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2.
PLoS One ; 12(9): e0183903, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28902889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND TO THE WORK: For centuries taxonomy has relied on dead animal specimens, a practice that persists today despite the emergence of innovative biodiversity assessment methods. Taxonomists and conservationists are engaged in vigorous discussions over the necessity of killing animals for specimen sampling, but quantitative data on taxonomic trends and specimen sampling over time, which could inform these debates, are lacking. METHODS: We interrogated a long-term research database documenting 2,723 land vertebrate and 419 invertebrate taxa from Madagascar, and their associated specimens conserved in the major natural history museums. We further compared specimen collection and species description rates for the birds, mammals and scorpions over the last two centuries, to identify trends and links to taxon descriptions. RESULTS: We located 15,364 specimens documenting endemic mammals and 11,666 specimens documenting endemic birds collected between 1820 and 2010. Most specimens were collected at the time of the Mission Zoologique Franco-Anglo-Américaine (MZFAA) in the 1930s and during the last two decades, with major differences according to the groups considered. The small mammal and bat collections date primarily from recent years, and are paralleled by the description of new species. Lemur specimens were collected during the MZFAA but the descriptions of new taxa are recent, with the type series limited to non-killed specimens. Bird specimens, particularly of non-passerines, are mainly from the time of the MZFAA. The passerines have also been intensely collected during the last two decades; the new material has been used to solve the phylogeny of the groups and only two new endemic taxa of passerine birds have been described over the last two decades. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that specimen collection has been critical for advancing our understanding of the taxonomy of Madagascar's biodiversity at the onset of zoological work in Madagascar, but less so in recent decades. It is crucial to look for alternatives to avoid killing animals in the name of documenting life, and encourage all efforts to share the information attached to historical and recent collections held in natural history museums. In times of conservation crisis and the advancement in digital technologies and open source sharing, it seems obsolete to kill animals in well-known taxonomic groups for the sake of enriching natural history collections around the world.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Classificação/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Mudança Social , Animais , Aves/classificação , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Madagáscar , Mamíferos/classificação , Museus , História Natural/ética , História Natural/tendências , Filogenia , Preservação Biológica/ética , Vertebrados/classificação
5.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 45(2): 134-144, mar.-abr. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-160518

RESUMO

Background. Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a frequent clinical entity that often presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Objective. To explore the degree of agreement that exists among the experts caring for patients with CSU diagnosis, evaluation, and management. Methods. An online survey was conducted to explore the opinions of experts in CSU, address controversial issues, and provide recommendations regarding its definition, natural history, diagnosis, and treatment. A modified Delphi method was used for the consensus. Results. The questionnaire was answered by 68 experts (dermatologists, allergologists, and primary care physicians). A consensus was reached on 54 of the 65 items posed (96.4%). The experts concluded that CSU is a difficult-to-control disease of unpredictable evolution. Diagnostic tests should be limited and based on clinical history and should not be indiscriminate. Autoinflammatory syndromes and urticarial vasculitis must be ruled out in the differential diagnosis. A cutaneous biopsy is only recommended when wheals last more than 24h, to rule out urticarial vasculitis. The use of specific scales to assess the severity of the disease and the quality of life is recommended. In patients with severe and resistant CSU, second-generation H1-antihistamines could be used at doses up to four times the standard dose before giving second-line treatments. Omalizumab is a safe and effective treatment for CSU that is refractory to H1-antihistamines treatment. In general, diagnosis and treatment recommendations given for adults could be extrapolated to children. Conclusions. This work offers consensus recommendations that may be useful in the management of CSU (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Urticária/epidemiologia , Urticária/prevenção & controle , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Angioedema/complicações , Angioedema/diagnóstico , Omalizumab/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários , História Natural/métodos , História Natural/tendências
6.
PLoS One ; 12(2): e0171883, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28235093

