centraremos en artefactos manuscritos (diarios, excerptas, catálogos de fichas) e híbridos (herbarios), atendiendo a su función en cuatro gestos clave de la labor del naturalista: observar, leer, clasificar, archivar. Lejos de constituir una práctica secundaria, la creación y manipulación de registros manuscritos se situaba en el corazón de la vasta empresa del conocimiento de la naturaleza entre 1660 y 1830


If the history of science has spent the last three decades dismantling the myths of the scientific revolution and the revolution of print, as well as their happy conjunction in the early modern period, little attention has been paid to one of the shadows cast by those modernizing narratives: the unquestionable persistence of a sophisticated manuscript culture among knowledge practitioners at the time of the so-called "print culture". I will pay attention here to some scribal practices in the work of natural history, drawing from the rich collections of the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle in Paris. I will focus on manuscript artefacts (journals, excerpts, card catalogs) and hybrid artefacts (herbaria), as well as on their function in four key gestures of the naturalist: observing, reading, classifying, archiving. Far from being a practice of secondary importance, creating and handling manuscript records was at the core of the vast enterprise of the knowledge of nature between 1660 and 1830


Assuntos
Humanos , Ciência/história , Manuscritos como Assunto/história , História Natural/história , Indústria da Impressão/história , França , Arquivos/história , Publicações/história
15.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 41(1): 11, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868363

RESUMO

This paper seeks to characterize how the study of nutrition processes contributed to revisit the problem of vital organization in the late eighteenth century. It argues that focusing on nutrition leads to reformulate the problem of the relation between life and organization in terms of processes, rather than static or given structures. This nutrition-centered approach to life amounts to acknowledge the specific strategic role nutrition played in the development of a materialist approach to the generation of vital organization. The paper proposes a clarification of the multiple meanings of the concept of organization in the context of Enlightenment physiology and nascent biology, before focusing on the century long analogy between nutrition and generation. It shows how, by contrasting different uses of this analogy, nutrition was employed as a key vital phenomenon in the development of epigenetic theories of generation, i.e. how a nutritive modeling of generation was used in the undermining of preformationism. To this purpose I contrast two seemingly opposite theories of generation, Buffon's and Bonnet's, and show that despite the obvious metaphysical discontent, their views of generation share a common mechanical conceptual frame in which nutrition is conflated with growth and repair. I then turn to the role nutrition played in the epigenetic conception of generation in C. F. Wolff's embryology and analyze this rival understanding of nutrition as an organizing process.


Assuntos
Biologia/história , Vida , Metafísica/história , História Natural/história , França , Alemanha , História do Século XVIII , Suíça
16.
Asclepio ; 70(2): 0-0, jul.-dic. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-179141

RESUMO

Para evitar tanto la vieja historiografía presentista como la tendencia de algunos hermeneutas actuales a justificar cualesquiera desarrollos de los autores del pasado, se estudian las reacciones inmediatas a la filosofía y la política de la ciencia de Bacon. Bacon fue festejado por su promoción del desarrollo colectivo del saber que consideraba alcanzable con la debida organización y financiación. Gracias a ello, influyó en las principales sociedades científicas nacionales de mediados del siglo XVII. No obstante, su peculiar formación y práctica científica debilitaron sus análisis de los procedimientos usados en la ciencia avanzada de la época, mientras que sus ejemplos de la base empírica de la inducción (las historias naturales) están llenos de especulaciones sin fundamento empírico, llegando a recopilar no tanto hechos y experimentos, cuanto habladurías e informes contenidos en todo tipo de libros. El efecto de todo ello, unido a la idea de que este tipo filológico de historia puede ser practicada por gente común sin capacidad ni formación especial, se puede rastrear en los equipos de investigación con los que la Royal Society trató inútilmente de organizar su trabajo colectivo. Frente a los reformadores sociales, los principales científicos del siglo XVII desestimaron sus ideas científicas


To avoid the Scylla of old whiggism and the Charybdis of contemporary hagiography, this paper studies the early reaction of the Republic of Letters to Bacon’s philosophy and science. Bacon was hailed for promoting the collective advancement of knowledge that he deemed ready at hand with due organization and funding. On this ground he inspired the main national scientific academies created in the 1660’s. But his lack of scientific training and practice weakened his analysis of the scientific procedures exhibited by the most advanced of his contemporaries. At the same time, his examples of the empirical basis of induction (the natural histories consisting of facts and experiments well corroborated and duly tabulated) contained wild speculations and turned out to be mere compilation of old wife’s tales and books. This trend, together with the tenet that no special training or wits are necessary for the task, is exhibited by the ill-fated research Committees organized in 1664 by the Royal Society to harness collective efforts for improving empirical knowledge for human benefit. It is no wonder that, in contrast with social reformers, the greater scientific contemporaries of Bacon did not pay much attention to his philosophical and scientific ideas


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XVII , História Natural/história , Ciência/história , Historiografia , Sociedades Científicas/história , Ciência
17.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 40(4): 69, 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30467640