RESUMO

This paper presents the results of a consensus-driven process identifying 50 priority research questions for historical ecology obtained through crowdsourcing, literature reviews, and in-person workshopping. A deliberative approach was designed to maximize discussion and debate with defined outcomes. Two in-person workshops (in Sweden and Canada) over the course of two years and online discussions were peer facilitated to define specific key questions for historical ecology from anthropological and archaeological perspectives. The aim of this research is to showcase the variety of questions that reflect the broad scope for historical-ecological research trajectories across scientific disciplines. Historical ecology encompasses research concerned with decadal, centennial, and millennial human-environmental interactions, and the consequences that those relationships have in the formation of contemporary landscapes. Six interrelated themes arose from our consensus-building workshop model: (1) climate and environmental change and variability; (2) multi-scalar, multi-disciplinary; (3) biodiversity and community ecology; (4) resource and environmental management and governance; (5) methods and applications; and (6) communication and policy. The 50 questions represented by these themes highlight meaningful trends in historical ecology that distill the field down to three explicit findings. First, historical ecology is fundamentally an applied research program. Second, this program seeks to understand long-term human-environment interactions with a focus on avoiding, mitigating, and reversing adverse ecological effects. Third, historical ecology is part of convergent trends toward transdisciplinary research science, which erodes scientific boundaries between the cultural and natural.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural/tendências , Ecologia/tendências , História Natural/tendências , Antropologia Cultural/história , Biodiversidade , Canadá , Ecologia/história , Ecossistema , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Suécia
8.
BMC Ecol ; 16 Suppl 1: 13, 2016 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27459851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Natural history has a long tradition in the UK, dating back to before Charles Darwin. Developing from a principally amateur pursuit, natural history continues to attract both amateur and professional involvement. Within the context of citizen science and public engagement, we examine the motivations behind citizen participation in the national survey activities of the Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) programme, looking at: people's experiences of the surveys as 'project-based leisure'; their motivations for taking part and barriers to continued participation; where they feature on our continuum of engagement; and whether participation in an OPAL survey facilitated their movement between categories along this continuum. The paper focuses on a less-expected but very significant outcome regarding the participation of already-engaged amateur naturalists in citizen science. RESULTS: Our main findings relate to: first, how committed amateur naturalists (already-engaged) have also enjoyed contributing to OPAL and the need to respect and work with their interest to encourage broader and deeper involvement; and second, how new (previously-unengaged) and relatively new participants (casually-engaged) have gained confidence, renewed their interests, refocussed their activities and/or gained validation from participation in OPAL. Overall, we argue that engagement with and enthusiasm for the scientific process is a motivation shared by citizens who, prior to participating in the OPAL surveys, were previously-unengaged, casually-engaged or already-engaged in natural history activities. CONCLUSIONS: Citizen science has largely been written about by professional scientists for professional scientists interested in developing a project of their own. This study offers a qualitative example of how citizen science can be meaningful to participants beyond what might appear to be a public engagement data collection exercise.


Assuntos
História Natural/tendências , Pesquisa/tendências , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Reino Unido , Voluntários
11.
Science ; 349(6252): 1064, 2015 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26339019
12.
Elife ; 42015 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26041333

RESUMO

Flies of the genus Drosophila, and particularly those of the species Drosophila melanogaster, are best known as laboratory organisms. As with all model organisms, they were domesticated for empirical studies, but they also continue to exist as wild populations. Decades of research on these flies in the laboratory have produced astounding and important insights into basic biological processes, but we have only scratched the surface of what they have to offer as research organisms. An outstanding challenge now is to build on this knowledge and explore how natural history has shaped D. melanogaster in order to advance our understanding of biology more generally.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Evolução Biológica , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Meio Ambiente , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/fisiologia , Filogenia , Animais , Genômica/métodos , Genômica/tendências , História Natural/métodos , História Natural/tendências , Reprodução/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Rev. clín. med. fam ; 8(2): 125-136, jun. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-140650

RESUMO

Se aportan elementos para una teoría de la historia natural de la continuidad interpersonal, desde la perspectiva del médico de familia, analizada en base a la reflexión y el recuerdo de dos médicos respecto a su relación con sus pacientes durante 30 años en que han trabajado en el mismo lugar. Es un viaje por los “colores de la historia natural de la continuidad interpersonal”, que cambian al paso del tiempo. Se observa un escenario de demanda creciente cada vez más trivial, con una falta de comprensión por parte del paciente de lo que constituye una buena calidad científico técnica y una comunicación con el médico inapropiada, con una defensa cognitiva y conductual del médico. Podrían describirse distintas tipologías de continuidad interpersonal, que se combinan a lo largo del tiempo, y que esta podría ser discontinua, y experimentarse como “momentos”, presentando efectos positivos y negativos (AU)


Elements for a theory of natural history of interpersonal continuity are provided, from the perspective of the family doctor, analyzed on the reflection and remembrance of two doctors regarding their relationship with their patients during 30 years working in the same place. It is a journey through the “colors of the natural history of interpersonal continuity”, which change over time. A scenario of increasingly trivial growing demand is observed, with a lack of understanding by the patient of what constitutes a good scientific and technical quality and an inappropriate communication with the doctor, which causes a cognitive and behavioral defense from the family doctor. They may describe different types of interpersonal continuity, which combine over time, and that it could be discontinuous, and experienced as “moments”, presenting positive and negative effects (AU)


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/tendências , Anedotas como Assunto , História Natural/métodos , História Natural/tendências , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/tendências , Estudo Observacional , Intuição , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Relações Médico-Paciente , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/métodos , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/tendências
18.
Rev. esp. enferm. dig ; 105(7): 409-420, ago. 2013. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-116836

RESUMO

La enfermedad por hígado graso no alcohólica (EHGNA) comprende un amplio abanico de alteraciones que va desde la esteatosis simple hasta la esteatohepatitis y la cirrosis. La diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y la obesidad son los principales factores asociados a la EHGNA. Se ha descrito una prevalencia en la población general de entre el 20-30 %. La supervivencia de estos enfermos es menor que la población general, presentando una mayor incidencia de complicaciones hepáticas y cardiovasculares. La etiopatogenia es desconocida en parte pero se conoce la intervención de diferentes factores que provocan la acumulación de ácidos grasos en el parénquima hepático, produciendo una situación de estrés oxidativo, la formación de radicales libres de oxígeno y la síntesis de una cascada inflamatoria de citocinas que determinan la progresión de la enfermedad desde esteatosis hasta fibrosis avanzada. La prueba diagnóstica de elección continúa siendo la biopsia hepática, si bien el desarrollo de diferentes técnicas no invasivas, tanto serológicas como de imagen, ha abierto un nuevo campo de investigación que permite una evaluación incruenta de estos pacientes y un mejor estudio de la historia natural de la enfermedad. En la actualidad no existe un tratamiento específico. El desarrollo de hábitos de vida saludables y el ejercicio físico moderado continúan siendo los pilares básicos. Se han investigado y aplicado diferentes aproximaciones farmacológicas incluyendo el control de la resistencia a la insulina, hipolipemiantes, antioxidantes y otras alternativas en vía experimental (AU)


Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a broad spectrum of alterations that go from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2) and obesity are the principle factors associated to NAFLD. A 20-30 % prevalence in general population has been described. The survival of this type of patient is lower than the general population’s, showing a higher incidence of hepatic and cardiovascular complications. The aetiopathogenesis is still unclear, but we know the intervention of different factors that produce fatty-acid accumulation in hepatic parenchyma, causing oxidative stress, oxygen-free radicals and the synthesis of an inflammatory cascade, that determine the progression of this disease from steatosis up to advanced fibrosis. The diagnostic gold-standard is still the liver biopsy, even though the development of newer non-invasive techniques, like serological and imaging (radiology), have opened a new field for research that allows bloodless testing of these patients and better study of the natural history of this disease. Nowadays, there is still no specific treatment for NAFLD. The development of healthy life habits and moderate exercise continue to be the pillars of treatment. Different pharmacological approaches have been studied and applied, such as the control of insulin resistance, lowering cholesterol levels, antioxidants, and other alternatives in experimental trials (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Fígado Gorduroso/diagnóstico , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/terapia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , História Natural/métodos , História Natural/tendências , Biomarcadores/análise , Biópsia/métodos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico
19.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(7): 556-560, jul. 2013.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-113636