RESUMO

This paper explores Thomas Hobbes's account of animal life and mind. After a critical examination of Hobbes's mechanistic explanation of operations of the mind such as perception and memory, I argue that his theory derives its strength from his idea of the dynamic interaction of the body with its surroundings. This dynamic interaction allows Hobbes to maintain that the purposive disposition of the animal is not merely an upshot of its material configuration, but an expression of its distinctive bodily history. In support of Hobbes, I show how this is complemented by his account of the unity and continuity of the animal body in terms of a unification through the self-preserving drive that originates in perception. Nonetheless, I argue that Hobbes's philosophy of animal life and mental faculties is hindered by a kind of epiphenomenalist perspective that is embedded in his materialist framework, and this perspective leaves the status of ideas and mental content unclear. I explain why Hobbes's dynamic theory, founded upon the reciprocal determination of moving bodies, supports his idea of animal development and habituation while failing to account for the reflexivity of the mind.


Assuntos
História Natural/história , Filosofia/história , Animais , História do Século XVII , Vida
18.
Asclepio ; 70(1): 0-0, ene.-jun. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-173507

RESUMO

En este artículo trataremos de caracterizar las principales razones teóricas del cambio de perspectiva del escolasticismo a la filosofía de la modernidad temprana en lo concerniente al estudio de las facultades cognitivas y emotivas. Para lograr nuestro objetivo, sintetizaremos el contexto intelectual del estudio de las pasiones; después, distinguiremos dos grandes corrientes del pensamiento naturalista: en primer lugar, la tesis reduccionista que fue adoptada, entre otros, por Thomas Hobbes, Pierre Gassendi y René Descartes; en segundo lugar, el proyecto de establecer y describir la "dinámica de la vida mental" que fue desarrollado por Thomas Hobbes, John Locke y David Hume. Al dar cuenta de esto, esperamos también obtener una comprensión más clara sobre los cambios de perspectiva que fueron propuestos por algunos filósofos de la modernidad temprana, cuyas ideas avanzaron hacia la naturalización de la antropología filosófica


In this paper we will try to characterize the main theoretical grounds that promoted the change of view from Scholasticism to Early Modern Philosophy on the emotive and cognitive faculties; to achieve this task, we will summarize the intellectual background for the study of passions; then, we will differentiate two mainly "naturalistic" trends of thought: First, the reductionist thesis, adopted by Thomas Hobbes, Pierre Gassendi and René Descartes, among others; and second, the attempt to establish and describe the dynamics of mental life, which was developed by Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and David Hume. On giving this account, we expect also to gain a clearer comprehension about the changes of perspective that were proposed by some Early Modern thinkers, whose views developed towards a new naturalized philosophical anthropology


Assuntos
Humanos , Filosofia Médica , Emoções , Sintomas Afetivos , Cognição , Impulso (Psicologia) , Motivação , Disciplinas das Ciências Naturais/história , História Natural/história , Antropologia Médica
19.
J Hist Biol ; 51(3): 563-592, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29623486

RESUMO

Darwin's first two, relatively complete, explicit articulations of his theorizing on evolution were his Essay of 1844 and On the Origin of Species published in 1859. A comparative analysis concludes that they espoused radically different theories despite exhibiting a continuity of strategy, much common structure and the same key idea. Both were theories of evolution by means of natural selection. In 1844, organic adaptation was confined to occasional intervals initiated and controlled by de-stabilization events. The modified descendants rebalanced the particular "plant and animal forms … unsettled by some alteration in their circumstances." But by 1859, organic adaptation occurred continuously, potentially modifying the descendants of all organisms. Even natural selection, the persistent core of Darwin's theorizing, does not prove to be a significant basis for theory similarity. Consequently, Darwin's Origin theory cannot reasonably be considered as a mature version of the Essay. It is not a modification based on adjustments, further justifications and the integration of a Principle of Divergence. The Origin announced a new "scientific paradigm" while the Essay did little more than seemingly misconfigure the operation of a novel mechanism to extend varieties beyond their accepted bounds, and into the realm of possible new species. Two other collections of Darwin's theorizing are briefly considered: his extensive notes of the late 1830s and his contributions to the famous meeting of 1 July 1858. For very different reasons, neither constitutes a challenge to the basis for this comparative study. It is concluded that, in addition to the much-debated social pressures, an unacknowledged further reason why Darwin did not publish his theorizing until 1859, could have been down to his perceptive technical judgement: wisely, he held back from rushing to publish demonstrably flawed theorizing.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , História Natural/história , Seleção Genética , Biologia/história , História do Século XIX
20.
J Med Biogr ; 26(2): 80-94, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29405804

RESUMO

Except if it be in the shadow of his worshipful student William Osler (1849-1919), the life of Reverend William Arthur Johnson (1816-1880), a 19th century English-Canadian clerical naturalist, teacher, and early mentor to 'the Father of Modern Medicine', has escaped special scrutiny over the years. Written in commemoration of his 200th birthday, this recollection will aim to more purposefully categorise what is currently known of Johnson's life and work, not only in his important relations to the revered Osler, but also in the context of his own personal achievements, life story, and legacy.


Assuntos
História Natural/história , Médicos/história , Protestantismo/história , Inglaterra , História do Século XIX , Índia , Ontário
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