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos. Analizar el estado clínico de los pacientes con síndrome de la cimitarra «no corregido» en un estudio multicéntrico italiano. Métodos. Se analizó la evolución natural del síndrome de la cimitarra en 44 individuos afectados de nueve centros de Italia. Resultados. La mediana de edad de diagnóstico fue 1,05 años (intervalo, 1 día-41 años). En total, 33 pacientes (75%) presentaban una forma aislada; en 11 (25%) había cardiopatías congénitas asociadas; 22 pacientes (50%) tenían síntomas en el momento del diagnóstico, que consistían en síntomas respiratorios (n = 20) e insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva (n = 6). Los pacientes con cardiopatías congénitas asociadas presentaban prevalencias de insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva (4 de 11 [36,4%] frente a 2 de 33 [6,1%]; p = 0,027) e hipertensión arterial pulmonar (7 de 11 [63,6%] frente a 2 de 33 [6,1%]; p = 0,027) superiores que los pacientes con formas aisladas del trastorno. A 10 pacientes (22,7%), se les practicó una corrección de los defectos cardiacos asociados, con lo que se dejó intacto el drenaje venoso pulmonar. La mediana de duración del seguimiento después del diagnóstico fue de 6,4 (0,2-27,5) años. Fallecieron 2 pacientes, ambos con defectos cardiacos asociados e hipertensión arterial pulmonar grave. De los 42 supervivientes, 39 (92,8%) estaban asintomáticos en la última visita de seguimiento; 3 pacientes continuaban refiriendo síntomas respiratorios. No se observaron diferencias entre las formas aisladas y las formas asociadas de la enfermedad. Conclusiones. En la mayoría de los pacientes, el síndrome de la cimitarra se manifestó en forma de una lesión aislada con evolución benigna. No obstante, cuando se asociaba a otros defectos cardiacos y a hipertensión arterial pulmonar, había aumento del riesgo de insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva y muerte. La corrección de los defectos cardiacos asociados (transformación de una forma «asociada» a una forma «aislada»), junto con la oclusión terapéutica de la irrigación arterial anómala del pulmón, proporcionó una evolución benigna comparable a la de las formas aisladas primarias (AU)


Introduction and objectives. To analyze the clinical status of patients with “uncorrected” scimitar syndrome in a multicenter Italian study. Methods. The natural history of scimitar syndrome was analyzed in 44 affected individuals (from 9 Italian centers). Results. The median age at diagnosis was 1.05 years (range, 1 day-41 years). Thirty-three patients (75%) had an isolated form; 11 patients (25%) had associated congenital heart diseases. Twenty-two patients (50%) were symptomatic at diagnosis, including respiratory symptoms (n=20) and congestive heart failure (n=6). Patients with associated congenital heart defects had a higher prevalence of congestive heart failure (4 of 11 [36.4%] vs 2 of 33 [6.1%]; P=.027), pulmonary arterial hypertension (7 of 11 [63.6%] vs 2 of 33 [6.1%]; P=.027) than patients with isolated forms. Ten patients (22.7%) underwent correction of associated cardiac defects, leaving the anomalous pulmonary venous drainage intact. The median length of follow-up after diagnosis was 6.4 years (range, 0.2-27.5 years). Two patients died, both with associated cardiac defects and severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. Of 42 survivors, 39 (92.8%) were asymptomatic at the last follow-up visit; 3 patients still complained respiratory symptoms. There was no difference between isolated and associated forms of the disease. Conclusions. In most patients, scimitar syndrome presented as an isolated lesion with a benign outcome. Nonetheless, when associated with other cardiac defects and pulmonary arterial hypertension, there was an increased risk of congestive heart failure and mortality. Correction of associated cardiac defects (transforming “associated” into “isolated” forms), together with the therapeutic occlusion of anomalous arterial supply to the lung, led to a benign outcome comparable to that in primarily isolated forms (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Síndrome de Cimitarra/complicações , Síndrome de Cimitarra/diagnóstico , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto/métodos , História Natural/métodos , História Natural/tendências , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Angiografia/métodos , Angiografia/tendências , Angiografia , Hemodinâmica , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/complicações , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico
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